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O Smithsonian 

Gift of 



Dedicated to the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S., F.L.S., 

F.R.G.S., &c, 

and Founder and Proprietor of the Zoological Museum at Tring. 


A Monograph of the Papilionine Tribe TROIDES of Hubner. 








With S^Coloured and Plain Plates and Maps by the Author (in addition to 24 
coloured and plain figures in the text). 

" Concerning the work of my hands, command ye me. I have made the earth, and created man upon it ; I, 
even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded." — Isaiah xlv., 12, 13 
{Revised version). 

" The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein." — David, Ps. cxi., 2. 

" Seigneur ! tu es digne de recevoir la gloire, l'honneur, et la puissance ; car tu as cree toutes choses, et c'est par 

ta volonte qu'elles subsistent et qu'elles ont ete creees." — St. John, Rev. iv., 11. 
" Cuan grandes son tus obras, oh Jehova ! muy profundas son tus pensamientos." — David, Salmos xcii., 5. 
" Con las obras de tus manos me regocijo." — David, Salmo xcii., 5. 

" Siehe, also gehet sein Thun ; aber davon haben wir ein gering Wortlein vernommen ? Wer will aber den 

Donner seiner macht versteben ? " — Hiob xxvi., 14. 
" Lo, these are a part of His ways ; but how little a portion is heard of Him ? But the thunder of His power 

who can understand ? — Job xxvi., 14. 
" O Jehova, quam ampla sunt tua opera ! Quam sapienter ea fecisti ! Quam plena est terra possessione tua ! " — 

Psalm civ., 24, David (according to Bishop Lowth). 
" For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works." — St. Pawl, Ephesians ii., 10. 
" What God is there in heaven or in earth who can do according to Thy works ? " — Moses, Deuteronomy iv., 24. 
" Among the gods there is none like unto thee, O Lord ! Neither are there any works like unto Thy works." — 

King David, Psalm Ixxxvi., 8. 

Creation, Redemption and Providence : these are God's triune revelation of Himself, inscribed within the 
limitless circle of primeval Love ; and to know, serve and love Him in return, these are the sublime duty 
and privilege of all men. — The Author. 




Page r, col 2, last line, for sub-genus read genus. 
„ 7, col. 2, line 19, for " Linnaeus " read Clerck. 

„ 9, col. 2, line 10 from above, for " Sulla Islands " read Sula Islands. 

,, 10, col. 1, 3rd line from above, for " casta " read Costa. 

„ 22, 8th line from above of Bibliography, for Standinger read Staudinger. 

,, 24, col. 2, 6th line from above, for 0. Palleus, read 0. Pollens. 

„ 25, last line of Additional Bibliography, for piston read pistor. 

,, 45, col. [, line 15 from above, delete Mihi. 

,, 52, col. 1, line 3 from below, " Pompaaus " should be Pompeus. 

„ 54, the description of the 2 should be for Hycetus 2 of Rippon. 

,, 55, Bibliography to Cerberus, line 11 from above, for Robbe read Ribbe. 

„ 55, col. 2, line 6 from below, the words " For the 2 see PI. 57, figs. 1, 2," should read, For the 2 "see PI. 57, figs. 

5, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14." 
,, 55, col. 2, line 4 from below, " Robbe " should be Ribbe. 
,, 58, col. 2, line ig from above, for Sandwich Islands read Philippine Islands. 

,, 58, col. 2, line 18, from above, for " Sandwich Islands exclusively," read Philippine Islands exclusively . 

,, 65, col. 1, line 11 from below for Rhadamanthus, Boisd, read Rhadamantus, Lucas. Also in col. 2, lines 29-30 read 

Rhadamantus, and wherever in the Article " Nephereus " occurs substitute Rhadamantus. 
,, 66, col. 2, line 16 from below, for " Dannett " read Dannatt. 
,, 68, col. 2, line 2 from below for " Robur " read Rober. 
,, 72, line 7 from the top, for " Rothschild " read Lathy. 

,, 72, col. 2, line 7 from below, " Waterstradt " is the name of the collector of the variety, and not the locality. 
,, 79, F'ootnote, col. 1, line 5 from above " AmeteboW should be Ametabola. 
„ 118, 2nd line from the top for " Vol. II " read Vol. XI. 

,, 130, lines 20 and 22, for " Guillemand " read Guilhmard, also on Page 131 and 132 the name should be spelled 

Whenever " Palawan " occurs it should be Palawan. 


Plate 26, line 2, delete " 7, see text." 

,, 32, 1st line below for " Vanderpolli " read Vandepolli. 
,, 34, 3rd line below add Fig. 15. 

,, 41, line 2 below for " Fruhstorfer " read Friihstorfer. 

„ 50 or Map 9, last line " P. Rhadamanthus " should be P. Rhadamantus. 

,, 56, Figs. 3, 4, 3a, 6, should be 2 of Hycetus, not Pompeus. 

,, 61, substitute " Lathy" for Rothschild, after fasciculatus. 

,, 646, for " Robur" read Rober. 

,, 65, for Roder read Rober. 

,, B. The numbering of the figures should be as follows : 1 $ , ia $ , 2 2,3 2,4 <? , 5 2,6 <?. Hanhart's 
writer completely reversed my numbers. The writing below should also be Ornithoptera Rich- 
mondia, Gray, 1, ia <? ; 2 2. Pompeoptera Plateni, Staudinger, 3 2, 4 J. Trogonoptera 
Brookeana, Wallace, 5 2 , 6 $ . 
Supplementary Plate F, for " Roder," read Rober. 

[Note. The number of Plates in this Vol. is 59, not 58 as stated in the titlepage ; and 83 coloured and plain figures 
in the text, not 24 as in the titlepage, exclusive of the Portrait. The Titlepage was printed anterior to the com- 
pletion of the work, hence the discrepancy.] 


VOL. I. 

Page 4, col. i, line i, for " into 4 subgenera," read 6 Genera. 

,, 5, 2nd paragraph, line 15 for " Reise Novare," read Reise Novara. 
,, 36, col. 2, line 2 from above, " Glolo " should be Gilolo. 
,, 71, 5th paragraph, 2nd line, for " past " read part. 


The Author is only partly responsible for the presumptuous admission of his portrait into this work, especially as 
he does not claim to be a member of the Tribe of Troides. For a long time he absolutely declined to entertain the 
suggestion of his son, Mr. E. Victor Rippon (the curator of the Biological Section of the Canadian Institute) and a 
number of his subscribers, that his portrait would be very acceptable. The natural desire of a good Son could be 
resisted ; but the strongly-expressed wishes of other subscribers had to prevail ; and the Process blocks for the Plate 
were generously made in Toronto at his Son's expense. It is therefore hoped that this explanation will exonerate the 
Author from any charge of (what seemed to him a) vanity. 

The Maps of this work were adapted chiefly from the Admiralty Charts, for which I am indebted to the kindness 
of the late. Sir William Wharton, the Government Hydrographer, who most courteously sent me those I needed. 



The First Volume of this monograph having been dedicated to the late Professor Westwood, I have now the 
pleasure of inscribing the second volume to another deservedly distinguished naturalist. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild is, we must all admit, a naturalist in the truest acceptation of the term. A man 
of many occupations and interests, every moment of whose time must be valuable to himself and others, he ever finds 
opportunities for the study of God's creations, living and dead ; and whilst he is an accomplished Lepidopterist and 
Ornithologist, his interests are not entirely confined to these two subjects, as his splendid museum and the living 
creatures in Tring Park fully demonstrate. His unusual resources are employed in wise and noble ways, and he does 
not live unto himself. Any student of zoological science, whether English or Cosmopolitan, is always welcome to avail 
himself of the advantages of a study of the multitudinous treasures which find a home in the splendid museum which 
Mr. Rothschild has founded at Tring, in Hertfordshire. Speaking personally, I can heartily testify to the kindly and 
helpful interest which he has always taken in this work of mine. Every species of Troides that I have specified my 
need of, has been in the most genial way at once placed at my disposal, and I have often had in my possession for 
months at a time a considerable number of his rarest and most valuable treasures, using them as freely as if they were 
my own. Without such a privilege, not to mention other kindnesses, my difficulties in bringing this work to an approxi- 
mately successful issue, would have been infinitely greater than they have been. 

No one in the world possesses such a nearly complete collection of Ornithoptera as Mr. Rothschild has been able 
to bring together at Tring. Three years ago he estimated his examples of this tribe of Papilionidse to number over 
4,000, including nearly all the known species, sub-species, varieties and aberrations : since then this number has been 
considerably augmented. Some slight conception of the wealth of the Tring Museum may be obtained, when I say 
that at the same period there were over one million specimens of moths waiting to be set, and probably double that 
number of Lepidoptera incorporated in the collections. The insects of all orders exhibited to the general public are 
numerous, and instructively arranged. In his great Bird room (a student's room really) are more than 175,000 skins, 
contained in cabinets fitted into the walls and recesses from floor to ceiling, and in the general area of the room. 
These skins represent pretty well all the birds of the world, generally in the most perfect condition, and often with long 
series of the most magnificent species of birds of paradise and other groups conspicuous for their marvellous beauty. 
The zoological specimens of the vertebrates, to which the general public have access, are so arranged as to occupy 
the least possible space, consistent with the most useful and instructive display of their many features of interest : 
not only floors and galleries, but even the ceilings being utilised. In a room chiefly devoted to the antelopes may 
be found examples of all but two of the known species. The Museum also contains a wonderful zoological library, 
and many magnificent and characteristic photographs, immensely enlarged. Indeed the whole establishment, with 
its two learned assistant curators is such an enterprise as no other private gentleman has ever achieved or attempted. 

Mr. Rothschild is himself a very learned and enthusiastic zoologist, and is well acquainted with the subjects in 
which he takes so deep an interest. For some years he has conducted and edited his Novitates Zoologicce, of which, up 
to the present time, more than 16 large volumes have been published, many of them beautifully illustrated with mono- 
graphs and papers from his own pen, and others in collaboration with Dr. Karl Jordan and Dr. Carte, in addition to 
papers and butterflies by Mr. Grose-Smith. 

Such men as Mr. Rothschild do much to make the world richer and wiser for their presence in it. May it be 
many a long year before his shadow grows less, if it be the will of God in His wisdom. 

Loving the works of the Creator as I do, and those who take an intelligent and practical interest in them, I speak 
of the subject of this dedication with a sincere and heartfelt enthusiasm. Mr. Rothschild is a man I delight to honour, 
infinitely more, I am certain, than King Ahasuerus delighted to honour Mordecai. He will therefore, I hope, accept 
this dedication as a small tribute of regard and respect. 


September, 1907. 



In the Preface to the first volume of this monograph, I, among other matters, gave a slight reference to the 
labour and difficulties with which I had to contend in my desire to bring some small contribution to the commonwealth 
of Natural Science. Now that the work is virtually completed, I may confess that those difficulties, and the labour, 
have not been much diminished — it was not likely that they would be. During the 17 years since its commencement 
the interruptions and impediments have been many and varied ; and though it has been my chief and almost 
entire occupation, other work had to be accomplished also. This special task however has given me much 
pleasure as well as anxiety, and my " Icones " has been a greater inspiration to me than any so-called sacred Icons 
could be to the people of the East, and, I trust, will be much more useful. 

My chief desire (as I said in the first volume) has ever been, and, I hope, will ever be, not personal profit (that 
was not probable) or aggrandisement (that was most unlikely) for such a humble enterprise, but to leave something 
behind me that might be useful in making more fully known a few of the crystalised thoughts of God — of the creatures 
which, though they, together with a vast host of other creatures, take a comparatively low rank in the continents of life, 
are yet so entrancingly lovely that we are often asking ourselves, how inconceivably beautiful must be the Being who 
thinks and designs as He does ? 

For the completion of this work I desire to render grateful thanks to the Friend of all friends, Who has enabled 
me to succeed thus far ; and while each volume is dedicated to a greater disciple of Zoological science than I can ever 
be in this world, my most heartfelt dedication is to Him who created the lovely objects of which these volumes treat, 
and also the grateful writer and illustrator of them. I am abundantly conscious of many defects in this work. If I had 
to do it all over again, I feel sure I could greatly improve it, and many regrettable blemishes would be removed ; it 
would also be made a better and more exhaustive production, both textual and illustrative, especially if my resources 
were to become more ample than they have been, But the present results must be accepted for what they are, and not 
what they ought to have been. Our best efforts are only feeble attempts to grasp infinite perfection ; and the greatest 
artists and masters of the world have always been most dissatisfied with the results of their labours ; for all art and 
science, even the most advanced, are only provisional, a compromise — a step towards the unimaginable glory of a 
vaster life than this, where our capacities will be unfolding more and more without end. 

It is my hope and prayer that whoever looks at the figures of the butterflies portrayed in the hundred or more 
plates of this book, irrespective of the scientific or critical feeling, they may be inspired to feel like the Hebrew 
anthologist when he wrote " For the Lord is great, and greatly to be praised . . . Honour and majesty are before 
Him ; strength and beauty are in His sanctuary. Give unto the Lord the glory due unto His name." Of all the 
Naturalists of the world before the Christian era, David was the greatest and most inspired ; for the earth and the 
heavens with all their glory appealed to him as they appeal even now to few people, as revelations of the wonderful 
mind of God, and often so entranced his contemplative mind, that it could only find partial relief in the many sublime 
utterances which are now common treasures to us all In this respect and in his love to God, despite his great faults, 
David was, like Job and others, a man after God's own heart. May we be able, as he was, to say, " O God, Thou hast 
taught me from my youth : and hitherto have I declared Thy wondrous works. Now also, when I am old and grey- 
headed, O God, forsake me not ; till I have shewn Thy strength unto this generation, and Thy power to everyone that 
is to come." " Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things, and blessed be His glorious name 
for ever ; and let the whole earth be filled with His glory." 

David, Asaph, Ethan and others could see how well dressed all God's creatures are ; and we who think of the 
matter can feel an inspiration also in the contemplation of this fact. But One, infinitely greater than they or we, who 
ages after stood in the same Holy Land, with gentle and authoritative voice proclaimed to the whole world and to all 
future ages : " Consider the lillies how they grow ; they toil not, neither do they spin, yet I say unto you that Solomon 
in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. If God so clothe the grass of the field .... how much more will he 
clothe you, O ye of little faith." If I might reverentially venture to paraphrase the foregoing words of One Who spake 
as never man spake, I would point to these Ornithopterous gems, and say, " Consider the Butterflies how joyfully 


they wing their way among the other glories of forest, mountain, plain and garden ! They are some of the humblest of 
living creatures, they live their little span of life, and then pass away." " Yet I say unto you that Solomon in all his 
glory was not arrayed like one of theses And the same may be said of many creatures even lower in the scale of life 
than these, to say nothing of the inhabitants of the vegetable kingdom. But we may rejoice still more for ourselves 
than for them, for we also came forth from the same creative hand for infinitely higher rank and beauty than they, to 
be the High Priests of Nature, to praise Him for them and for ourselves. We, in a limited degree can create beautiful 
and wonderful things, as our arts and sciences prove. Our pictures, our music and poetry ; our machinery, bridges, 
cathedrals, and public buildings ; our knowledge and control of the mysterious forces of Nature from radium to elec- 
tricity ; our mysterious lordship over the lower kingdoms of life, and our love for them and our fellow creatures, all 
prove that through a Herschel, a Lord Kelvin, a Lord Lister, a Darwin, a Farraday, a Virchow or a Pasteur, a Haydn 
or a Mendelssohn, a Titian, Corregio, or a Tadema ; a Christopher Wren or Inigo Jones ; a Prescott or a Macaulay ; a 
Goethe, Shakespeare, Moliere, Browning, or a Tennyson ; or even through the most unworthy of us God is ever 
striving to express Himself, even as He does through our greater and humbler preachers, and the lowliest of good men 
and women, whatever their creed : for in every work of man, save in its imperfections, I am assured we may see God's 
thoughts and creative powers revealed. Great indeed is the honour ! But even then "it doth not yet appear what we 
shall be ; but when He shall appear we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is." 

To some of our Biologists and Evolutionists the foregoing remarks may seem unscientific and out of place in a 
matter of fact monograph of a tribe of butterflies. I am unable to share in that opinion. I am as fully convinced an 
evolutionist as anyone ; for I know it means a sublime attempt at a partial explanation of the universe. It is also to 
me an affirmation of God's ruling mind in the history of infinity ; and so I think that even a Haekel, though he may 
not believe it, is unconsciously doing his part towards glorifying his Creator and establishing the fact of God's imman- 
ence in the affairs of the universe, just as the preachers and intellectual giants of every age and nationality have done, 
and are ever doing. 

It is a pleasurable thought that we have our Creator's gracious invitation to study His works and ways in 
these words : " Ask Me of the things to come ; concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, 
command ye Me." — Isaiah xlv,, 11. 

But now it remains for me to give a few words of explanation regarding an omission in this work of a feature 
which I had from the first promised it should include. I refer to that group of American Papilios, following imme- 
diately after the Genus Pompeoptera, and which I propose to establish as a third group of Troides, to be called 
Ornithopterina. The first of these is Papilio Chabrias of Hewitson, from Equador and Upper Amazon, of which 
there are two forms, probably of the same species, namely P. Triopus and P. Chabrias : these may be united as one 
species, to be called Triopus Chabrias, and should immediately follow Pompeoptera or Andromache. 

Papilio /Eneides of Esper would be the type of the 2nd genus ; P. Belus of the 3rd ; P. Children^ of the 4th, and 
P. Dardanus of the 5th genus. Of course this is only a rough and provisional arrangement, to be more fully revised 
when the subject is entered upon. I found, on mature consideration, that as this volume has exceeded my estimated 
limits, and as I could not do justice to the plan sketched out above in the small space I should have at my disposal, 
that it would be better to leave it for the present ; and for a second reason also, that I wished for the sake of my sub- 
scribers and for my own sake, to get the present work complete. So I propose to publish, at some early time hence, if 
I am spared life and sufficient health, a supplementary volume, to contain any new Troides that may be discovered, 
and the females of such as Pompeoptera Neomiranda, &c. (which came to hand too late for insertion in this volume). 
The rest of this supplement would be devoted to the consideration of the Ornithopterina. 


<? . Primary wings elongate, subtriangulate, somewhat 
tumid outward at the base, straight for nearly two thirds, 
then curved to the outer angle, which is not so sharply 
pointed as in Ornithoptera and Priamoptera, but more 
so than in Pompeoptera ; posterior margin nearly straight 
in some specimens, or only slightly curved ; inner margin 
nearly straight ; discoidal cell elongate and narrow, con- 
siderably more than half the length of costa (44 out of 80 
mm.); all the veins very straight ; median and subcostal only 
moderately robust ; nervules very thin and very slightly 
visible on upper side in the black ; the distance between 
the basal junction of the three branches of subcostal 
nervures much greater in proportion than in other Orni- 
thoptera ; the 1st discocellular, and 2nd and 5th subcostals 
form a junction very nearly at the points of divergence 
in both sexes more persistently and closely than in 
Pompeoptera ; the Pseudoneura (or false nervules) which 
occupy the discoidal cell, differ in the arrangement of 
their branchings from those of other groups, cominghowever 
nearest to the typical genus Ornithoptera ; while they 
all start from the base, they appear to be divided into 2 
stems as in Pompeoptera, — the lowest proceeding parallel 
with about half of the median nervure at a distance of 
3 mm. from it, then branching off, the posterior branch 
curving to the base of the 2nd median nervule, the anterior 
to midway of the 2nd discoidal and 1st median nervules, 
becoming a part of the fold outside the cell. The upper 
stem is rather more complex, proceeds less than i-6th 
from the base, then branches off very curiously — the 
posterior running nearly straight to the 1st discocellular 
nervule, the anterior divided again into two, which form 
a very elongated oval or loop, united again at their 
terminal point on the subcostal at very near to the base 
of the 2nd subcostal nervule. This latter arrangement is 
also to be found in Ornithoptera and its subgenus. 
The 2 differs only in the relative lengths of the branches 
and the position of the terminal point of the upper stem, 
which is below instead of above the base of the first discoidal 
nervule. The fringe is always indicated in whitish very 
finely and delicately, the folds between the nervules being 
without the interrupted whitish sublunate spots of other 
forms. Secondaries, smaller in proportion to the front wings 
than in other Ornithoptera ; discoidal cell narrow, but not so 
proportionally long as in upper wings ; all the veins very 
straight and long, the nervures not robust ; the subcostal 

nervure shorter than in Pompeoptera or ^Etheoptera; with- 
out any light lunate spots or lines between the ends of the 
nervules ; the fringe merely a delicate whitish thin line as 
in the upper wings. Abdominal fold half the length of 
the inner margin, broader than in the other Ornithoptera ; 
closed, and containing a brownish-white cottony or hairy 
material, closely packed. Head and eyes bolder and 

slightly larger relatively than in other subgenera ; villose 
covering of the palpi projecting to a slightly greater length 
also ; the pronotal red collar more than twice as broad as 
usual, and divided by a fine line of black at its nearest 
to the head, the lower division being four times the width 
of the other. The thorax stout, densely clothed with 
velvety black hairs, the outlines of the tegulse invisible ; 
underside with two oblique bands following the lines of 
the femorse, and reaching from the trochanters to the base 
of the wings, and a tuft of red at the base of the abdomen ; 
abdomen also silky bluish or greenish black in both sexes ; 
anal valves small, almost circular, densely clothed with 
minute scales on dead brownish black, which extend 
beyond and clothe all the space of three or four of the 
subdorsal segments. Antennae straighter or a little less 
robust than in other groups. Legs, with tarsi of second 
and third pairs longer than first, and tibia of first pair 
shortest ; the spur at the end of the tibiae less prominent 
than in Ornithoptera or Pompeoptera ; the spur on the 
middle of the first tibia not so long as in ^Etheoptera ; 
the ungues the same as in other groups. 

2 . Little or no difference except that the width of the 
pronotal collar is less than in the <? , and that the interno- 
median nervule on upper wing, is not quite so long, and 
is more upright, and that the precostal nervure has also a 
very slightly different position and form. The pronotal 
collar however in the var. Eleanor, Walker is as broad as 
in the $ , and of the same shape. 

Type of the subgenus . 0. Brookeana. 


Vol . n . 


Ornithoptera Brookiana, Wallace, Proc. Ent. Soc. Ser. 2, vol. iii., p. 104 (1855). 
0. Brookeana, Hewitson, Exot. Butt, i., Orn. and Pap., t. i. f. t. (1855. 
Papilio Trogon, Vollenhoven, Tijdschrift roor Ent. iii., p. 69, t. 6 (i860). 
Ornithoptera Brookeana, Wallace, Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. xxv.. p. 40 (1866). 
Papilio Brookeana, W. F. Kirby, Syn. Cat. Diur. Lep., p. 520 (1871). 
Orn. Brookeana, Snellen, Lep. v., Midd. Sum., p. 24, n. 1 (1880). 
Orn. Brookeana, 2 P. H. Gosse, Entomologist vol. vii., p. 156 (1881). 
„ „ P. H. Gosse, Trans. Linn. Soc, 2nd Ser., vol. ii., p. 291 (1883). 

„ „ Distant, Rhopalocera Malayana, Text., vol. i., p. 330, Pis. xxvii. A f 4 ? ; xxvii. B. £. 1 6* , vol. ii. 
Orn. Brookiana, 2 var. Eleanor, Dr. F. A. Walker, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., pt. i., March, 1889, p. 75. 

This noble insect was first discovered by Wallace in 
the neighbourhood of the Simunjon Coal works, near 
Sarawak in Borneo, and afterwards found to be fairly com- 
mon in the island of Sumatra. The 2 was unknown for a 
considerable period after, and still remains comparatively 
rare in our collections, for reasons which may be given 
later on. The rule that the 2 2 should be larger, differ- 
ently shaped, and be adorned with little or none of the 
wonderful colouring of the 3- $ of the Ornithoptera, is 
here entirely departed from ; in Priamoptera the 2 2 are 
all larger than their lords, their form differs as much as 
if they belonged to a different family of butterflies, while 
their colouring is generally as sober in tone as that of 
many female humming-birds ; in Pompeoptera there is a 
closer similarity in form, if not in size, and in colouring 
with the $ $ , but no one would mistake them as belong- 
ing to any other genus ; in JEtheoptera the contrast 
between the sexes appears to have attained its maximum : 
for while the 2 2 are richer in their colouring than those 
of the first mentioned groups, they are nevertheless 
completely thrown into the shade by their male com- 
panions — the latter being certainly the most gorgeously 
coloured butterflies which have yet been seen, though 
they are of very moderate size, while their 2 2 are perfect 
giants — suggesting the idea of huge moths rather than 
butterflies. But in Trogonoptera the 2 2 are very nearly 
as splendid as the $ S , and their form and size differ very 
little if any in a series of each. 

The name which the Dutch desired to give this insect 
would have been most appropriate, since it would be 
impossible for anyone who had seen the wonderful 
Mexican Trogon bird Pharomacriis respkndens (Gould) to 
fail in noticing the extraordinary resemblance of the 
markings and colour of the wings with some of the 
feathers of that bird. As Wallace (" Malay Archipelago," 
vol. i., pp. 58, 59) observes, " This beautiful creature 
has very long and pointed wings, almost resembling a 
Sphinx moth in shape. It is deep velvety black, with a 
curved band of spots of a brilliant metallic green colour, 
extending across the wings from tip to tip, each spot being 
shaped exactly like a small triangular feather, and having 
very much the effect of the wing-coverts of the Mexican 
Trogon* laid on black velvet. The only other marks are 
a broad neck-cloth of vivid crimson, and a few delicate 
white touches on the outer margin of the hind wings." 
But Mr. Wallace's name, in honour of Rajah Brooke, has 
been generally accepted ; and will always probably be the 
one by which it will be known. Although the most 

"One of the Tragonidre a family of Insessorial Birds inhabiting the old and new 
worlds, but especially the latter. 

splendid species of the Trogonidse are found in the New 
World, it is not impossible that in some past time some 
islands of the Malay Archipelago were inhabited by a 
species of the subfamily Harpactes closely resembling in 
appearance the Mexican form, and living in company 
with this Ornithoptera which had grown to resemble it 
for a protective purpose — the species of butterfly surviving 
the species of bird. However that may be the resem- 
blance is, to say the least, very remarkable, especially if 
we find the habits of the two forms in any way similar. 
The first description of the 6* was written by Wallace in 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Vol. iii, (1855). The second was by 
Hewitson in the same year, the type of which is in his 
collection row deposited in the British Museum. For 
this latter reason I quote Mr. Hewitson's description : — 

" 6* . Upper side black, with a broad longitudinal band 
of golden green from near the apex of anterior wing to 
the inner margin of posterior wing. On anterior wing, 
below the middle, divided into 7 hastate spots pointing to 
the outer margin which they nearly touch. On the pos- 
terior wing at the middle, divided by the nervures, which 
are black. Abdominal margin with a fold, as in some of 
the Papilios. Under side black ; anterior wing with line 
of blue at base of costal nervure ; a longitudinal band 
just below the median nervure, and composed of four 
spots, the first commencing at the base blue and ending 
green, followed (one between each of the median nervules) 
by 3 large sagittiform spots pointing upwards. Posterior 
wing with a ray of blue just below the costal nervure 
near its base, and a line of grey triangular or diamond- 
formed spots (the latter divided by the nervures), nearly 
parallel to the outer margin. Each wing with a crimson 
spot at the base, the body belted twice with crimson. 
Abdominal fold larger than in most Papilios, when 
unfolded half-an-inch across." 

The 2 was first described by the late Philip H. Gosse 
in the Entomologist for 1881, vol. xiv., page 104; and as 
the type is in his collection it will be best if I quote his 
description : — 

2 . " Expanse (the upper wings being horizontal and 
straight) exactly y\ inches (188 mm.), my largest $ being 
7 inches." 

[This is evidently an abnormally large 2 , being 
18 mm. larger than one in Dr. Fickert's collection ; and 
14 mm. larger than the var. in that of Dr. Francis Walker.] 

<< — Form of wings as in S — the black less pure; in- 
clined to smoke-brown; above, forewings as in the <?, 
save that the triangular feather-like spots of metallic green 



are on the submedian nervure, the 3rd median nervule, 
and on the posterior side of the 2nd discoidal : but on the 
anterior side of this last and on both sides of the subcostal 
the feathers are white, reaching far up towards the cell, 
and becoming impure towards the points ; on the hind 
wings the central green patch scarcely extends beyond 
the subcostal, and is further contracted by all the nervules 
being widely black-bordered ; within the cell it gradually 
becomes of that lustrous blue which marks the underside, 
and this then gives place to the oblique edge of a trian- 
gular patch of deep velvet black that reaches to the 
thorax ; each of the nervures and nervules is bordered by 
a spot exactly corresponding to those on the under surface 
of the $ , only instead of being clear white, of a dingy 
white brown ; beneath — the forewings differ little from 
those of the <? , save that the white submarginal borderings 
of the nerves are much larger, especially towards the tip, 
where they exceed in size those of the upper surface ; 
hind wings exactly as in <? , save that the fine blue at the 
base of the costal is much reduced." 

" Head, thorax, and abdomen as in the $ , save that the 
crimson of the prothorax is much suffused with black." 
Hab. Perak. 

To these descriptions I may add the following ampli- 
fications : — 

. Thorax above velvety black ; red pronotal collar of 
prothorax a rich dark carmine, nearly 4 mm. wide from 
the head, separated at its nearest to the head by a thin 
line of black, like a fine streak in the upper part of the 
collar, and thickest in the middle. The form of this red 
band is as nearly as possible thus : — 

Eyes red brown. Thorax, beneath : — meso- and meta- 
thorax with an oblique band or bar of rich crimson, each 
following the line of the respective femorse of the legs ; a 
small spot or tuft of red at the base of the abdomen, on 
each side — the sides of pronotal red collar also extending 
to within nearly 2 mm. of the haustellum ; the red bands 
extend over the base of the posterior wings. Abdomen of 
a nearly uniform greenish-bluish silky black, the anal 
valves beneath of the same colour as are the eyes. The 
abdominal fold is larger than in most species of Papilios 
or Ornithoptera ; is about 4 mm. wide, and nearly 19 mm. 
long, and if unfolded would measure nearly 13 mm. across. 
Unlike the folds of the other subgenera, it is also of the 
same brilliant green as on the middle of the secondaries ; 
it is raised above the general level of the wing, and flat- 
tened on the surface. The fringe of all the wings is of a 
fuscous white, more sharply defined on the underside, so 
as effectively to relieve the marginal black border of the 
secondary wings. The neuration is not so robust as in 
other groups, especially on the Secondaries, but is more 
graceful and prolonged. The discoidal cell of the Primaries 
occupies considerably more than half the length of the 
wings — of the posterior wings very narrow by comparison 
with other species. The underside of the abdominal fold 
is silky ruddy brown, or the colour of the eyes. Length 
of the costa of Primaries in the first 84 mm. ; width of 
wing 40 mm. ; length of Secondaries 42 mm. ; width 

35 mm. ; of abdomen and antennae 33, and of thorax with 
head 21 mm. ; of 

[1st pair — femora 11 ; tibia 8 ; tarsi 13 mm. 
Legs j 2nd ,, ,, 13; ,, 11; ,, 17 mm. 

(3rd ,, ,, 8; ,, 10; ,, 18 mm. 

The 2 <? <? in the Hewitson collection measure 80 and 
82 mm. respectively ; these are not so large as many of 
the specimens which have since been brought home 
(probably from Sumatra), and are more blunt or rounded 
at the apex of the wings than the majority of specimens : 
indeed there appears to be two types of forewing, the one 
more straight and short at the costa and anterior angle, the 
other more rounded at the same point ; in the latter the 
hastate markings often extend nearly to the edge of 
the posterior margin. 

Articulations of antennae 46 to 58. 

2 . The red collar not so wide in the normal form as in 
the S — not more than 2-3rds, and of a slightly different 
form — the black divisional line being rather broader also, 
and a part of the red of the underside of prothorax appear- 
ing on each side. The lateral red marks occupy more 
of the space above and on each side of the legs, the base of 
the abdomen being nearly the same colour as that of the 
$ , though, if anything with more brown in it. At the base 
of the wings is a small blue spot ; and the median, sub- 
median, and internal nervures are often outlined in vivid 
blue, as in some examples of the $ . Length of the costa 
77 (in fig.) ; width of wing 40 mm. ; length of secondaries 
40, width 32 mm. ; length of abdomen 26 mm. (the original 
of my figures has lost its antennae) ; of thorax and 
head 20 mm. ; of 

1st pair — femora 9; tibia 9; tarsi 9 mm. 
Legs - 2nd ,, ,, 10; ,, 11; ,, 13 mm. 
(3rd „ ,, 8; ,, 9; ,, 14 mm. 

<? <?. In the collection of Mr. H. Grose-Smith, with the 
hastate or plumose markings nearly or quite reaching the 
posterior margin in some specimens. 

2 . With the sub-apical grey-white patch of Primaries 
very distinct ; still more so on the underside. No blue 
within the cell from the base or below it. Hab. Borneo. 

General Habitats : — 

$ . Borneo (Sarawak) Wallace ; Saudakan ; Banjerma- 
sin, coll., Distant; mountains of S. Sumatra $ and S 
Perak (Kiinstler), coll. of Gosse ; Malacca, (Biggs) in coll. 
of Distant; Johore, Sumatra, (Snellen): in Leyden 

The 2 is very difficult to find or to obtain, the propor- 
tion having been as small as 15 ? 2 to 1000 <? $ . Accord- 
ing to Distant, (Rhopalocera Malayana, vol. i., p. 330,) 
Herr Kiinstler collected in Perak in 5 years over 1000 
S $ and 15 2 2 in 5 years, or an average of 200 S S and 
3 2 2 per annum! On some days 15 to 20 $ <? were 
captured, on others none were seen. In the Kinta district 
they were to be found nearly all the year round, but 
principally in March, April, May, and June, in showery 
weather, flying over the muddy streams (coming from the 
mines) with overhanging jungle. They generally resort 
to spots where there is decayed animal matter. In 3 
months he obtained 800 <? <? and no 2 2 ; and during that 
period he only saw 20 or 30 of the latter flying high, and 


settling exclusively on flowers on high trees. The baitwhich 
attracted the $ $ was ignored by the 2 ? . They flew 
by themselves, and seldom came near the $ $ except 
when the latter were in pursuit of them. 

The individuals of the species seem to be most abun- 
dant by rivers, or in sunny places by the dry beds of 
of springs, being in largest numbers during the cool wet 
monsoon ; so we are informed by Burbridge, who is speak- 
ing of Borneo. 

In an interesting paper by Mr. S. B. J. Skertchly 
(contained in the Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. IV., 
6th Series, p. 210). " On the Habits of certain Bornean 
Butterflies," he tells us that " in the eastern part of 
North Borneo, which is practically an unbroken virgin 
forest, intersected by innumerable creeks and small 
streams, and some fine rivers .... among the 
many species which delight in the sunshine or the shady 
forest edges, forest paths, or clearings, where the light is 
stronger than in the forest depths, and when sunshine is 
close at hand, are Ornithoptera and Hestice. These 
occasionally make excursions into the jungle, but their 
haunts are by the river sides. O. Brookiana is a rare 
butterfly in this part of Borneo ; but I have seen it in 
several parts of the Darval Bay Peninsula .... 
In the mountain region of the headwaters of the River 
Segama I saw a pair hovering above an orange-blossomed 
tree, and watched them courting for 20 minutes. The $ 
was sipping the flowers, vibrating its wings rapidly like a 
hawkmoth, the vivid green markings flashing out as the 
sun played on them. Then the 2 sailed down with 
stately flight, showing her white spots clearly, and 
commenced to woo. For a long time they circled over 
us about 6 inches apart, the 2 always uppermost and a 
little behind, so that she could see the emerald feathers 
of her mate. She did all the wooing. The flight was a 
sailing motion with a peculiar tremor of the wings, very 
unlike the quivering while feeding. The 2 during the 
whole time pointed her abdomen downwards. A solitary 
0. flavicollis was about, and made several feeble attacks 
on the lovers, which they totally ignored. At length they 
settled high up in the tree, and united, the 2 still upper- 

In the same article Skertchly says that the 2 2 of Hestia 
lynceus, H. lenconde, v, labuana, also Ideopsis daos woo the 
$ $ . Very likely this exception to the ordinary rule may 
yet be found more often to obtain than has hitherto been 
suspected. Years ago, in New Granada, I saw evidences 
that the 2 of the beautiful little Eubagis postverta was the 
first to do the seeking ; for by holding a very fresh $ in 
my hand I found it quite easy to capture the 2 2, several 
of which would be hovering over me, to my great astonish- 
ment ! 

T. Brookeana 2 var. Eleanor, (Fr. Walker) Trans. Ent. 
Soc. Lond. Pt. I, 1889, p. 75- 

This var. Dr. Walker says resembles in some 

particulars the ordinary $ type, and also has some 
resemblance to the 2 type. "The 7 hastate metallic 
marks of the <? are represented in this var. by 5 nearly 
similar shaped patches of the same size, the 6th and 7th 
above being smaller, and in some lights appearing almost 
as streaks of green. The green patches of the hind 
wings are more distinctly divided by a black line 
than in the <?, corresponding in this respect with the 
posterior wings of the $ described by Hewitson, as at the 
middle divided by the nervures, which are . . . This 
latter is more a female than a male character. The 
green colour of both wings is brighter than in the ordinary 
female, but not quite so vivid as in the male ; indeed it 
is in some lights a much warmer golden green than in the 
normal type of either sex." [The shape of the hastate 
patches of the Primaries does, however, approach those 
of the markings in a female in the Hewitson collection.] 
" The greatest difference between this var. and the 
ordinary female consists in the total absence of the dusky 
pencilling near the apex of the anterior wings, and the 
very indistinct figuring of the row of spots of the posterior 
wings, which causes the ordinary female to resemble a 
Diadema. The border of this var. has only 2 small white 
spots on each side of the 1st subcostal nervule of posterior 
wing instead of 3, and the remaining 4 grey brown spots 
are more indistinct. The underside of Primaries with the 
same dusky pencillings as in the normal form, but the 
whitish markings of the secondary wings resemble those 
of the male; indeed they are fewer in number — the 
indications of the 2nd inner and fainter band being 
slighter than in the normal types of the male or female. 
On the underside of the Secondaries the blue markings 
extending from the base are of the ordinary type. On 
the Primaries, (underside) the blue markings predominate 
over those of the ordinary female ; on those of the 
ordinary female there is rather more metallic green." 

Possibly if we were able to obtain as large a number of 
females as of males we might meet with every inter- 
mediate variation between the markings and colours of 
the two sexes, just as we do in the forms of the mandibles 
and armatures of the sexes of some of the Lamellicorne 
Coleoptera — the Copridce and Lucanidce for example. 

The specimen of this interesting and instructive 
variety was obtained by accident by Dr. Francis Walker : 
its antennae were absent, and it is rather worn. I thought 
it was best to figure it just as it was set, although it may 
not look quite so well in the plate. I am greatly indebted 
to Dr. Walker for the opportunity of figuring the 2 
females which enrich my plate, and who most kindly 
allowed me to have the use of them as long as I needed. 

The figures of the <? are from a specimen in my own 
collection, one of the first two I possessed, which were 
liberally ceded to me some years ago by Mr. William 
Watkins, to whom I have much pleasure in dedicating 
these two drawings. The other 7 examples in my 
museum do not contain any differences worthy of note. 


Ornithoptera Trojana, Honrath, Berliner Ent. Zeitschrift, Vol. XXXIII., p. 3 (1886). 
„ Trojana [O. Brookiana var. ?] Staiidinger, Iris II. p. 4 (<? .) (1889). 

„ „ Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Band 2, p. 7, and p. 163 (1889). 

n „ „ „ „ " Lepid. der Insel Palawan."] 

0. Trojana, Fickert, Ueber die Zeichn. der Gatt. Ornith. p. 764 (1889). 
0. Trojana, W. Watkins, Entomologist, No. 339, Vol. 24, with coloured plate. (1891). 
0. Trojana, Semper, Philipp. Tagfal. p. 263, n. 384 (1891). 
Troidei Trojanus, Rothschild, Novitates Zoologicae, V. II., p. 199 (1895). 
„ Trojana, W. F. Kirby, "Nature," Vol. 51, p. 258, col. 1 (1895). 

The most northern of the groups of Islands which 
compose the immense Indian Archipelago, is the 
Philippines, a group that is situated between 5 and 20 
N. lat., and 120 and 127 E. long. Between the 
most northern of these islands Luzon and Formosa, 
nearly in the same longitude, are the small Babuyanes 
or Batanes, and the Bashee group ; the most southern 
Island Magindanao is connected with Borneo by the 
Sooloo group, running W.S.W. from the S.W. coast of 
this great island to Capes Unsang and Labian in Borneo. 
Farther north the Philippines are connected with Borneo 
by a chain of islands and rocky islets extending north- 
north-east and south-south-west between the Island of 
Mindoro (of the Philippines) and Capes Inaruntang and 
Sampanmangio in Borneo. This chain is the Palawan 
or Paragoa islands, sometimes called the Archipelago of 
Felicia. These islands separate the Mindoro from the 
China Seas, which are connected by Mindoro Strait. 
Both seas wash the western shores of this group. 
Palawan or Paragoa is the largest island — for the rest of 
the group are only mere islets. The whole group is com- 
prised within lat. 8° 37' to n° 30' N., and long. 117 to 
120 E. They had a population of 90,000 in 1887. 

The climate of the Philippines is equable, the ther- 
mometer varying from 66° to 84 fahr. ; they are generally 
well wooded, and the rainfall is very heavy. 

The Philippines are exceedingly rich in insects of all 
orders, shells, both land and marine, and birds. And 
although they were carefully explored by that distinguished 
Conchologist, the late Mr. Hugh Cuming, especially for 
shells, insects, and birds, and by whose labours the shell 
fauna alone was brought up to 2,500 species of marine 
and 451 species of land and freshwater shells, of 
the marine Mr. Cuming estimated that at least 1,000 
additional species would yet be discovered. Since then 
other great collectors have been continually adding to our 
knowledge of the richness of these islands ; and probably 
a great deal of new and important work yet remains to be 
done, if we are even to arrive at an approximate idea of 
the full glory of the Philippine fauna. Almost the 
most wonderful of all the Ornithoptera, P. Magellanus, 
of Felder, is an inhabitant of this group. But it is in the 
island of Palawan we must look for that splendid rival of 
the Bornean and Sumatran T. Brookeana, that is to say 
T. Trojana, the species now to be described, which may 
or may not ultimately be found to be simply a highly 
specialised local form of the former species, as it is yet 
quite possible that in some other localities intermediate 
and other specialised forms of Ornithoptera may yet be 
found in some of these islands, or in the neighbouring 
islets when they have been more exhaustively explored. 

$ . Primaries : Very velvety black ; neuration ob- 
scurely seen ; the median nervure near the base is blue ; 
with a series of 7 submarginal leaf-like marks of shot 
green and blue, the terminals of the nervules passing 
through them like the midrib of a leaf; seen opposite 
the light these are golden green : obliquely against the 
light, emerald blue, with a tinge of purple, according to 
the position at which the wing is moved — one half of each 
mark, generally the lower half, being most strongly blue ; 
very obliquely, violet and green ; in other positions the 
leaf-like markings are blue on the right wing, and golden 
or silvery green on the left. All the marks are at their 
base dotted with emerald atoms ; all the markings are 
widely separated — somewhat graduated in size, the 
lowest being nearly twice the size of the highest. 

Under surface. Wings a warmer and softer velvety 
black, shading outwardly to a bluish -grey black on the 
right wing, and a purplish ruddy-black on the left wing, 
when slightly changed in position ; at the inner margin 
with an opalescent and purplish sheen ; the veins are 
fairly well accentuated, though their branches are very 
delicately constructed; there are 7 elongate lenticular 
silvery bluish-green marks, arranged in pairs on the disc, 
the lower pair almost united at the base, the others 
separated mostly at their apices, the wing-fold dividing 
them : the top one is single, and they are all composed 
chiefly of sapphire or emerald atoms ; a rich ultramarine 
blue mark, subdued and modified by black and silvery- 
green atoms, is situated between the 3rd median nervule 
and the submedian fold, and extends from the base nearly 
2-3rds to the outer margin, being indented at its termina- 
tion ; a streak of deep ultramarine blue between the costa 
and costal nervure, extending from the base to a little 
more than i-3rd of the costal length. 

Secondaries. Velvety black, with a faint bluish-green 
sheen towards the outer margin, and a purplish sheen 
within the costal nervure ; a broad green discal band, 
subject to the same beautiful variations of colour as are 
the marks of the upper wing ; this band is divided rather 
broadly, or indented by the discal black and the blackveins, 
at the outer marginal portions: also irregularly curved 
and graduated into the discal black by golden-blue atoms, 
and towards the cell incurved, and graduated by atoms 
of silvery blue-green. The slightest alteration of light or 
position changes these glowing marks of colour so that 
those on the right wing will be of a silvery olive, or almost 
lost in a deep olive black shade, while those on the left 
wing will assume a proportionately brilliant warm colour ; 
the discoidal cell is a very rich ultramarine blue— most 
intense on the veins, — and modified by black atoms, but 
in some positions the blue is not visible at all — while in 
others (viewed obliquely in a side light) it is very brilliant, 



and united to the band by green-blue silvery atoms along 
the nervures ; the base is darkest ; between the median 
and submedian nervures (in reality on the upper part of 
the abdominal pouch) is a brilliant silvery ultramarine 
blue, greenish towards the base, and modified midway by 
black atoms. Indeed the colours all over the insect are 
remarkably like those of the richest humming-birds, and 
are modified in a similar manner. The chief veins are 
well expressed. 

Under surface of Secondaries : Warm purplish velvety- 
black ; with an extensive mark composed of silver blue 
atoms between the costal and median veins, most dense 
and brilliant towards the base — a similar spot almost 
filling the precostal cell ; an elongate congeries of blue 
atoms between the 1st and 2nd subcostal branches, and 
a rather obscure and narrow elongate congeries within 
the basal part of the cell ; a submarginal row of 4 or 5 
very small cuneiform spots, divided by the nervules, runs 
parallel to the hind margin : these are reddish white. 
The black of the hind margin of the wing is subdued by a 
whitish gloss ; the crimson scales of the thorax encroach 
prominently on to the base of the wing. 

Thorax : With a broad crimson pronotal collar ; the 
thorax below the neck is of a deep pilose velvety-black. 

Head : Eyes castaneous and large ; the tuft between 
the eyes is black and prominent ; antennas very black, and 

Underside of thorax : the legs are all stout and 
intensely black : the femora almost entirely concealed in 
the black and crimson scales, which also encroach slightly 
on the 1st articulation of the abdomen ; the legs are 
reddish black; the spirotromp reddish black. 

Abdomen, above and below, a silky-greenish black ; 
abdominal fringe long, curved, and black. 

The abdominal pouch or fold, produced as it is by a 
long, nearly lenticular continuation of the abdominal 
margin, folded over away from the body, lies very close 
to the under part of the wing — so close indeed that it is 
difficult even to insert a needle, if the specimen be a new 
one, and the reddish ochraceous androconia are packed 
far away in the pouch ; the abdominal fringe is greyish- 
black, and fairly long. [See PI. 27, fig. 4.] The under 
surface of the fold is velvety black, with the fringe looking 
very silky. [PI. 27, fig. 5.] 

The pseudoneura in the primary cell are very obscure ; 
but they closely resemble that of T. Brookeana. 

Expanse of costa, 95 mms. : width of primary wings, 
45 mms. ; length of secondary wings, 45 mms. ; width, 
35 mms. ; length of outer margin, 73 mms. 

Length of abdomen, 32 mms. ; of thorax with head, 
27 mms. ; of antennae, 37 mms. Articulations of antennas, 
54 in number. 

Hab. Palawan, Philippine Islands, situated about 100 
miles from the North Coast of Borneo. 

In the museums of Mr. H. Grose-Smith, the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild, Mr. George Semper, Herr Honrath, 

j &c. 

A comparison of this species with T. Brookeana furnished 
1 several important differences, sufficient to entitle it to a 
\ separate specific rank — that is, as species are made ; 

though perhaps we may readily regard it as only a local 

form of the former. 

1st. The insect is larger and altogether more massive 
in appearance than T. Brookeana. 

2nd. The beautiful green hastate marks are relatively 
shorter and broader, and more leaflike. 

3rd. They are broadly separated from each other, while 
in Brookeana these are near each other ; and the two lower 
ones actually coalesce. 

4th. On the secondary wings there is only a moderately 
narrow discal green band, while in Brookeana the green 
occupies all the centre of the wing, leaving a broad sub- 
marginal black band, and only a narrow area of basal black. 

5th. The abdominal fold is violet-green and black — the 
black prevailing ; in Brookeana it is entirely green. 

6th. The abdomen is longer relatively than that of 
Brookeana, and more slender ; while the red pronotal 
collar is broader and not divided into two parts as in 

7th. The abdominal fringe is denser than in Brookeana. 

8th. On the underside of the wings, the green discal 
marks of the primaries are more slender, and the pairs 
are not united as in Brookeana, they are also shorter ; in 
the latter also are 2 vein-divided white submarginal spots, 
but these are absent from T. Trojana. 

gth. On the secondaries the submarginal vein-divided 
white spots are small, and do not form an entire band 
parallel to the margin of the wing, but in Brookeana they 
do this, are larger and more conspicuous, and are flanked 
with an inner series of white hastate discal marks. 

10th. The antennas are longer than the abdomen ; in 
Brookeana they are the same length. 

This splendid species was first sent to Herr Honrath 
by Dr. Platen, who at an early period discovered and 
sent to Dr. Staiidinger the interesting species of 
Pompeoptera P. Plateni, Staiidinger, which seems so 
remarkably like a transitional form towards P. Doherty, 
Rippon, and P. Iris, Robur. 

The 2 of this species has yet to be discovered ; but 
it will probably resemble that of T. Brookeana. 


O. Trojana, Honrath, Berliner Ent. Zeitschrift, Vol. XXXIII., p. 3, iS86. 

Since the publication of pages 5 and 6 of this volume, 
and of Plate 27, in which the S of this species was 
described and figured, I have been enabled to study the 
? of T. Trojana, by the kindness of the Hon. Walter 
Rothschild, the results of which I now present. 

2 Anterior wings a very warm rufous brown, allowing 
all the veins to be very prominently seen ; the pseudoneura 
well expressed in the discoidal cell; the submedian and 
marginal folds also well accentuated ; a transverse band 
of phylliform marks on the disc, extending from the inner 
margin to the 3rd subcostal branch ; the first three from 
the lower part of the wing are large and delicately green, 
with whitish and bluish suffusions towards the outer- 
marginal ends, strongly divided by the veins, which 
thereby form their midrib ; the first or lowest of these 
three is as leaf-like as those of T. Brookeana, but larger — ■ 
situated on the submedian nervure : the 2nd and 3rd are 
larger and narrower, situated on the 3rd and 2nd median 
nervules ; the 4th, 5th, and 6th are nearly confluent with 
each other, rather longer and broader, ochraceous, or deep 
creamy white on the 1st median branch, and 2nd and 1st 
discocellular nervules ; the remainder constitute a light 
creamy patch extending to the 3rd submedian branch — 
only divided from the others by the veins : these are all 
slightly tinted with green or bluish green at the ends 
towards the discoidal cell ; a little cluster of delicate light 
hairs is situated at the base of the submedian vein, flowing 
over on to the lower wing. These are so delicate as to be 
only seen by careful examination. 

Posterior wings with a rather darker rufous brown than 
that of the anterior ; the centre of the wings, or an area 
which includes the whole of the discoidal cell, and about 
1 -4th of the disc is violet blue, shading outwardly into 
blue-green, and rich golden green, subdued by dark atoms 
- — the violet blue flowing into darker or lighter, as the 
insects are moved about in the light, and towards the 
base of the cell shading into dark blue or brown ; a discal 
or submarginal row of diamond-shaped sordid light spots 
on the first five veins, and a continuous creamy-white 
patch crosses the subcostal nervure, and extends nearly 
to the anterior angle or apex ; a few white atoms on the 
blue at the distal end of the cell ; a bright greenish blue 
stripe is found between the 3rd median branch and the 
median nervure, which, in some positions, becomes en- 
tirely blue or blue green the whole length to the base of 
the wing — the abdominal margin is also of the same rich 
colouring — sometimes forming one continuous area of 
colour to the subcostal nervure ; the outer margin of the 
wing is lunate, with light fringe crescents. 

The anterior wing margin has no fringe crescents. Under 
surface of anterior wing nearly as above, except that some 
ray-like suffusions of violet extend along the pseudoneura 
of the cell : the costa is violet blue : and the space 
between the 3rd median branch and the submedian 
nervure is shot with violet blue and green from the base 
to one half of the disc : the leaf-like discal markings are 
creamy-white, and all confluent except that one on the 3rd 
median branch ; and only a faint light half-mark represents 
the green leaf-like mark of the upper submedian surface, 
a patch of green-blue atoms are also between the rib and 
3rd median branches. The veins are all well accentuated, 
and, as on the upper surface, shot with blue. 

Posterior wing : the under surface of which is warm 
brown, deeper in tone towards the hind margin ; with a small 
atomic blue spot near the precostal nervure ; and another 
similar mark at the base of the wing ; a submarginal or 
discal band of cream white marks, nearly continuous, 
strongly lunate without and almost enclosing a row of 
sub-orbicular darker patches within ; the marginal fringe 
of both wings is a narrow graceful line of faint creamy 
white. All the wings above and below exhibit a slightly 
light sheen when moved about. 

Head, antennae and thorax velvety black ; abdomen 
dark rufous brown all over, with a slight sheen of bluish 
white ; pronotal collar broadly scarlet-crimson, as in 
Brookeana, with lateral red patches between all the legs. 

Length of abdomen and antennae nearly the same, or 
35 mms. ; of head with thorax 24 mms. ; of costa approxi- 
mately 94 mms. ; of outer margin approximately 67 mms. ; 
width of wing at the base 7 mms. ; greatest width of 
posterior wing, 43 mms. ; greatest length 57 mms. 

Length ( Ist P air 

femur, n ; tibia, 9 ; tarsi, 14 mms. 
12 ; ,, 12 ; ,, 19 
„ 10; „ 9; >, 17 ,» 

Habitat : Palawan, Philippine Islands. 

Only on the under surfaces of the wings does this species 
slightly resemble those of T. Brookeana 2 , whilst in no 
respect are they like those of the <? of either species ; the 
S of Trojana is also a bolder, larger, and more gracefully 
formed insect than either the $ or 2 of Brookeana. 



Additional Bibliography to that on Page 2. 

0. Brookeana, Cutter, Proc. Ent. Soc, London, p. ax. ? (1869). 

„ Distant, Ent. Monthly Mag. p. 237. (1881). 

„ Forbes, Naturalist's Wanderings, p. 227, (1885). Sumatra. 

„ Hagen, Iris vii. p. 18. n. 1. (1894) Sumatra ? . 

Papilio nee Ornithopttra, Snellen, Midden-Sumatra. II., p. 24, n. 1. (1892). Sumatra. 
Troides Brookeana, Sab-species albistens, Rothschild, Novitates Zoologicae, Vol. II., p. 198 (1895). 

In some examples of the ? of this species, the 
phylliform green marks of the anterior wings become in 
certain lights much more golden green than in the figs, on 
pi. 26 ; and portions of the posterior wings become vivid 
golden, with no admixture of green. The right wings may 
also be held in such a position as to render all the markings 
an ashy-silvery purplish-green. 

? In other examples all the green markings are less 
broadly formed, and are entirely greenish-golden, with 
a faint bluish tint near the base of the posterior wings. 
The colour marks of the disc on the under side of 
the anterior wings are a vivid silky greenish gold — 
the lowest or submedian being ultramarine blue at the 
basal end ; a small golden patch, shading into blue, 
occupies a position midway between the base and the 

distal end of the cell. On the underside of the posterior 
wings is a submedian band of blue atoms following the 
curves of the vein, but becoming very slight towards the 
anterior angle ; a small group of blue atoms is also found 
at the base beyond the precostal nervure. 

Additional localities : Sandakan, North Borneo ; Malay 
Peninsular ; also on Balabac Island, one of the Naturna 
group. The variety albescens of Rothschild, which Mr. 
Rothschild quotes as a sub-species, is found in Malacca. 

It may be added that the ? 2 from the Malay 
Peninsula always differ from those of other localities. 



3 . Primary wings subtriangulate; costa arcuate — more 
or less in different species of the genus ; anterior angle 
always sufficiently distinct in boundary to prevent the 
graduation of its outline into the outline of the posterior 
margin ; posterior margin generally nearly straight or 
slightly concave towards the middle, except in the case of 
P. Dohertyi, where it is more irregular ; interior margin 
somewhat curved in some species, or nearly straight in 
others — P. Darsius for example ; the 3rd subcostal nervule 
commences at a very short distance from the end of the 
discoidal cell, (in some species exactly at the end of the 
cell) ; the pseudoneura are generally fairly distinct on 
the undersurface [the 1st commences at the base and 
terminates just above the commencement of the 2nd sub- 
costal nervule : the 2nd commences at the base, and runs 
up midway of the cell to the 2nd discocellular nervule, 
and passes over on to the disc (distorting it in its passage) 
so as to form a wing-fold, which curves in its course to the 
posterior margin : the 4th originates at the base of the 
cell and unites with the 2nd at a short distance, while at 
a fourth of its distance from the base the 3rd branches 
off — and terminates at the 3rd discocellular nervule, while 
the 4th ends near the origin of the 2nd median nervule] . 
The veins of the wing are always sufficiently stout, but 
are much more accentuated (i.e. rendered stouter and 
more prominent by their black edging) when passing 
through the grey-white adnervular rays in the species 
where these are present ; the wings are either perfectly 
black without any grey-white rays, or ornamented with 
grey-white or creamy grey adnervular rays, which 
are sometimes very broad and distinct, often co- 
alescing along the outer margin of the cell, or 
almost obsolete as in P. Pompeus, Iris, and Dohertyi ; fre- 
quently also the grey area encroaches within the cell and 
and slightly margins it at the distal end ; in P. Amphrysus 
these rays are golden or creamy-yellow, instead of grey. 

The secondary wings are rounded and strongly dentate 
(less strongly in P. Dohertyi) ; the veins are always well 
pronounced, generally very robust, but very delicate 
and graceful in curve and outline in such species as 
P. Amphrysus and its varieties, and P. Andromache ; the 
wing is always velvety-black and yellow on both surfaces, 
except in P. Dohertyi, which is entirely black, and P. 
Amphrysus which is almost entirely yellow — the amount 
of yellow or black varying in every species, and frequently, 
within definite limits, in the different individuals of a 
species : in one species P. Magellanus the yellow area on 
both surfaces in certain positions appears as a glorious opal- 
escent glow of blue and emerald: in others, P. Andromache 
for example, with a delicate suffusion of emerald or pea- 
green : [in P. Miranda the black of the anterior wing is in 
some lights suffused with a purple glow] . The abdominal 
margin is concave with a submarginal fold or pouch filled 
with a closely-packed and enormous quantity of ochraceous 
downy hairs, (Androconia), which, if drawn out by the 
needle would suffice to form a large heap on the wing. 
This pouch in new specimens is usually closed, or only 
faintly to be traced by a light line down the submedian 
fold ; in older examples the pouch often appears some- 
what open, and much of the contents has disappeared ; 
the shape of this fold varies a little in different species, 
as may be seen by a reference to the Plates illustrating 
the different species described in this volume. 

Head of moderate size ; eyes always very prominent ; 
palpi invisible ; antennae more or less arched and very 
gradually thickening towards the club. 

Thorax moderateby robust ; the pronotal collar red, 
except in P. Amphrysus, when its var. Flavicollis departs 
from the normal character. In some species this red is 
either entirely absent, or almost concealed by the black 
hairs of the neck ; the sides of the thorax, with a few 
exceptions, with red or coccineous pectoral spots or marks, 
varying in extent in the different species, but absent when 
the red collar is absent ; legs long and slender, and differ- 
ing little from those of Ornithoptera. Abdomen rather 
slender : anal valves more delicate and pointed than in 
Ornithoptera or Trogonoptera : often yellow, some- 
times yellow and black ; or yellow and brown : sometimes 
nearly entirely brown, and in P. Honrathiana entirely 
black ; length of abdomen generally equal to the length of 
the antennae. 

Type of the genus, 0. Helena, Linnaeus. 

? . Anterior wings sub-triangulate ; costa arcuate — the 
outline being only slightly curved till near the anterior 
angle or apex, when the curvature becomes more promi- 
nent ; posterior margin nearly straight, or only slightly 
indented; interior margin nearly straight, but slightly 
curved in some species of the genus ; the 3rd subcostal 
nervule commences at a short distance from the end of 
the cell, but the distance varies a little in some examples 
of the same species, [in P. Amphrysus, Minos, Iris, Plato, 
Hippolytus, Cerberus, Vandepolli, Darsius, &c, it originates 
quite at the end of the cell] ; the pseudoneura are fairly 
distinct on both surfaces in most of the species, but in 
several they are very prominent and strongly accentuated, 
— P. Pompeus, Ruficollis, and Nereis for example, and 
their number and position are the same as in the $ , the 
discoidal cell is rather more than half the length of the 
wing, and its width slightly varies in the different species — 
being a little more than i-5th of the greatest width of the 
wing ; the nervules are always, or nearly always, very 
stout, and specially strong near the base of the wing : 
the nervules are more delicate, but are always prominent ; 
the adnervular grey, or grey-brown rays are generally 
very conspicuous in most of the species, sometimes be- 
coming so broad as to occupy collectively a considerable 
area of the wing : this grey is in some species continued 
within the cell, either as a series of thin light borderings, 
or a light patch of an irregular shape occupying some- 
times are much as i-3rd of the cell : the grey rays 
generally margin all the veins from the submedian nervure 
to the 2nd subcostal branch [in P. Amphrysus these rays 
are suffused with yellow] ; colour of the wings generally a 
more or less warm sienna-brown, or a dark brownish- 

Secondary wings : costa generally much rounded ; pos- 
terior margin dentated ; abdominal margin incurved or 
concave ; the discal area either orange-yellow or a brilliant 
golden-yellow — of greater or lesser extent — with a discal 
band of black or brown conical, or subcorneal, spots or 
marks ; the yellow also occupies a part of the cell ranging 
' from a mere blotch of yellow to sometimes nearly 2-3rds 


Vol. II. 


of the cell ; in P. Dohertyi however only a very small discal 
orange-yellow spot or two is present ; but generally the 
wing is entirely immaculate ; in P. Hippolytus the disc of 
the wing is one-half golden-yellow, and one-half a dusted 
grey, with a grey spot within the cell ; the rest of the 
wing is always black, brown-black, or reddish dark brown — ■ 
the marginal band being often very broad — and lunated 
within ; veins always very conspicuous in the yellow. 

Head of moderate size ; eyes very prominent, palpi 
invisible ; antennae as in the $ . 

Thorax moderately robust ; pronotal collar red or 
yellow — more or less prominent, the red sometimes either 

absent or concealed by the pilose covering of the pro- 
thorax ; the meso- and meta-thorax always velvety-pilose 
black or brown ; sides of the thorax with pectoral red 
spots or marks more or less extensive in area ; abdomen 
long and slender, generally the same length as the an- 
tenna?, and brown and yellow, brown and grey, or, — in the 
case of P. Hippolytus, quite grey, with lateral black dots 
and ventral dark marks ; anil tuft generally very dark — 
in P. Hippolytus it is orange ; the abdomen in P. 
Honrathiana is entirely brown-black. 

Legs as in the $ , or differing very little. 

Type of the genus Ornithoptera Helena, Linnaeus. 

Among the numerous forms included in this genus, P. Hippolytus differs so greatly from all the other species in its pattern and style of colour, 
whether as regards the wings or body of either sex, as to leave no doubt that it merits a position quite unique among its congeners. Many of 
the so-called species may be accepted with a doubt ; but Hippolytus is certainly a more independent and satisfactory species than even P. Vandepolli 
or P. Miranda, though so much may be said in their favour. 


Papilio Hippolytus, Cram. (P. Hyfolytus et hippolytus) Pap. Ex. I. t, 10 A.B. t. n A.B. (1775). 
P. Kemus, Fabr. Gens. Ins. p. 250 (1777); Cram. Pep. Ex. It, t 135 A. t. 136 A. (1779); IV. t. 3 36 A.B. (1782); Godt. Enc. Meth. IX. p. 26. n. 3. (1819). 
P. Remus, Herbst, Pap. t. 3. i. 1. ; Seba, 4, Mas. 4. tab. 46 f. II, 12; 19, 20. 
Ornithoptera Remus, Boisd.. Sp. Gen. I. p. 176. n. 3. (1S36). 
S P. Panthous <? Clerck, Icones, t. 18. (1764). 
P. Antenor, Jacquin (nec dru.) ; Miscell. Austr. II. t. 23. f. 4. (1785). 
Orn. Remus, Wall, Trans. Linn. Soc. XXV. p. 38. (1866). 
Orn. Panthous, Doubleday; G. R. Gray, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus (1852). 
0, Hippolytus, Fickert, Ueber die Zeichnungsverhaltnisse der Gattung Ornithoptera, p. 741. 
Orn. Hippolytus $ , Staudinger and Schatz, Exotische Schmetterlinge, PI. ii. (1888). 
Orn. Hippolytus, Schatz, die Fam. und Gattungen, text, p. 42. (1892). 

Boisduval's descriptions of this species, 6* and ? , are 
as follow : — 

" Taille et port de priamus. Ailes superieures noires a 
reflet verddtre, offrant de part et d' autre, de chaque cote des 
nervures secondaires, des raies d'un grisdtre. Les inferieures 
d'un noir grisdtre en dessus, d'un blanc luisant en dessous, 
ayant de part et d 'autre, tine bordure noire, sinuee devisee par 
sept taches irregulures d'un j dune d'or, dominant beaucoup de 
grandeur en approchant du bord abdominal. Thorax, 
antennes et poitrine noires et sans taches. Abdomen d'un 
jaune pale en dessous, d'un jaune vif en dessus, avec des taches 
noires plus on moins grandes. 

ha 2 differ e du $ en ce que ses ailes infer ieures ont le 
bord abdominal largement blanc de part et d' autre, avec les 
taches jaunes, cuneiformes, beaucoup plus grandes, marquees 
chacune d'une tache ovale noire, excepte la plus external., 
(Sp. Gen. I. p. 176). 

$ . Form and general appearance of priamus. Upper 
wings black, with greenish reflections, shewn in each side 
of the secondary nervules. The rays (enclosing the 
nervules) whitish grey. Lower wings very dark grey 
above, and glittering (pearly) white beneath, having on 
each side a black border, sinuous, divided by seven golden 
yellow spots, diminishing greatly in size as they approach 
the abdominal edge. Thorax, antennae and breast black, 
and without spots. Abdomen of a pale yellow beneath, 
and bright yellow above, with the black spots more or less 

5. differs from the <? in that the hind wings_ to the 
abdominal edge are largely white on each side, with the 
yellow spots wedge-shaped, much larger, each marked 
with an oval black spot, except the outermost, i.e., the two 
nearest the anterior margin. 

To this description the following additions should be 
made: in the 2 superior wings, the grey-white rays 
extend nearly half-way within the discoidal cell, enclosing 
the peculiar club-shaped black markings, and the black 
pseudoneura ; faint hind-marginal lines close to the edge, 
divided by the nervures. The same on the under surface, 
except when the club-shaped markings coalesce, as they 
do in some examples ; inferior wings, a black spot be- 
tween the third median and sub-median nervures, very 
pale on upperside, strongly impressed on the under-side, 
below this is a small irregular-shaped spot of brownish- 
black on upperside — the under-side being quite black. 
In the yellow between the first and second sub-costal 
nervules is also an elongated black spot, appearing 
shorter and browner on the under-side. The scalloped 
edges of wings yellowish-white, except the one nearest the 

apex ; on the under-side the yellowish-grey-white extends 
within the discoidal cell, subdued by a number of black 
atoms ; and the black of upper-side without the ceh is 
faintly indicated by grey cloudings. Abdomen greenish 
grey -white above, yellow beneath, with small lateral black 
dots, and sub-dorsal black dots with a black patch ex- 
tending from each segment except the anal, where it is 
only slight. 

Wallace (Trans. Lin. Soc.) remarks "the 2 2 from 
the Sulla Islands differ" (from Cramer's fig.) "only in 
having more yellow towards the anal angle of the lower 
wings." To this it may be added that the amount of 
yellow differs greatly ; in some specimens there is much 
yellow ; others (like one in my own collection) are almost 
or quite without this tint in the grey. Wallace also calls 
attention to the fact that "These specimens figured by 
Cramer under the name Hypolitus seem to be a remark- 
able variety in which the ? has much the character of 
the $ ." 

In a $ from Amboyna, in the coll. of Mr. O. Janson, 
the hind wings have a much richer and deeper grey-black. 
The same may be said of the black of his 2 . 

In a 2 from Amboyna in the coll. of Dr. F. A. Walker, 
under the name of Panthous, the Primaries are almost 
entirely silky black — the grey rays being scarcely visible, 
and of a slightly reddish tint. In a 2 under the same 
name the grey of the secondaries is not suffused with 
yellow, but there is no other important difference. A $ 
in the same coll. has a silky semi-diaphanous grey around 
the grey white rays of the Primaries similar to that of the 
Secondaries. Another $ has a faint grey white spot 
dividing the black on the 4th segment of the abdomen. 
This is not generally the case with other specimens. 

In a 2 in the coll. of Mr. W. Dannatt the black of 
superior wings has a slight olive-green gloss ; and the 
black spots and bands of inferior wings are an olive-black. 

$ . Viewed obliquely the grey-black of the inferior 
wings has a leaden metallic gloss ; and in some speci- 
mens a delicate dead violet gloss over all the rest of the 
wings except the yellow. Viewed opposite the light this 
changes to a warm olive-green gloss on black of upper 
wings, and nervules of lower. The under surface of 
superiors opposite the light has a slight greenish gloss, 
while on the under-side of inferiors the white is pearly, 
ranging from lustrous white to bluish grey. 

2 . A specimen in Brit. Mus. : hing wind from inner 
margin to second median nervule and half way beyond, 
very grey ; underside bluish-grey. 



The following are the dimensions of the examples from 
which the plate was drawn : — 

S . Length of casta 83 ; of antennae and abdomen 34 ; 
of thorax 17 ; of collar 3; of head 4 ; and of wing 48 ; 
width of upper wing 44 ; of lower wing 37 mm. ; greatest 
width of abdomen 11 ; least width 6 ; of thorax 13, and of 
head 7 mm. (divided by the eyes into three nearly equal 
parts) . 

2 . Length of costa 95 ; of antennae and abdomen 35 ; 
of thorax ig ; of collar 4 ; of head 3 ; and of lower wing 
63 ; breadth of upper wing 51 ; of lower wing 63 mm. ; 
greatest breadth of" abdomen 6 ; least 5 ; of thorax 10 ; 
of collar 7 ; and of head 8 mm. (not equally divided by 
the eyes). 

<? . In the coll. of another friend. Length of costa 85 
mm. ; from Celebes. 2 . Length of costa 97mm ; from 

$ . In the Brit. Mus. Length of costa 84 ; and of 
antennae and abdomen, 34 mm. Hab. ? 

$ . In Brit. Mus. Length of costa 76 mm. ; articula- 
tions of antennae 54. Hab ? 

$ . In the British Museum under the name of Remus. 
Length of costa 94 ; of antennae and abdomen 37 ; of 
thorax 17 ; of collar 4; and of head 5 mm. ; breadth of 
thorax 9 ; of collar 7 ; and of head 8 mm. ; articulations 
of antennae 52. 

Length of 

First pair of legs: femur 15 ; tibia 12 ; tarsi 15 mm. 
Second ,, 16; ,, 16; ,, 19 mm. 

Third ,, ,, 13; ,, 15; ,, 21mm. 

From Amboyna. 

$ . In Hewitson Coll. Length of costa 90 mm. ; 
number of articulations of antennae 50. Hab. Celebes. 

3 ■ In Mr. 0. Janson's coll. Length of costa 73 ; of 
antennae and abdomen, 32 mm. Hab. ? 

3 . In Rev. Dr. F. A. Walker's Museum. Length of 
costa 65 ; of antennae and abdomen 25 : of lower wing 35 ; 
and of head and thorax 18 mm ; breadth of upper wing 
32 : and of lower wing 26 mm ; of 1st pair of legs, 
femur 10 ; tibia 8 ; tarsi 10 mm ; 2nd pair, femur 10; 
tibia 11 ; tarsi 15 mm. ; 3rd pair, femur 8 ; tibia 9, and 
tarsi 13 mm. ; articulations of antennae about 54 each. 
Hab. Celebes. 

3 . In the same coll., under the name of Panthous ; 
Length of costa 82 ; of antennae and abdomen 33 ; of 

lower wing 25 mm. ; width of upper wing 43, and of 
lower wing 36 mm. Hab. Amboyna. 

3 . In the same coll. Length of costa 92 ; of lower 
wing 54 ; of antennae and abdomen 33 ; and of head and 
thorax 27 mm. ; width of upper wing 47 ; and of lower 
wing 38 mm. Hab. Celebes. 

2 . In Brit. Mus. Length of costa 99 mm. Hab ? 
2 . In Brit. Mus. Length of costa 93 ; length of 
antennae and abdomen, 33 mm. ; number of articulations 
to antennae 58. Hab. ? 2 . In Brit. Mus. Length of 
costa 70 mms. ; number of articulations in antennae 52. 
Hab. ? 

2 . In Hewitson coll. Length of costa 87 ; length of 
antennae and abdomen 32 mm. ; number of articulations 
in antennae 56. Hab. ? 2 . In same coll. Length of 
costa 101 ; of antennae and abdomen 37 mm. ; number of 
articulations of antennae 58. Hab. Ceram. 

2 . In Mr. Stanley Edwards' coll. (the original of my 

Length of legs (not including the trochanters : 
First pair, femur, 10; tibia, 10; tarsi, 12 mm.] 
Second ,, ,, 12; ,, 14; ,, 15 mm. Hab. ? 
Third ,, ,, 8; ,, 16; ,, 19 mm. 

The abdominal fold of the 3 is rather complex, 
beautifully formed, of a light pearly colour within, and 
contains a large deposit of soft and short wooly material, 
which, if drawn out with a needle would pile up to a 
considerable height above the wing, as in the case of 
some of the red and black species of S. and C. American 
Papilios. In the 2 it is very simple, being very little 
more than a convex structure, with the submedian nervure 
running through the middle, and following very nearly the 
curve of the inner margin. 

This species was found by Wallace in Amboyna, Ceram, 
Gilolo, Morty Island, Sula Island, and Celebes. 

One $ example has been taken by Mr. Doherty in the 
island of Sangir, and one 2 in Talaut ; but I could see 
no special difference between them and the specimens 
quoted above. Indeed this species does not appear to 
me to vary much from the normal type in either sex. 

I have to thank Mr. Stanley Edwards, for the kind loan 
of specimens from which the plate was drawn. 

In the museums of the author, Messrs. Godman and 
Salvin, M. Oberthiir of Rennes, Hon. W. Rothschild, Mr. 
Lambert, Exeter, and many others, in addition to the 
collections named above. 


Additional Bibliography to that on Page io of this Vol. 

Papilio Hippolytus, Seba, Thesauris iv. p. 55, t. 45, f. 17-20 (1765) 
Papilio Eques Trojanus Panthous, Linn. Sys. Nat. ed. x., p. 461, n. iS (175 8 ). » • 

„ „ „ „ Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr., p. 195, n. 14 (1764) ; Syst. Nat. ed. xii., p. 748, n. 17 (1767). 

„ „ „ „ Muller, Naturs, Vol. 1, p. 571, n. 17 (1774). 

„ „ „ „ Goeze, Ent. Beytr. III., 1. p. 37 (1779)- 

Papilio Remus, Feld. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, p. 291, n. 21 ; also p. 333, n. 18 (1864). 
„ „ Duncan, Foreign Butterflies, p. 92, t. 1. f. 2 (1837). 
„ „ Vollenhoven, Tijdschr. v. Ent. III., p. 71, n. 4 (i860). 
Ornithoptera Panthous, Doubl., Westw. and Hewit, Gen. Diurn, Lep. I., p. 4, n. 5 (1846), i % . 
„ Hippolytus, Staudgr und Schatz, Exot. Schmett, L, p. 5, t. 2 (1884), s . 

„ „ Pagenstecher, Jahrb, Nass, Ver. Nat. p. 201 (1884). 

„ „ Ribbe, Iris II., p. 207, n. 2 (1890). 

Troides Hypolitus, Rothschild, Novit. Zoologies;, Vol. II., p. 202, n. 9 : type form, p. 202 (1895). 

Papilio Hippolytus, W. F. Kirby, Syn. Cat. Diurn, Lepid., p. 518 (1871). 
Ornithoptera Hippolytus, W. F. Kirby, Handbook to order, Lepid. Vol II., p. 266, pi. 64, f. 2 (1896). 
„ „ W. F. Kirby, Nature, V. 51, p. 255 (1895). 

„ „ Holland, Proc. Boston Soc, N. H. XXV., p. 77, n. 125 (1890). 

„ „ Rothschild, Iris V., p. 442 (1892). 

„ „ V. Celcbcnsis, Staudinger, Iris VII., p. 342 (1895)- Hab. Ternate; S. Celebes ; S. E. Celebes. 

Fig. 2. Variety of the ? , type form, with white marks at the distal end of the posterior wing-cell, and smaller 

ovoid black internervular wing spots. Hab. Ceram. 



ist Variety, or Sub-species : Sulaensis. 

Troides Hypolitus Sulaensis, Staudgr. Iris VII., p. 343 (1895), <r ? . 
„ „ „ Rothschild, Nov. Zoologies, p. 202 (i? 

6* . Anterior wings silky black, shot with a greenish- 
blue sheen ; adnervular rays ochraceous white, but much 
less bright than in the type form, being subdued and 
shaded into the black by dark atoms and reflections till 
their outline is nearly lost in the general black towards the 
outer margin. Under surface of primaries black, but 
rather less silky ; the adnervular rays are very prominent, 
and form a group from the inner margin to the 4th 
submedian nervule, being more bluish black at the low- 
est and the highest situated of the series ; within the cell 
are three ad-pseudonervular short white rays of atoms, 
and part of the median nervure is also margined with 

Posterior wings : the cell and disc silky grey black, 
shot with opalescent tints, in green, blue and red, with a 
submarginal band of seven golden yellow spots, which, as 
in the type form, diminish in size towards the abdominal 
or anal angle, having on each side a black border, sinuous 
in outline, extending from the anal angle to the base of 
the costa ; the abdominal fold concealing the androconia, 
very gracefully formed and prominent, also silky black, 
shot with opalescent tints. Under surface : The cell and 
disc pearly white, more tinged with yellow towards the 
base ; the yellow submarginal band is really continuous — 
the inner border of black consists of three large spots 
from the 3rd median branch to the discocellular vein, 
after which the black is continuous to the base ; the outer 
marginal black is continuous throughout the whole out- 
line ; the veins very black — the psuedoneura black, united 
by black atoms at their base ; the abdominal margin 
black, irrorated by white atoms, with a dark, long fringe. 

Head, antenna? and thorax velvety black, breast with 
no red spots ; abdomen golden yellow above, more lemon- 
tinted beneath, with black spots on each segment more or 
less large — the basal and 5th segments entirely covered 
above with black. 

Length of costa of primaries, 83 mms. ; of outer mar- 
gin, 62 mms. ; of inner margin, 45 mms. ; width of wing 
at base 9 mms. ; width of wing of secondaries 38 mms. ; 
greatest length 51 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 32, and of thorax with 
head 25 mms. 

of legs : 

1st pair : femur, 13 ; 
2nd ,, : ,, 14; 
3 r d j> : n 11 ; 


9 ; tarsi, 13 mms. 
13; 18 „ 

13; „ 18 „ 

Habit. Mangola Island, Sula Archipelago, 
covered by the late Mr. Doherty. 


The differences between this variety and the type forms 
are so considerable that when compared side by side, 
they appear abundantly distinct, though not sufficiently 
to justify us in regarding them as more than a sub-species. 
The whole insect is altogether darker than the type on 
both surfaces, and is really a bolder, richer and more 
beautiful insect. 

2 . Anterior wings black ; the adnervular rays extend 
from the submedian vein to the 3rd subcostal branch, 
and are broader in form and size than in the type form 
on pi. 29 of this work ; the upper ones are tinted with 
yellow ; the white rays bordering the pseudonera in the 
cell are also larger and broader than in the type form. 
Under surface as above, the white marks being increased 
in size and intensity. 

Posterior wings : Cell brownish black, with delicate 
hairs proceeding from the base — the same black is con- 
tinued between the median and submedian veins, and to 
the abdominal margin ; the yellow discal band of spots 
or marks commences at the costa, and is continued to the 
ist median nervule — the first three of them being bordered 
with black on both sides, the 4th only on the outer 
margin, and containing black spots— the 1st very small ; 
the 5th division of the disc has a hastate yellow spot 
bordered by white at its apex, followed below by an ovoid 
black spot immersed in an area of grey, with a yellow 
sinuous spot below it, followed by the black outer margin ; 
the next division is similarly arranged, only that the black 
spot is larger and narrower, and the yellow less ; the sub- 
marginal black border runs in a sinuous course to the 
anal angle, the area between the 3rd submedian branch 
and the submedian veins, when not black is white 
clouded with black spots and atoms and a little yellow — 
the white in a thin line continued along the submedian 
fold to the base. All the discal areas are more or less 
subdued by dark scaling. Under surface, similar to above, 
except that a little less than i-3rd of the cell at the distal 
end is grey white, subdued by black atoms ; the yellow 
is purer and more diffused over the lower area of the disc 
between the 1st and 3rd median branches ; more dis- 
tinctly white without from the 3rd median branch to the 
submedian fold, with black subovoid spots in each space 
—the 2nd yellow space from the costa with the spot very- 
small, and more ovoid than above ; the first yellow 
division, as above, contains no black spot : the outer 
marginal black border at from the ist to 3rd median 
branches is interrupted by the white fringe lunules, with 
only a couple of black spots above — that in the first space 
being narrower than the second ; cloudings of black atoms 
also border the 3rd median branches ; a =» shaped atomic 
white mark at the apical angle, and a short line of white 


atoms on the costa from the base, are also found ; the 
abdominal marginal border is rufous brown, with hair- 
like fringe. 

Head, antennae and thorax velvety black ; eyes rufous 
brown ; thorax yellow, shaded into white on the dorsum, 
with basal segment black, a pair of black spots in each of 
the segments from the 2nd to the 6th, and the usual lateral 
black dots ; the segments below well accentuated by black. 

Length of costa of anterior wing, 93 mms. ; length of 
outer margin, 70 mms. ; of inner margin, about 50 mms. ; 
width of wing at the base, 5 mms. ; greatest width of 
posterior wing, 45 mms. ; greatest length, 61 mms. ; of 
abdomen or antennae, 34 mms. ; of thorax with head, 28 

1st pair: femur, 12; tibia, 11 ; tarsi, 14 mms. 
Of legs -2nd ,, ,, 14; ,, 15; ,, 19 

3rd „ ,, 14; » 14; .» 19 » 

This variety is also generally a darker and bolder looking 
insect that the 2 of the type form. The anterior wings 
are more rounded at the apical angle ; on the upper side 
the light rays are shorter and broader, and more shaded 
by brown atoms ; the posterior wings have more yellow, 
and more white on them ; on the under surface the corres- 
ponding white spaces of the type form are almost entirely 
replaced by yellow ; and the abdomen is yellow instead of 
being bluish-white as in the type form. A considerable 

difference may be remarked in the form of the anterior 
wing cell of the $ . Altogether considered, Sulaensis con- 
stitutes a very good subspecies. 

Habitat, Mangoli, Sula Islands. (Doherty). 

I here take this, my earliest opportunity of expressing 
the great regret I felt when learning some time ago of the 
untimely death of Mr. Doherty, in Africa. It is due to the 
memory of the deceased gentlemen to say that we are all 
deeply indebted to him for the knowledge and possession 
of the many beautiful and interesting species of insects of 
all orders, which his enterprising energy and love, as a 
collector in oriental lands, brought to us. All science is 
benefitted by the labours of such men as he. As in the 
experience of many other explorers for Zoological purposes 
his health suffered gradual deterioration, until an attack 
of the terrible and mysterious disease Beri Beri necessitated 
his return for a time to his home in America, in hope of 
a restoration. After a considerable period of rest, he was 
again in England, en route for Africa, for a new collecting 
expedition ; but it seemed evident to some of those who 
saw him that he was not in a fit state of health to venture 
again in a tropical climate, with its hardships and dangers ; 
apparently he was more hopeful of his condition than his 
friends were, and so he started on his new enterprise, to 
succumb soon after his arrival in Africa. O ! the pity of 
it ! But his courage and perseverance, like that of other 
martyrs in the cause of science, are worthy of our fullest 
gratitude and admiration. 


2nd Subspecies or Variety, Cellularis, Rothschild. 

Troides Hippolytns Cellularis, Rothschild, Novitates Zoologies, pp. 202-3. 

<? Anterior wings more rounded at the apical angle 
than in the other forms ; black with satiny blue-green 
sheen ; the adnervular rays subdued purplish-white 
shaded into the black towards the outer margin ; the cell 
rather broader at the discal end than in the var. Sulaensis. 
Underside a more dead black ; all the white rays, and the 
white margins in the cell more white and prominent. 

Posterior wings with the cell somewhat different from 
that of Sulaensis or of the type, in form ; the yellow band a 
lighter yellow than in Sulaensis, more like that of the type 
in outline, but not quite so extensive as in the type or 
Sulaensis ; the cell and disc with the colour nearly as in 
Sulaensis. Under surface, more like the type form in 
pattern and colours ; with yellow white atoms in the 
precostal cell. 

Head, antennas and thorax intense black ; eyes brown ; 
abdomen with the black marks occupying more of each 
segment than in the other forms, and the yellow parts on the 
dorsum quite an orange yellow ; laterally golden yellow, 
and subdorsum and anal valves grey white. Abdomen 35 
and antennas 31 mms. ; respectively; thorax with head 
25 mms. 

Anterior wing : length of costa, 84 mms. ; of outer 
margin, about 63 mms. ; of inner margin, 46 mms. ; width 
of wing at the base, 6 mms. ; greatest length of posterior 
wing, 50 mms. ; greatest width, 40 mms. 

of legs: 

istpair: femur, 10 ; tibia, g ; tarsi, 12 mms. 
2nd ,, ,, 12 ; ,, 16 ; ,, 16 ,, 

3rd ,, ,, 12; ,, 13; ,, 18 ,, 

Habitat, S. Celebes (Doherty). 

2 Anterior wing more rounded at the apical angle than 
in the type form ; wing broader and less long than in the 
type form ; the cell longer and narrower than in the type 

form ; the white adnervular rays a little more conspicuous 
and white than in Sulaensis, much more so than in the type 
form ; the rays on the discal end of the cell also more 
prominent than in either of the other forms ; under surface 
differs only very slightly from the upper. 

Posterior wings : the cell very different in form, and 
narrower than in the other forms ; pattern and colours most 
like that of the type form, but with no yellow tinting in 
the white of the internervular spaces from the 1st submedian 
branch to the abdominal margin, but abundant scaling. 
Under surface like that above in pattern and colour — 
the white areas being tinted with greenish blue. 

Head, antennae and thorax black, eyes brown ; abdomen 
bluish grey and white, with a slight lateral tinting of 
yellow ; and segment rufous ; subdorsum with the articu- 
lations almost entirely black. 

Length of costa, 95 mms. ; of outer margin, 64 mms. ; 
of inner margin, 53 mms. ; width of wing at the base, 7 
mms. ; greatest length of hind wing, 60 mms. ; greatest 
width, 40 mms. 

Length of thorax with head, 26 mms. ; of abdomen or 
antennae, 35 mms. 

Length \ 
of legs : J 

1st pair: 11; tibia, 9; tarsi, 14 mms. 
2nd ,, 14; ,, 14 ; ,, 19 ,, 
3rd ,, 12; ,, 13; ,, 20 

Habitat, Toli Toli, N. Celebes. 

This variety merits a position probably intermediate 
between the type and Sulaensis. Its most distinct and 
conspicuous difference from them is certainly in the 
remarkable form of the posterior cell of the 2 . 

Possibly several other varieties of Hippolytus will yet 
reach us from the other islands of the Celebesan Seas. 




Papilio Egnes Trojanus Helena, Clerck, " Icon. Ins." II. t. 22, f. 1 (1764). 
„ „ ,, „ Linn. "Mus. Lud. Ulr.," p. 199, n. 18 (1764). 

HptttL, " Nat. Hist." I. 11. p. 20, n. 18 (1767). 
Linn., " Sys. Nat." Edit, xii., p. 748, n. 19 (1767). 
3 \ „ ,, „ „ Muller, " Naturs.," v. 1, p. 571, n. 18 (1767). 

„ „ ,, Fab., Syst. Ent.," p. 449, n. 28 (1775). 

Cram., "Pap. Exot." II. t, 140. A.B. (1779). 
Goeze, " Ent. Beytr.," III. 1, p. 38, n. 19 (1779)- 
P. Oblongomaculatus, ? . Goeze, same work, I. p. 44, n. 22 (i779>- 

'Papilio Eques Trojanus Helena, Fabr. " Spec. Ins." II. p. 10, n. 39 (1781). 

J ablonsky," Naturs.," Schmett. I. p. 203, n. f. t. 3. f. 2(1783). 
I „ „ „ ,, Esper, " Ausl. Schmett," p. 43, t. g, f. 2 (1786). 

S ) „ „ „ Fabr., "Mant. Ins." II. p. 5, n. 42 (1787). 

Gmelin, " Syst. Nat.," I. 5, p. 2234, n. 19 (1790). 
Fabr, "Ent. Syst.," III. 1, p. 19, n. 59 (1793). 
(Papilio Amphimedon, Cram., " Pap. Exot.," III. t. 194 A (1782). 
? 1 „ Hubn., " Verz. bek. Schm.," p. 88, n. 920 (1816). 

3 Troides Helena, " Hubn., Verz. bek. Schm.," p. 88. n. 921 (1816). 
3 ? Papilio Amphimedon, " Enc. Meth.," ix. p. 26, n. 4 ? (1819) ; also p. 27, n. 6 3 (same date) 

jOrnithoptera Amphimedon, Boisdv., " Voy. Astrol. Lep." p. 35, t. 1. f. 1, 2 (1832). 
S% \ „ „ Boisdv., "Spec. Gen. I. p. 177, n. 5 (1836). 

3 „ Helena, Doubl. Hew. " Genera Diurnal Lepidoptera," t. 1, f. 2 (1846). 

s n „ Vollenhoven, "Tijdschrift. von. Ent.," III., p. 71, n. 5 (i860). 

s „ „ Aurivill, " Kongl. Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl.," xix. 5, p. 22, n. 18 (1882). 

j j „ ,, Wallace, " Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond." V. p. 23 (i860). 

i ? ,, ,, Oberth, " E't. d'Ent." iv. p. 30, n. 6 (1879). 

<j ? H Ribbe, " Iris," II. p. 207, n. 3 (1890) (Aberration of the ? ), also the same work, III. 

p. 41 (1890), (the Larva and pupa from Ceram). 
j ? n ,, Rober, " Tijdschr." v. Ent. xxxiv. p. 268 (1891). 

3 J Papilio Helena, Feld., " Verh. z. bei Ges. Wien," p. 291. n. 22 (1864). 
3 ? „ Butler, " Cat. Diurn. Lep. descr. Fabric," p. 234, n. 3. (1864). 

3 ? Ornithoptera Helena, Fickert, " Zool. Jahrbiichern," pp. 735, 743 (1889). 

j 5 „ ,, Staiidgr. and Schatz, " Exot. Schmett." p. 5. (1888). 

,v. Bouruensis, Wallace. ^ 

i! „ „ \v. Celebensis, „ [ " Trans. Linn. Soc," XXV. pp. 38, 39 (1865). 

l». Papuensis, ,, ' 
3 ? ,, ,, v. Leda, Staudinger, " Iris," IV. p. 74 (1891). 

9 v. Papuanus, Oberthiir, " Etud. d' Ent.," iv. p. 31, sub. n. 10 (1879) = 
Melpomona, Rippon, "Icon. Ornith.," p. 46 (1898). 
v. Jupiter, Oberth., " Et. Entom.," iv. p. 31, t. 1. n. 11., pi. 1 (1879). 
,,32 v. Holzi, Pagenstecher, " Jahrb. Nassau, ver. Naturk.," p. 103, n. 3 (1890) = 
rutilans of Oberthiir ; also same work and author, p. 29 (1894). 
? v. P. Pluto, Feld. = 0. Heliacon, Boisdv. 
,, „ 3 v. Carolus, Friihstorfer. 

3 j Ornithoptera Heliaeon, ab. rutilans, Oberth., " Et. d'Ent." iv. p. 32, sub. n. 13 (1879). 
3 ? Troides Helena, propinquns, sub sp. Rothschild, " Nov. Zoological," Vol. II (1895). 
Papilio Helena, W. F. Kirby, "Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep." p. 518 (1871). 

Ornithoptera Helena, W. F. Kirby, " Handb. to the Order Lepidoptera," Vol. II. p. 264 (1896). 
3 ? Pompeoptera Helena, Rippon, " Genera Insectorum " of Wytsman, Art. on the Papilionida?, sec. Troides, p. 14 (1902). 

This species was made by Hubner the type of what, at 
that early period in the history of the Ornithoptera, he 
regarded as a single Genus. Indeed until 1816 the few 
known species of this tribe of Lepidoptera were all 
included in the continually enlarging Genus Papilio — a 
very natural conclusion when regarded from the point of 
view of the neuration only ; for virtually there is not 
much difference between the veinative system of 
Ornithoptera and Papilio. 

Up to this period only a very small number of forms 
had been discovered : these consisted of Pompeus from 
Java 1719 ; Priamus from Ceram, 1719 ; Hippolytus from 
Ceram, 1753; Helena also from Ceram, 1764 ; Minos 
from India; Amphrysus from Java, 1782; the Indian 
analogue of Pompeus (Cerberus) 1800 ; and Poseidon 
from the Moluccas, 1815, exactly 8 species. Of these only 
one sex of at least 5 forms was known, so that the 
materials which might justify a separation from the 



Genus Papilio were still too small in number ; and up to 
a recent time many entomological authorities still called 
them by their earlier generic name. For the knowledge 
of these we were indebted chiefly to the researches of the 
Dutch, who were at that time practically the masters of 
all that part of the east, except India and Australia, and 
New Guinea West of 140 longitude. 

It is always rather hazardous to describe a genus from 
the S only of a new species ; but in 1816 Hiibner separated 
the 5 of Helena from Papilio, and characterised it as the 
type of a new generic form, under the name of Troides 
Amphimedon. Later on Clerck's S Helena had to be 
recognised as the <? of Amphimedon — consequently the 
Amphinedon ? had to take the name of her husband, and 
abandon the name given her by Cramer in 1782. But 
if this generic name is still to be accepted by modern 
entomologists, in defiance of the very large amount of new 
material since accumulated, we can only logically include 
the whole of the Ornithoptera under the designation of 
Troides as Mr. Rothschild has done. This, I regret, I 
am unable to do, for reasons given in other parts of this 
work; hence I retained Hiibner's TROIDES as the tribal 
name for the whole of the genera and species of the 
Ornithoptera, as set forth in the Title Page and Preface to 
Vol. I. of this work. It might be suggested that as a 
compromise, my Genus Pompeoptera should be discarded 
with its type in favour a Genus Troides with Helena as 
the type. Probably this might have been the best 
arrangement at first ; but it is too late now, so far as I 
am concerned. 

But within the last few years Helena has greatly 
enlarged its boundaries, or rather increased the number 
of its relatives ; for we have the following varieties with 
names given them : — 

Papuensis, 2 Wallace, 1865 ; Jupiter, 2 Oberthur, 1879; 
Heliacon, ab. rutilans, Oberthur <? 2 1879 ; Leda, $ 2 
Staudinger, 1891 ; Papuanus, 2 Oberthur, 1879 ; Thestius, 
Staudinger 1894 ; Bouruensis, Wallace $ 2 1894 ; Celeben- 
sis s 2 Wallace, 1895; Melpomona, <? . Rippon; Carolus, 
$ Friihstorfer (an ab. of Papuensis) 1897. J- A. E. Goeze, 
in 1759, in his " Ent. Beytr" III., 1, p. 44, n. 22 described 
a $ of Hippolytus, as the 2 of Helena, under the specific 
name of Oblongomacidatus. This old and quite forgotten 
name has been revived by some authorities, I regret to say. 

The modern custom of resuscitating old or 
obsolete names, and substituting them for well-known 
and universally accepted names, has greatly complicated 
the study of Entomology ; and I must most firmly 
protest against this practice, which can do no earthly 
good, but much harm to science. We can imagine the 
results if the ancient names or spelling of our English or 
foreign localities were re-introduced in our maps, to the 
exclusion of all modern and well-known names ! Some- 
thing like this has for some years been happening in 
Entomology — especially among the Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera, with the result, notably among the English 
lepidoptera, that if one had dropped asleep over a 
catalogue of our English moths some 25 or 30 years ago, 
and only awoke in the present year, if a present day 
catalogue were substituted for the former document, one 
would be quite unable to recognise many species by their 

re-incarnated names, to say nothing to the genera ; it 
would be a new case of Rip Van Winkle. Indeed our 
insect nomenclature is becoming fearfully and wonderfully 
new ! 

P. Helena, with its varieties, has a fairly wide geo- 
graphical range. Its metropolis is Ceram and Amboyna 
so far as the type form is concerned ; but its varieties 
and aberrations are found in E. Java, (Salayer) Macassar, 
Bouru, W. Sumatra and Dutch New Guinea, and 
Celebes— probably in other localities also. 

$ Very large size. Anterior wings entirely velvety 
black, with slightly warm reflections ; the veins all 
sufficiently prominent ; the 3rd and 4th subcostal branches 
commence at about 2 or 3 mms. from the distal end of 
the cell ; the pseudoneura fairly traceable within the 
discoidal cell. Undersurface of the wing as above, but 
slightly lighter and browner, with nearly obsolete small 
groups of white adnervular scales towards the outer 
margin — the remnants of adnervular discal rays. 
Posterior wings a rich silky golden yellow, in which the 
stout nervules and their branches are prominently seen ; 
the base of the discoidal cell is narrowly black ; costal 
and subcostal areas are black, but broadly and irregularly 
separated by the yellow in the subcostal area ; the 
abdominal margin from the base is black, and merges 
into the broad outer marginal black band, which lunate 
or dentate on the disc, with a width one-half the disc ; the 
yellow area extends narrowly dentate at the 2nd median 
nervule nearly half-way into the black border, and the 
yellow area occupies narrowly half the length of the 
submedian area. A few fine delicate black hairs flow from 
the base over this yellow area. Undersurface as above, ex- 
cept that the dentations of the submarginal band are still 
more pronounced, and softened into the yellow at their 
apices by black scales, as is i-3rd of the yellow sub- 
median portion of the wing ; the abdominal margin is 
greyish rufous ; the abdominal marginal hairs are ' 
moderately long, and reddish black. 

Head with black pulvilli ; eyes dark nitid brown ; 
antennae black ; pronotal collar black enclosed by 2 fine 
narrow red bands ; thorax black pilose-velvety above — the 
same beneath with the usual red pectoral patches; the legs 
long and black ; abdomen fumous brown, the sides yellow 
with a dorsal lighter longitudinal mark, and the articula 
slightly accentuated with yellow ; the subdorsum yellow, 
with the small lateral black dots ; the anal valves 
creamy buff. 

Length of abdomen or antennae, 31 mms. ; and of 
thorax with the head, 20 mms. 

Length of anterior wing costa, 83 mms. ; of the outer 
margin, 62 mms. ; and of the inner margin, 44 mms. 
Length of posterior wing 50 mms. ; greatest width 
32 mms. The costa is much rounded. 

T , fist pair : Femur, 13 ; tibia, 9 ; tarsi, 13 mms. 

Length of l d ^ ^ J4 . n I3 . m l6 

Legs - brd ;; ijl 

Habitat : Ceram, A. R. Wallace. 

In the Museum of Mr. H. Grose-Smith. 



2 Anterior wings, moderately pale rufous brown ; the 
adnervular rays and all other light marks and streaks 
broad, or prominent, and buff grey, uniformly subdued by 
brown scales — the 3rd median and submedian marks only 
extending part of the way towards the cell ; the distal 3rd 
of the cell bordered and divided by similar grey marks ; 
the light marginal lunations are also buff tinted. Under- 
surface of wing exactly as above, except that the brown 
areas are a little purer, and the light marks are much 
lighter than above. 

Posterior wings, brown ; a creamy yellow elongate area 
occupies nearly one-third of the cell from the distal end ; 
followed below by an area two-fifths of the disc, bounded 
by the 2nd subcostal and 3rd median nervules ; followed 
by a transverse band of 4 long brown cones, then a discal 
band of yellow marks, extending from the inner margin 
to the costa, which again emphasise the dentate apices of 
the broad hind marginal band ; an irregular buff-yellow 
mark, broadest above, extends down the submedian area 
from half to one-fourth of the wing length from its base, 
and terminates with a small cuneiform mark at the anal 
angle. Under surface as above, except that the light 
marks are all pure creamy white, the discal black cones 
are somewhat subdued by white scales, the outer marginal 
band dentations are more deeply divided by white and 
brown scaling, and the white fringe lunations are very 
prominent. The submedian area has two patches of 
black or brown, and a long mark of dark scales above. 

Head and eyes brown, a slight red ring at the prono- 
tum ; the thorax dark brown with the usual pectoral red 
patches ; the abdomen rufous brown, with the subdorsum 
and sides creamy white and yellow and the articula black 
except the last three which have a pair of large elongate 
orbicles in each articulus, and lateral rows of black spots, 
which towards the base merge into the general black of 
the subdorsum ; the anal segment yellow and brown. 

Length of costa 97 mms., of hind margin 66 mms., of 
inner margin (which is nearly straight) 51 mms., greatest 
length of posterior wing 63, and width 39 mms. The 
costa is rounded, and merges into the outer margin ; the 
length of the inner margin is about 42 mms. 

In the anterior wing the 3rd subcostal branch is emitted 
at 3 mms. from the distal end the cell. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 34, and of the thorax 
with the head, 25 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair: femur, 12; tibia, 11; tarsi, 13 mms. 
2nd ,, ,, 14 ; ,, 13 ; ,, 15 ,, 

3rd „ „ 13; „ 13; „ 18 „ 

Habitat, Ceram (Wallace). In the collection of Mr. H. 
Grose Smith. 


0. Papuensis, var. Carolus, Friihstorfer, "Berliner Ent. Zeitschrift, v. xliii, p. 306 (1897). 

$ . Smaller than the type form of Helena. 

Anterior wings velvety black, but suffused with grey, 
subdued by dark scales, from near the apical angle, and 
along the outer margin broadens, so as to occupy much of 
the disc — the veins and folds showing prominently in this 
grey. Undersurface as above, except that the greater part 
of the disc is creamy white, shading into the black towards 
the cell by white scales : close to, and parallel with the 
basal section of the medium nervure is a stripe of grey 
atoms, followed by a spot of grey atoms close beneath the 
second section ; some faint grey spots are found along 
the pseudoneura in the cell ; and the costa is rufous grey. 
Posterior wings nearly normal above, with a yellow inden- 
tation into the black marginal band near the 2nd sub- 
costal nervule. 

[This latter character is always present in varieties of 

Helena, and may be found useful for indentification of 
the different forms of that species.] 

Under surface as above, but all the black borders except 
the basal portions of the subcostal areas are more or less 
scaled with grey atoms — showing a tendency towards the 
production of a white and yellow variety. The abdo- 
men is rufous white above, yellow beneath. 

Length of costa of anterior wings 74 mms. 

Hab. : Dutch N. Guinea. 

Described and figured from the type, for the loan of 
which I am indebted to Mr. H. Grose-Smith, to whom 
this beautiful and very distinct form belongs. 


$ . Anteriorwings intensely black. Undersurface as above 
but slightly lighter, with a short elongate grey mark paral- 
lel to the basal section of the median vein, and close to 
the interno-median nervule. 

Posterior wings with intensely black, broad and irregu- 
lar shaped bands enclosing the rich silky yellow areas of 
the cell and disc. The veins are very stout and black ; at 
the distal end of the cell are three black blotches or spots 
of black atoms ; between the 2nd subcostal nervule and 
the discocellular nervure is an interrupted elongate group 
of black spots ; between the discocellular nervure and the 
ist median nervule the black border indents its way close 
up to the 2nd discocellular nervule, especially on the left 
wing : all the other apices of the black marginal band are 
irregularly dentate, and the yellow, as a dentation, encroa- 
ches in the black at the 2nd median nervule. 

The undersurface is without these black marks ; the 
black margin is somewhat narrower than above, more 
equally dentate, the apices broadly subdued by the golden 
yellow scales. 

Length of costa, 83 mms. 

The abdomen somewhat like that of Carolus. 

Habitat : New Guinea. 

A beautiful variety, in which the tendency seems to be 
towards the formation of an entirely black pair of wings, 
on the upper surface. 

Habitat : New Guinea. 

In the museum of Mr. H. Grose-Smith. 

Probably Dannat's Irregularis, described by him in the 
Entomologist for 1897, P a g e 3 I2 > ma y be an aberration of 
Helena, allied to the above. 

$ Var. from Borneo. In this variety the central area 
of yellow, on the posterior wing, is much restricted and 
narrower than in the preceding forms ; the yellow at the 
distal end of the cell is only about i-5th of the total area ; 
the yellow between the 2nd and 3rd median branches, 
and also between the 2nd subcostal branch and the 

discocellular vein strongly indents the black border. The 
two surfaces of each wing are absolutely alike. Length 
of costa, 82 mms. 

Var. Bouruensis. The posterior wings have the adner- 
vular rays considerably subdued by the brown scales, so 
that they are barely visible except towards the outer 
margin where they are all sufficiently grey ; on the under 
surface they are much lighter and purer, as is the cell spot. 
The posterior wing pattern is closely like that of the type 
2 but arranged on a smaller scale. The undersurface 
differs little from the upper, except that the yellow area 
is much diluted with white, and that the black portions 
are more or less clouded with white scales, as in the v. 
Carolus <? . 

Length of costa, 94 mms. 

Habitat, the Island of Bouru, situated directly West 
of Ceram and Amboyna. 

Any number of varieties and aberrations of Helena 
probably may be met with. 

The diagnosis of the varieties Papuensis and Mel- 
pomona will be found at pages 45, 46, and the figures of 
each on plates 45 and 46 of this volume. 

A $ Var. from Celebes in the Author's Museum 
closely resembles Mr. Grose-Smith's var. from Borneo. 
Also $ 3- from Ceram and 2 2 from the same locality 
in the Author's possession closely resemble the type form, 
the length of the costa of the largest $ measuring 86 mms. 
and of the largest 2 94 mms. 

Wallace remarks : 2 2 from Ceram and Amboyna are 
always sooty, with the spots and markings on the hinder 
wings of a dull buff-colour, even in the freshest speci- 
mens ; " also that " the local form Celebensis $ has the 
wings a little more pointed than in the type form ; the 
yellow patch of lower wings extending nearer to the 
posterior margin, and bounded towards the abdominal 
margin by the first branch of the median nervure ; 
beneath having the nervures between the discoidal cell 
and the outer border ashy margined. 

Localities additional for the type, Island of Saparua ; 
for Celebensis var., Minahasza and Salayer." 



Papilio Yan de Polli, Snellen, Tijdschrift v. Ent. XXXIII., p. 22, (i3go). 
Ornithoptera Yanclepolli, Fruhstorfer, Berliner Ent. Zeitschr. XXXIX., p. 241, t, 17, f. 1, (1S94). 
Troides Yandepolli, Walter Rothschild, Ncvitates Zoologies, Pt. vii., [Rev. of Pap. of E. Hemisphere, exclusive of Africa,] p. 205, n. 12, (1895). 

There can be no hesitation in regarding Vandcpolli as a 
most satisfactory species. The J is abundantly distinct 
from that of any other form of Pompeoptera, and though 
so much cannot be said of the $ the latter fact only 
tends to remind us of its cogeneric claims, while giving us 
the advantage of better knowing its position among the 
species belonging to that genus. It is exceedingly unlike 
its Javan relative, P. Pompcus ; and the $ is very much 
more beautiful, in addition to its greater size in both 
sexes, and is a splendid example of a mountain species, 
having been taken at an altitude of 4000 feet. It may be 
said that with P. Miranda of Butler, from Sarawak, and 
P. Magcllanvs of Felder, from the Philippines, it helps to 
form a triad of species as distinguished among the Pom- 
peoptera, as 0. (Priamoptera ) Croesus, Lydius and Urvilliana 
do among the Ornithoptera. Excellent descriptions and 
figures of this species are given by Snellen and by 
Fruhstorfer ; but I may be pardoned if I present the 
results of a study of the examples — from which I have 
drawn my figures, as I thought this would be the most 
useful course. 

$ . Anterior wings large, and subtriangulate ; slightly 
wider in proportion than in Pompcus and its congeners ; 
the costa very gradually arcuate, a little more curved 
towards the apex ; posterior margin not so straight as in 
Pompcus, being more concave ; interior margin more con- 
cave than in Pompeus ; fringe lunules very delicate and 
unobtrusive ; the 4th and 5th subcostal nervules from the 
end of the cell branch off at as great a distance as the 2nd 
does from behind the 1st discocellular nervule ; [in 
Pompeus the distance of the 4th and 5th branches from 
the end of the cell is greater than that of the 2nd from the 
1st discocellular nervule] ; the 3rd subcostal nervule 
originates at the end of the cell. Posterior wings broader 
in proportion than in Pompeus, and more closely propor- 
tioned to the upper wings than in that species. 

Anterior wings a deep velvety black, with very faint 
traces of the light internervular rays, which are partly 
indicated by a few obscurely yellow atoms bordering the 
3 median nervules, the others being faintly seen through 
from the grey white rays of the under surface ; the black 
is suffused in some lights by faint olive reflections, but, 
viewed obliquely against the light, by a slight purple gloss. 

Posterior wings deep velvety black, with a slight olivine 
gloss when opposite the light, especially on the abdominal 
fold, and a slight purple gloss when viewed against the 
light ; the disc and 3-5ths of the cell occupied by a silky 
golden-yellow — very golden obliquely against the light, 
slightly shot with a delicate pale emerald green when 
viewed in the ordinary way, but with a beautiful opalescent 
green all over when held obliquely opposite the light ; 
the brilliancy of this yellow is intense — the veins and 
veinlets being very black, and stout ; the yellow patch 
of the cell is suboval ; the black border is broad and 
somewhat dentate, the two lower divisions are edged 
above with black scales, and there is a faint spot of 

yellow scales outside the 3rd median nervure ; the black 
part of the cell, and the space between the median and 
submedian veins are furnished with a multitude of long 
black hairs, proceeding from near the base, and extending 
nearly down to the anal angle ; the colour of the andro- 
conia a fleshy tint ; the black of the apex about twice the 
breadth of the general black border ; posterior border 
nearly equally and sufficiently dentated ; the veins on the 
black areas of the wings only slightly visible. 

Undersurface. Anterior wings a glossy smoky black, 
with a purplish submedian fold and nervure, and olivine 
wing reflections ; the veins all appear well in relief, but 
the nervules are very slender ; the discal grey-white rays 
bordering the nervules become more obsolete in character 
as they approach the subcostal nervules, and commence 
as usual on the upper side of the 1st median branch ; 
within the discoidal cell and along the median nervure 
are a few white atoms also ; the margins of the median 
and subcostal veins, and between the subcostal branches 
in some lights, have a greasy appearance, produced by the 
black scales of these parts being more sparsely scattered, 
so as render slightly visible the shining surface of the 
wing membrane. 

Posterior wings as on the upper surface — the yellow 
and black occupying relatively the same area ; but a large 
yellow triangular mark is outside the 3rd median vein, 
followed by a small patch of yellow scales ; a patch of 
yellowish grey scales is on the black marginal dentations 
between the 2nd and 3rd median nervules, and a square 
mark of the same character is nearly divided by the black 
below the small yellow mark between the same nervules ; 
a small creamy-grey curved streak of atoms at the anal 
angle ; the abdominal margin outside the submedian vein 
a silky flesh-coloured brown, with a fringe of long black 

Head and thorax deep black velvety pilose ; eyes dark 
brown ; the pronotal collar with the red nearly obsolete ; 
thorax beneath with pectoral red spots, almost hidden by 
the black hairs of the breast ; the abdomen silky black 
(the dorsum partly reddish brown within 3 of the seg- 
ments) with yellow laterally, and the articulations 
accentuated by short whitish hairs ; the anal valves 
silky dark brown ; the subdorsum yellow, with the usual 
lateral black dots, and a double row of ventral black spots, 
which occupy more and more of the segments as they 
near the base of the abdomen. 

Antennas or abdomen 30 mms. long ; thorax with the 
head 22 mms. 

(1st pair : femur, 10? ; tibia, 8; tarsi, (?) mms. 
Legs] 2nd ,, : ,,12; „ 12; „ 14 ,, 
[3rd „ : ,, 13; ... 12; „ 15 „ 
The anterior leg is imperfect in the specimen. 

Articulations of antenna, 50. 


Vol. II. 


Costa, 80 ; outer margin, 63 ; inner margin, 41 mms. 
Of the posterior wings, width 36 and length 50 mms. 

Habitat, West Java. 

? . Anterior wings. From the base to midway light 
warm-brown; from thence to the hind margin dark 
brown ; i-4th of the discoidal cell nearest the discocellular 
nervule greyish white, encroaching on the darker colour 
by grey atoms ; the usual series of grey white discal rays 
each divided by the nervules, and extending from the 
discocellular branches to near the hind margin (also in 
the space between the 4th and 3rd subcostal branches) as 
far as the 1st median branch, the one bordering the 2nd 
median branch at 2-5ths of its length from the median 
vein, and the next at 3-5ths : a thin short ray is divided 
by the submedian fold, and the submedian nervure 
' broadly divides a broad ray or patch of grey at a little 
more than half way from the base, extending nearly 
to the anal angle. The fringe lunules are narrow, 
and almost continuous with each other from the anal to 
the apical angles, and are creamy white ; the nervules are 
stout and their slender branches broadly defined by the 
dark brown which margins them. Posterior wings : from 
the base to 2-31-ds of the cell, and all the subcostal dark 
area, a dark brown ; a broad discal area of greenish 
yellow occupies 1.3rd of the cell, and the greater portion 
of the disc, becoming less ample between the 3rd median 
nervule and the submedian nervure as far as the abdomi- 
nal margin, which is a sordid creamy or buff white, a part 
of the light spaces between the 2nd and 3rd median 
branches being of the same colour ; the marginal band is 
broad, black and lunated, each lunation uniting with the 
base of the internervular black discal cone, whose apices 
all point towards the base of the wing, and are six in 
number, — the 6th, enclosed by the 3rd median branch 
and the submedian fold being much smaller, and uniting 
with a dark brown spot near the anal angle — these two 
latter being clouded with darker greyish macula produced 
by black atoms ; the yellow area is rendered green by 
dark hairs in the discoidal cell, and darkish atoms on the 
disc, being most numerous and conspicuous at the base 
of the internervular black cones ; the creamy-white fringe 
lunules are conspicuous and well separated from each 
other by the marginal dentations of the wing. 

Undersurface : anterior wings, similar to the upper side 
except that the brown is lighter and more silky from the 
base, the veins and pseudoneura are well pronounced, 
and the light rays and marks are warmer in tone towards 
the hind margin. Posterior wings : the arrangements of 
markings and other details the same as on the upper 
surface, but the black cones are more sharply outlined, — 
are disconnected at their base from the marginal luna- 
tions, — the 6th cone is as long as any of the others, but 
narrower, and is united half way of its length with the 
black abdominal margin, — the light and discal areas are 
creamy white instead of yellow, as on the upper side, but 
slightly suffused with yellow at the base of some of the 
black conical marks ; a greyish white subapical-shaped 

mark terminated with a cuneiform spot ; the 3 lowest 
marginal lunations are divided and modified by grey 
atoms so as to constitute central black marks, and den- 
tated black spots at the terminals of the nervules ; there 
are 2 small black spots at the anal angle, and the sub- 
median vein is margined a part of its length by creamy 
white ; the abdominal fringe is black, and rather short. 
Head and thorax black ; eyes dark brown ; the pronotal 
red nearly hidden by the pilose covering, the pectoral red 
spots beneath are almost concealed by the pilose covering 
of the breast and femorae ; abdomen dark brown above, 
laterally light yellow; beneath, all the segments black 
divided by thin yellow articulations ; — the usual lateral 
black dots are exchanged for rather large black spots ; 
the anal segment very black. 

_ Length of anterior costa 88 mms., width of wing 50, 
hind margin 66, and inner margin 49 mms. ; width of 
posterior wing 44, length 61 mms. 

Measure- [ 1st pair: femur, 12 ; tibia, 10; tarsi, (?) mms. 
ment of j2nd ,, : ,, 13; ,, 12; ,, 21 ,, 
Legs. (3rd „ : ,, 11; „ 12; „ 16 „ 

Antennae or abdomen, 30 mms. ; thorax with head, 22 
mms. ; articulations of antennae, 48 mms. 

Hab. : West Java, at a height of 4000 feet. 

The 2 of this species is most like the same sex of 
P. Darsius of Gray, P. Helena, Linn., and Minos, Cram. 

I am greatly obliged to Mr. H. Grose-Smith for the 
pleasure of figuring and re-describing this grand species. 

? . An example in the author's collection, while exhibit- 
ing the same pattern on both surfaces, has all the discal 
black conical and subconical spots of the lower wings 
smaller than in the above 2 , while the light yellowish 
area of the under surface is also considerably whiter. In 
addition, on the left anterior wing (only) the subcostal 
neuration is abnormal. [See PI. 33, fig. A. r. & N.I.] ; the 
1 st subcostal nervule branches off at the usual point, pro- 
ceeds a little way, till at a second point approximately 
parallel to the end of the cell, it bifurcates into two veinlets : 
the 3rd, 4th, and 5th branches commence in the usual way, 
but the subcostal vein is slightly distorted at the spot 
where the 2nd branch should originate — the hiatus being 
only noticeable on a close observation ; it is really as if 
the 1st branch were divided into 2 branchlets, the 2nd 
branch were absent, and the other 3 branches were in the 
normal position. Length of costa 76 mms. 

Hab., W. Java. 

$ . In the author's collection, differs little from the $ 
described above. Length of costa 70 mms. 

Hab., W. Java. 



Ornithoptera Honrathiana, Martin, ? , Berliner Ent. Zeitschr. XXXVII., p. 492, (1892). 

3 ¥ . Natuurk. Tijdschr. v. Ned. 2nd, LIII., 3 (Sep.), p. 1, n. x, (1893). 
,,-3 9, Hagen, Iris VII., p. 19, n. 4, (1894). 
Troides Yandepolli honrathianus, Rothschild, Novitates Zoological, Vol. II., p. 205, n. 12, b. (1895). 

S . In the pattern of the wings, on both surfaces, this 
form differs very little from the type form ; but the 
abdomen is entirely a deep brownish black, the anal 
valves being dark red brown ; the abdomen is also rather 
hairy, and conveys the idea of T. Brookeana, Wall. 

Hab. : Mount Battak, Sumatra. 

? . Anterior wings light brown, pattern the same as on 
the type form, except that the intercellular dark area 
terminates in 2 dentate projections at near the end of the 
cell in the grey area ; in the type form the grey inter- 
cellular area is only traversed by the pseudoneura. 
This may be a means of always distinguishing the 2 
of this variety from that of the type form. Posterior 
wings similar on both surfaces to the type form, 
but the yellow internervular spaces are narrower, and the 
markings more slim, those bounded by the 1st median 

nervule and the submedian fold or sinus are margined 
with white, and the abdominal margin has little or no 
white ; the abdomen is entirely brownish black and hairy, 
probably as a protection from mountain cold. 

Hab. : Battak Country, Sumatra. 

The melanism of the abdomen of both sexes in this 
var. is remarkable, as it is not met with in the Javan type 
form, which is also a high mountain region insect. 

I am indebted to the great kindness of Mr. Snellen, 
of Rotterdam, for the loan of the examples from which 
my figures are drawn, and also for examples of the type 
form for dissection. 

Examples of the two sexes of this var. are also in the 
museum of the Hon. W. Rothschild. 


Ornithoptera Haliphron 3 , Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. I., p. 181, n. 9, (1836). 

n .1 3 $ , Felder, Lepidopterologische Fragmente, p. 37, Taf. ii., f. 2, 3, (1859). 

h ii J 2 . Felder, Wien. Ent. Mon. IV., p. 98, n. 52, t. 2, f. 23, 25, (i860), 

ii .. Wallace, Tr. Linn. Soc. Vol. XXV., p. 40, n. 14, (1866). 

Papillo Haliphron 3 ? , Felder, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. p. 291, n. 25, and p. 334, n. 20, (1864). 
W. F. Kirby, Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lepid. p. 519, (1871). 
Piepers and Snellen, Tijdschr. v. Ent. XXL, p. 37, n. 147, (1878). 
Ornithoptera Haliphron 3 , Standinger and Schatz, Exot. Schmett. I., p. 5, t. 2, (1884). 
11 ., Ribbe, Iris III., p. 39 (larva and pupae), (1890). 

11 1 1 Fickert, Ueber die Zeichn. der Gatt. Ornith. p. 734, n. 4 ; and p. 743, (1893). 

Troides Haliphron J ?,W. Rothschild, Novitates Zoologies, Vol. II., p. 206, n. 13, type (a), (1895). 
[Ornithoptera Amphimedon 3 *, Doubld. Westw. and Hewitson, Gen. D. L. t. 1, f. 2 (1846). 

.1 » S \ Gray, Cat. Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. I., p. 5, n. ii, (1852), (as a synonym of P. Darsius).] 

The 6* of this graceful species is somewhat suggestive 
of the $ of Vandepolli and its variety Honrathiana, although 
the yellow area of the posterior wings is considerably less 
in extent, and with a few exceptions not occupying any 
part of the discoidal cell. In Vandepolli 3-5ths of the 
cell are yellow, in Haliphron when any yellow is found 
within the cell it is only either as a narrow yellow spot or 
mark at the distal end, varying from half the width to the 
whole width. Sometimes only a faint rudiment of this 
spot is present ; and the two wings are nearly always 
asymmetrical in this particular. The adnervular rays on 
the anterior wings are whiter and rather more conspicuous 
than in Vandepolli ; they are also rather narrower in shape. 
The posterior wings are suggestive of those of Plato — 
though that species is perhaps more like Vandepolli in 
some respects, and its ? suggests the S of Haliphron. 
Other species or forms slightly resembling Haliphron in 
the male sex are Doherty's Naias, and Robiir's Iris on the 
posterior wings — though, of course each is abundantly 
differentiated from Haliphron or Vandepolli. Nor must 
we omit to recall the fact that while the inferior wing 
patterns of Vandepolli and Darsius have much in common — 
there is also a less close resemblance between the latter 
and Haliphron. In Haliphron, Darsius, Vandepolli, and 
Honrathiana, the conical internervular discal band of 
black marks is always present on the wings of the females, 
varying in length and width, 'tis true, and generally 
uniting at their bases with the apices of the outer marginal 
lunations on the upper surfaces of the wings, but more 
or less separated from them on the under surfaces. The 
intercellular dark portions of the $ upper wings of 
Darsius, Plato, Honrathiana, Plateni, and Dohertyi, all 
terminate with a pair of more or less long dark dentations 
near the end of the cell, longest in Haliphron ; while in 
Pompeus, Nerias, and Vandepolli (the type form) there are 
no dentate terminals to the intercellular dark areas ; so 
that in these respects Vandepolli and Honrathiana take 
after distinct groups of anterior wing patterns — a very 
curious circumstance ! 

S . The costa is much less arched than in Vandepolli, 
and the posterior margin much less rounded ; the interior 
margin is only slightly curved, being nearly straight, and 
well exhibiting the scalene-triangular form of the wing. 
Colour of the wing deep velvety black, with the adnervular 
grey rays only very moderately seen ; the whole of the 
discoidal cell is black, and the veins are all fairly stout. 

Undersurface more or less brownish black — not so velvety 
as above, with the pattern similar to that of the upper 
surface, except that the adnervular rays are whiter and 
more distinct, they are 8 in number, extending from the 
3rd subcostal to the 3rd median branch ; the distal 
third of the cell is also greyish white, with long central 
coalesced dentations, and the 4 pseudoneura fairly dis- 
tinct — (the 2nd passing through the fine grey white 
central streak of the black dentation). 

The veins are not so stout as in some species, but 
sufficiently distinct on both surfaces ; the median nervules 
running through the adnervular rays are themselves as 
usual more strongly accentuated by being slightly bor- 
dered with black, especially on the upper surface. The 
posterior wings velvety black-brown, with a discal trans- 
verse broad patch of brilliant yellow, divided by four of 
the nervules ; in some specimens a small yellow spot or 
blotch is found close within the distal end of the cell, 
generally of a different shape and size on each wing of the 
example : sometimes this mark is absent, and the cell is 
immaculate, and sometimes a moderately broad transverse 
mark of yellow runs parallel with the discocellular nervules 
within the cell — thereby forming a part of the entire 
yellow discal band or area of the wing. By reason of the 
narrowness of this yellow area the wing from the end of 
the cell to the base, with the whole of the inner margin, 
and from the and median nervule, and also a very broad 
hind submarginal portion of the wing are velvety black ; 
the under surface is exactly similar to that above. The 
black on the upper side is shot with a delicate olive- 
greenish sheen, and on the underside with a bluish-green 
sheen ; the fringe lunules are whitish and very slight, 
being almost invisible on the anterior wings ; from the 
posterior wings they are quite absent. 

The head is black ; the eyes are castaneous ; the thorax 
pilose black, and abdomen rather a light brown. The 
pronotal red collar of the thorax (or neck) very distinct 
in some examples. The pectoral scarlet or coccineous 
spots are small, but extend to over the whole surface of 
the metathorax ; the abdominal marginal fringe of hairs 
is moderately extensive, and the hairs black and fairly 

Length of costa in 5 examples in the Author's Museum 
varies from 65 to 72 mms. Length of abdomen or an- 

"These two on the authority of W. Rothschild's " Novitates Zoologies." 


tennse 26 mms., and of head with thorax 19 mms. Greatest 
width of anterior wing 35 and of posterior 27 mms. ; 
greatest length of posterior wings 43 mms. ; length of 
posterior margin of Primaries 50, of interior margin 38 

L-gth «f ESP* 



femur, 10; tibia, 8 ; tarsi, 11 mms. 

12 ; 
10 : 

10 ; 

1 1 ; 

including the trochanters. 
Articulations of antennae, 54 mms. 
Habitat : Celebes. 


the pseudoneura more distinct, and the subconical brown 
dentation almost disconnected from the brown area of the 
cell ; all the grey adnervular rays are rather more pro- 
nounced, and there is a supplementary ray bordering the 
submedian nervure — and a small one on the submedian 
fold or sinus. Posterior wings, with a fairly extensive 
golden-yellow area ; this yellow occupies nearly half the 
discoidal cell — distal end : a very small section of it also 
in the space between the 1st and 2nd subcostal nervules, 
without the cell, and the remaining yellow area encloses 4 
pyriform, black marks, in some examples confluent with the 
broad dark submarginal border, in others slightly separated 
from it by the yellow : the first of these, between the 2nd 
and 3rd subcostal nervules is the largest, the next below 
is the smallest, and the remaining 2 are slightly longer ; 

Fig. 1. Pompeoptera Haliphron, $ . 

Fig. 2. <? Underside. 

Fig. %a. Neuration of the $ . 

2 Anterior wings warm dark brown, lightest towards 
the base of the wings, with about 8 adnervular grey white 
rays, subdued by brown scales ; the veins all delicate but 
well expressed. Within the discoidal cell the outer half 
is grey-white bordering the submedian, median, and 
discocellular nervures, of irregular width, with a central 
broad dentate or subconical extension of the dark area 
of the rest of the cell, through which the 2nd pseudo- 
neurus is revealed by a fine streak of grey. Undersurface 
of the wing similar, but the grey of the cell is broader in 
every detail, and the central streak of grey also broader — 

in all the examples I have seen these marks are very con- 
stant in shape, and graceful ; a dark orange-grey mark is 
curved by the 3rd median branch and the submedian vein . 
all the remainder of the wing is dark velvety brown ; the 
veins are dark brown and strongly expressed in the 

Under surface of the Anterior wing as above, except that 
the dark parts of the wing are lighter, as are the light rays 
and light parts of the cell. Under surface of the posterior 
wing as above, except that the orange-yellow of the upper 



surface is a creamy orange-white extending to the sub- 
median nervure ; the fine-line fringe lunules on both 
surfaces are orange creamy-white. Head, thorax and 
abdomen are dark fuscous brown ; the eyes castaneous ; 
antennae and legs (which are long and graceful) intensely 

Underside of thorax with the usual pectoral red mark, 
and of the abdomen with the articulations slightly indi- 
cated by a few yellow scales. 

Habitat : Celebes, Macassar, SE. Saleyer (very com- 
mon), Bantimoerong. 

The var. bauermanni, Rober, is of no great importance, 
except that it comes from Kabia Island, as does Oberthiir's 
synonym pattens, in addition . to the other localities 
mentioned ; but, for the purpose of comparison, I give 
Mr. Oberthiir's description : — " 0. palleus (an aberration 
■ — or var. ? — of O. Haliphron), " 2 smaller than the typical 
? , the base of the Anterior wings are of a distinct grey 

Fig. 3. Pompeoptera Haliphron, ? . 

Fig. 4. ? Underside. 

Length of costa about 80 mms. ; of outer margin 45, 
and inner margin about 34 mms. ; width of wing about 
35 mms. ; greatest length of posterior wing about 47, and 
width about 24 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennas 26, and of thorax with 
head 16 mms. 

Fig. 4a. Neuration of ? , 

Length of 

1st pair 
2nd ,, 
3rd „ 

femur, 10; tibia, 7; tarsi, 9 mms. 
„ 12; „ 11; „ 15 

10; „ 10; „ 15 „ 

yellow; the white adnervular rays present more wruter~ 
than in the type form ; the head, thorax, and abdomen 
are of a dark grey, slightly golden. This it is which gives 
to this variety its special aspect ; the pronotal red collar 
is very strongly accentuated in the two examples which 
I possess." Oberthiir, ' Et. d'Ent.,' iv. p. 110 sub. n. 7 


Mr. Oberthiir also, in the same article, makes the fol- 
lowing observation on 3 examples of a $ var. of Haliphron 
which he received from Celebes (or Kabia Island ?) 

" This variety differs from the type by the extension of 
the golden yellow discal band of the lower wing. In 
those sent from Celebes, which I recently received, I 
found three <? examples— in one of which the narrow 
yellow band did not encroach within the cell ; on the 
contrary in the 2nd individual the yellow band occupied 
a small portion of the cell ; and lastly the 3rd specimen 
is intermediate between the two others, and has two 
yellow dots within the cell." By which it may be seen, 
on referring to my description of the <? at the beginning 
of this article, that the normal character of the discal 
yellow band allows of a small invasion of the discoidal 

cell, more or less pronounced in some individuals. Other 
variations of the females of this species present the fol- 
lowing features :— 2 with very light anterior wings ; the 
basal or abdominal margin very light brown (v. bauermamii) ; 
also with the anterior wings darker. Hab. Kalao, Saleyer ; 
with yellow and black areas of hind wings more or less 
contracted, S. Celebes, S. Flores, Lombreu, Pantar, 
Adonara, Alors, Wetter. 

2 very dark ; hind wing very black, yellow area very 
small ; obsolete traces of discal spots. Hab. Wetter. 
This may really be a form of Staudmgeri. 

My figures are drawn from specimens in my own 
museum, which were kindly sent me by the late Philip 
H. Gosse two years before I commenced this monograph. 


Ornithoptera Haliphron, Oberthiir, ■' Et. d'Ent." iv., p. 30, n. 7, and p. no, n. 7 (1879). j . ? . 

» „ Rothschild, "Iris" v., p. 442 (1892). 

» „ Piepers and Snellen, " Tijdschr. v. Ent." xxx., p. 37, n. 147 (1878). 

» „ Var. baucrmanni, Rober " Iris " I., p. 19. ? nec. i (1885). 

» „ Var. pallens Oberthiir, " Et. d'Ent.," iv., p. no, sub. n. 7 (1879), is the same a 

n » Var. pistcn Rothschild. 


Ornithoptera Naias, Doherty, "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," p. 193, n. 116 (1891). t ? . 

„ „ Var. Sambawana, Doherty, I.e., p. 194, sub. n., 116 (1891). 0* ¥ . 

Ornithoptera Socrates, Staudinger, " Iris," iv., p. 71 (1891), id., I.e., vi., p. 83, t. i. f. i. (1893). <r ? . 
Troides Haliphron, v. Naias, Rothschild, "Novit. Zool." Vol. II., p. 207 (1895). 
Pompeoptera Naias, Rippon, " Genera Insectorum " of Wytsman, Section Troides, p, 13 (1902). 

? . Anterior wings velvety black, with the adnervular 
light rays very distinct ; within the cell at or near the 
distal end only faint white lines, which also slightly 
emphasize the pseudoneura ; fringe lunules white, and 
only delicately indicated. Undersurface as above except 
that the light rays are more prominent, and in 2-3rds of 
the cell they very prominently emphasize the pseudo- 
neura. Posterior wings : the yellow area within the' cell 
(one-half its extent) and without on the disc is, similar in 
shape and extent to that of Criton and Plato ; the rest 
of the wing is velvety black. Undersurface as above. 
The abdominal marginal fringe-hairs rather long. 

Thorax, head and antennas black ; pronotal collar red ; 
abdomen very dark brown, with yellow green margins, 
underside of thorax with the pectoral red mark, of 
abdomen partly black, and partly greenish yellow ; anal 
valves black. 

Length of costa 67, of outer margin 50, and inner 
margin 31 mms. ; width of posterior wing 25 mms. ; 
greatest lengh 37 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennas 24 mms. ; of thorax 
with head 24 mms. 

Length of 


femur, 10 ; tibia, 6 

10 ; 
10 ; 

.3rd , 

including the trochanters. 

tarsi, 9 mms. 

h 14 M 
„ 16 „ 

2 . Anterior wing very dark brown ; the adnervular 

rays well represented, subdued by brown atoms ; 2-3rds of 
the cell also with 3 long patches of scaly-white, through 
which the pseudoneura pass ; an adnervular white streak 
attached to the submedian vein ; undersurface as above, 
except that all the light rays are whiter and more promi- 
nent, and they nearly fill the cell. 

Posterior wings : 2-3rds of the cell yellow ; also about 
2-3rds of the disc yellow, near the submedian vein 
suffused with white ; within the discal yellow area are 4 
subconical black spots united at their base with the sub- 
marginal black ; at the upper part of the wing the black 
of the disc occupies the 2 spaces where theoretically 2 
more subconical marks should be ; 2 or 3 small white 
streaks at and near the anal angle. Undersurface nearly 
as above ; all the rest of the wing on both surfaces velvety- 
black. Head, antennas and thorax black ; eyes brown ; 
abdomen dark brown, with the last 3 segments margined 
yellow. Underside of thorax with the pectoral red patch ; 
legs black ; abdomen yellow, tne annulations or segments 
well expressed with black. 

of legs. 

1st pair : femur, 11 ; tibia, 12 ; tarsi, 14 mms. 
2nd „ ,, 13 ; „ 13 ; „ 14 „ 
3rd ,, „ 11 ; „ 10 ; ,, 15 „ 

Hab. Sumba, where it is common. The var. sumba- 
wana is taken in Sumbawa, the form called by Staudinger 
Socrates is found in Wetter, Sumbawa, Alor, and Adonara. 

[Reference to these islands will be made in the article 
on Geographical distribution, at the end of this volume.] 



Ornithoptera Criton, Fclder, " Wien. Ent. Monat. IV." p. 225, n. 72 (i860). Also p. 49 of Feld. " Entomological Fragments. " 
Papilo Criton, F elder, " Reise Nov. Lep." L, p. 12, n. 6 t. 4 a— c (1865). 1 . ? . 
Ornithoptera Criton, Wallace, "Trans. Linn. Soc." Vol. XXV. (1865). s . ? . 

„ „ Obcrthilr, " Etudes d'Ent." IV., p. 31, n. 10 (1879). s . $ . 

„ „ „ "Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova," XV., p. 468, n. 3 (1880). «j . ? . 

„ „ Butler, " Annals Mag. Nat. Hist." (5), XIII., p. 196, n. 42 (1884). 

„ „ Staudinger und Schatz, " Exot. Schmett." I., p. 5 (1884). 

„ „ Ribbe, " Iris," III., p. 43 (1891). [Larva and pupa] . 

Papilio Criton, W. F. Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep." p. 519 (1871). 
Ornithoptera Criton, Fichert, " Ueber die Zeichnungsverhaltnisse der Gatt. Orn." p. 737. 
Troides Criton, Rothschild, " Novitates Zoologies," V. II., p. 210, n. 16 (a 2), type ? similar to J.(b2) V. Oberthuri s ; (c 2) V.felderi, ? . (1895). 

Pompeoptera Criton is properly a member of the 
Haliphron group, which also includes P. Naias of Doherty, 
P. Iris of Rober, P. Plato of Wallace, and P Staudingeri 
of Rober, at least, if not P. Riedeli of Kirsch, in addition 
to the varieties of Haliphron, as at present known. 

S Anterior wings entirely velvety black, with slightly 
silky greenish reflections on their upper surface ; the 
veins only slightly discernible. Undersurface entirely 
olive-greenish black ; veins prominently in relief ; the 
nervules faintly margined with lighter tones — the analo- 
gues of the light internervular rays usually present on the 
wing above and below, in most of the species of this Genus; 
the marginal wing folds accentuated by greyish atoms. 

Posterior wings warm reddish lemon-yellow — with the 
veins prominently black ; the base of the wing, and out- 
side the precostal for a short distance, half the cell 
diagonally, and the area from the submedian to the ab- 
dominal pouch deep velvety-black ; the whitish line indi- 
cating the inner portion of the pouch or wing-fold fairly 
conspicuous ; the broad submarginal border black, and 
lunate within between the veins. Undersurface as above, 
but with the area of the abdominal fold reddish black, 
with moderately long hair fringe. 

Head and eyes dark castaneous — between the eyes 
dark pilose black — haustellum black. Antennae black. 

Thorax above velvety black ; beneath, with red collar, 
and red marks from the base to half way on each side of 
the legs. 

Abdomen above brown, subdued by atoms, with lateral 
yellow marks on the penultimate annulations ; subdorsum 
yellow, with the usual black dots ; anal valves brownish- 

Antennae 22 mms. in length ; abdomen 24 mms. ; 
thorax with head 16 mms. ; length of costa 57, and width 
34 mms., in the anterior wing ; outer margin 34 mms. 
Width of posterior wing 25, and length 34 mms. 

T , r fist pair: femur 7; tibia, 7; tarsi, 9 mms. 
Length ot L nd t> . j( I0 . ( . IO; u I0 h 

egS [3rd „ : „ 9; „ 9; ,. 12 „ 

The outer margin of the wing is gracefully incurved ; 
the antennas are most like those of the typical papilios. 

Described and drawn from Felder's type. 

$ Anterior wings warm brown, with light adnervular 
rays, all of which, with the exception of that belonging to 
the 3rd median nervure, reach the boundary of the 
cell (the latter only half-way) ; two faint light rays below 
on the submedian fold and submedian vein : a faint light 
irregular area within the discoidal cell at the distal end 
subdued by brown atoms, as with the adnervular rays. 
Undersurface similar, except that all the lighter areas 
are broader and lighter; the veins are very prominent as 
are also the pseudoneura on both surfaces. 

Posterior wings dark brown, with a large orange-yellow 
discal area ; the orange tint of the yellow is produced by 
a powdering of reddish scales ; the veins deep black. 
This area extends to about i-4th within the cell, and is 
somewhat sinuate ; within the veins is a row of 5 large 
suboval black spots, marked off from the outer marginal 
black border by white atoms. All the remainder of the 
wing is velvety-black — the submarginal border being 
lunate ; the inner margin reddish-brown. Undersurface 
as above, except that the yellow area of the upper becomes 
an ochraceous or creamy-white on the under-surface, the 
discal black spots are smaller and more irregular in size 
and shape, are dotted with white atoms, are 7 in number, 
and the submarginal border consists of 7 accuminate 



divisions nearly reaching the discal spots, and divided 
from each other by brown spaces ; this marginal border 
and the inner black areas of the wing towards the base 
and in the cell are ornamented with white atoms. The 
light marginal lunations on both surfaces of all the wings 
are creamy-white. In the S they are white and only 
seen on the undersurface of the wings. 

Length of f Ist / air 
legs 1 2nd » 


femur, 9 ; tibia, 7 ; tarsi, 12 mms. 

including the trochanters. 
FromlFelder's type. 

10 ; 

10 ; 
9 ; 


Fig. 1. Pompeoptera Criton, F 'elder. $ . 

Head and thorax black ; abdomen warm brown ; eyes 
castaneous. Beneath, thorax with deep red patch 
halfway down the sides of the legs, and red collar ; 
abdomen lemon-yellow, with dark atoms and lateral black 
dots — each articulation marked by a thin line of lemon- 
yellow ; anal tuft reddish black. 

Habitat : Batjan, Gilolo, Morty ; taken by Mr. A. R. 
Wallace ; Dodinga, Ternate, according to Oberthiir, 
Halmahera (or Gilolo, as it is called by the "natives) : 
localities also quoted by him in the " Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Genova." The varieties oberthiiri and felderi of Roths- 
child are from N . Molucca,in addition to the above localities. 

Fig. 3a. 
Neuration of Ant. Wing. 

Fig. 2. $ Underside. 

Fig. 36. Neuration of Posterior Wing. 
3c. Abdominal Fold of the $ . 

Length of costa of anterior wing 75, width 46 mms. ; 
length of outer margin 55, of inner margin 40 mms. ; 
length of posterior wing 45 mms. ; width 31 mms. 

Length of thorax with head 21, of abdomen 28; and 
antennas 26 mms. 

Batjan is a small island situate S.W. of Gilolo, or 
Djilolo ; Morty Island is nearly at the extreme N.E. of 
Djilolo or (Halmahera), and is slightly larger than Batjan; 
Ternate lies West of Djilolo at about midway of the 
latter's coast ; the species therefore appears to be confined 
to the Djilolo group of Islands, or at any rate to a limited 

portion of the Northern Moluccas. A closely allied sp. J 
if not avar. is also an inhabitant of Batjan and the Island 
of Oby, N.E. and by N. of the same island. The splen- 
did Ornithoptera Crcesus is an inhabitant of Batjan, and 
its close ally 0. Lydius with its curious female, of Djilolo. 
Batjan is also somewhat rich in Pieridse, specially the 

Delias group, and the graceful Celestina or lavender-and- 
yellow group. 

I am indebted to the Hon. Walter Rothschild for the 
opportunity of figuring this species from the Felder types, 
which are in his museum at Tring. 

Fig. 4. P. Criton Felder 2 . 

Fig. 6a 

Neuration of Anterior Wing. 

Fig. 5. Underside of P. Criton $. 

Fig. 6b. 

Neuration of Posterior Wing. 


Ornithoptera Plato, Wallace, " Trans. Linn. Soc," V. 25, p. 40, n. 13 (1865). <s only. 
Ornithoptera Plato, Wallace (Translated by Staudinger) " Iris " IV., p. 74 (1891). i . [As a local form of Criton from Timor] . 
Papilio Plato, W. F. Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurnal Lepid.," p. 530. (1871). 
Ornithoptera Plato, Rober, "Tijdschr. V. Ent.," XXXIV. p. 269 (1891). s ? . 
Troides Plato, Rothschild, "Novitates Zoologicae," Vol. II., p. 209, n. 15 (1895). 
Pompeoptera Plato, Rippon, " Section Troides " (in Wytsman's " Genera Insectorum," p. 13 (1902). 

Of the 3 of this species Wallace, in the Trans, of the 
Linnaaan Society, remarks that " it resembles 0. Criton 
very much, but the abdomen is almost wholly black 
beneath ; that it has no red patches at the base of the 
wings, or any red collar." But it will be shewn by the 
following description, and by my figures that Mr. Wallace 
was in error, probably from examining a worn specimen. 
A figure of the 2 published by Felder under this name in 
the " Wien. Ent. Mon.," must have been described and 
named under a misapprehension, especially as he was 
unaware of the locality in which it was found. 

3 . Anterior wings deep brown black ; the adnervular 
light rays very much subdued and delicately darkened — 
looking more like a series of grey-brown cloudings in the 
black of the disc ; the veins are all, however, very 
prominent. The undersurface resembles the upper, but 
the light adnervular rays are broader, nearly confluent, 
and bluish-grey ; this gray also encroaches within the cell, 
and the pseudoneura are shown prominently passing 
through the grey area ; a few scattered grey atoms are 
found just above the submedian vein, at the posterior angle 
of the wing. 

Posterior wings. The central golden-yellow area 
occupies one half of the cell, and about one half the disc 
of the wing — is lunated towards the entire outline between 
each vein — and runs diagonally across the wing towards 
the basal or inner-marginal directions, its greatest width 
being double the area of the dark portion extending to- 
wards the base ; all the wing except the yellow area is a 
deep velvety-black, shot with a grey sheen. The under- 
surface is similar to the upper, except that the inner out- 
line of the yellow in the cell is somewhat sinuate ; the 
fringe lunules of all the wings, on both surfaces, are white. 

The thorax, head, and abdomen above are black ; 
underside of the pronotal collar is red, antenna? black ; 
thorax with the basal red patch ; dorsum of abdomen black 
except the last 5 annulations, 4 of which are partially 
greenish-yellow — the anal valves brown ; legs black, long, 
and slender. 

Length of costa 65 mms. ; of outer margin 55 and of 
inner margin about 36 mms. ; greatest width 36 mms. ; 
greatest width of posterior wing 30, and length 45 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 23, and of thorax with 
head 23 mms. 

of legs : 

1st pair: femur 11; tibia 9; tarsi, 11 mms. 
2nd ,, ,, 11 ; ,, 14 ; ,, 15 ,, 
3 f d ,, 9; II J 15 

Hab. Oinainisa, Timor. 

2 . Anterior wing light brown ; i-3rd of the cell, distal 
end, ochraceous white ; the discal rays broad and of the 
same colour, subdued by brown atoms. 

Undersurface, as above, but the light portions whiter ; 
fringe lunules ochraceous white. 

Posterior wing black, with a narrow discal and disco- 
cellular band golden-yellow, but whitish towards the inner 
margin ; a row of discal yellow spots, nearly obsolete ; the 
anal angle ochraceous white. 

Undersurface of wing as above, the light yellow area, 
and discal band of spots more distinct and white ; an 
apical > shaped light mark ; the fringe lunules as on the 
anterior wings. 

Head, thorax and abdomen above, brown black — the 
latter short with yellow lateral continuations of the subdorsal 
yellow, near the termination of the abdomen. Under 
side of thorax with the legs black, long, and slender, and 
the usual basal red patch ; abdomen yellow, but the 
segments strongly accentuated with black. 

Length of costa 78, of outer margin 56, and inner 
margin 44 mms. ; greatest width of posterior 38, and 
length 54 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 25, and of thorax with 
head 22 mms. 

t t i r t fist pair: femur, 10; tibia, 10 ; tarsi, 13 
Le "S th ° f \ e - s 2nd,, „ 12 „ 15 

with trochanters |^ 

Hab. Oinainisa, Dutch Timor. 
From the Tring Museum. 

15 ; 




Troidei Criton, var. Felderi, <? Rothschild, " Novitates Zoologies," vol. ii., page 210 (1895). 

$ . Anterior wings dark brown, with the adnervular 
light rays, especially the upper ones, so densely scaled 
with brown atoms as to render them almost obsolete ; the 
distal end of the cell with a light patch of one third the 
cell length also as densely scaled ; the veins sufficiently 
expressed ; the dark brown of the wings with a distinct 
olive-green sheen, when seen in certain positions. 

Undersurface as above, but the light adnervular rays 
and marks of the disc and cell are reddish and greenish- 
grey, and only slightly subdued by scaling : the brown of 
the wings has also a more silky greenish sheen than on 
the upper surface ; the pseudoneura are well shown in the 
cell, though invisible on the upper surface ; the fringe 
lunations are continuous, and rufous white. 

Posterior wings dark brown, with a silky greenish tex- 
ture ; a large discal area of orange-tinted white, which en- 
croaches one-fourth within the cell, and contains five large 
submarginal black ovoid spots ; in the subcostal area 
above them are two light spots, indicating the continuation 
of the light area, but broken up ; the outer margin is grace- 
fully scalloped, and the fringe rather redder in colour than 
the discal light area ; the light lunations below the black 
ovoid spots are thickly scaled. The under-surface of the 
wings the same in pattern as above, but the submarginal 

row of black spots (six in number) are smaller than above, 
the light spaces below them are only slightly scaled, the 
outer marginal brown band is strongly dentate, the light 
area is whiter than on the upper surface, and the base 
of the wings darker than above ; the marginal fringe very 

Length of costa of anterior wing 70 mms. ; of outer 
margin 39 mms. Greatest length of posterior wing, 45 
mms. ; greatest width 35 mms. 

Head and thorax velvety brownish-black ; eyes very 
dark brown ; abdomen rufous brown, with lateral and 
subdorsal yellow, subdued by brown atoms, and with 
lateral black dots and the articulations strongly expressed 
with black. 

Antennae densely black, legs black, thorax with the 
usual red pectoral patches. 

Length of abdomen or antennas 27 mms., of thorax with 
the head 20 mms. 

Habitat : Halmaheira. 
Figured on plate 41. 



Troldes Criton, var. Oberthiiri, s of Rothschild, " Novitates Zoologies," vol. ii., page aio (1895). 

A much larger variety, more in size like P. Critonoides 
of Friihstorfer, from the island of Oby, and very much in 
pattern like P. Riedeli ? of Kirsch : in fact a description 
of Riedeli would almost do to represent the characters of 

Anterior wings velvety black, the veins stout and 
prominent ; the adnervular rays ochraceous white, subdued 
towards their distal ends by black scaling, and broad at 
nearest to the cell ; within the cell at the distal end i-4th 
of the area is also ochraceous white, subdued by scal- 
ing, the whole forming a very prominent white transverse, 
central area of about i-4th of the entire wing, or about 24 
mms. at its broadest and 12 mms. at its narrowest; this 
light area extends across the wing from the 2nd subcostal 
to the 3rd median nervules — at the latter it is isolated as 
an independent adnervular ray, terminating at each end 
equidistant from the outer margin and the discoidal cell ; 
faint trace of the rays are found on the submedian fold. 
The pseudoneura can be traced in the light end of the 
cell on both surfaces. 

Under surface of the wings as above. 

Posterior wings velvety black ; a large discal area, and 
the distal i-3rdofthe cell golden yellow; the five rather 
large ovoid black discal spots united with the very broad 
submarginal black border ; the abdominal marginal and 
submedian area silky brown, with a greenish tinge. 

Under-surface as above, except that the black is not 
quite so velvety, and a small light yellow streak is found 
midway of the submedian fold. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen somewhat pilose velvety 
black on the dorsi ; eyes nitid black ; thorax on the sub- 
dorsum and the legs, black ; with the usual pectoral red 
patch ; abdomen yellow, with broad black articulations 
and the usual row of lateral black dots ; the anal tuft dark 

Length of costa 78 mms.; of posterior margin 58, and 
of interior margin 43 mms. ; greatest length of posterior 
wing 4g and of width 34 mms. Length of thorax with the 
head 22 mms. ; of abdomen or antennae 29 mms. 

The pronotal collar is carmine red. 

Habitat : Halmaheira. Taken by the late Mr. Doherty 
in 1892. 

It may be remarked that this 2 is distinctly unlike that 
of the type form of Criton. In the latter the rays of 
either of the anterior wings are only faintly traceable ; in 
Oberthiiri we see that the light portions are very con- 
spicuous ; on the two surfaces of the posterior wings there 
is very little difference between the two forms. The 2 of 
Oberthiiri is also much larger than that of the typical form 
of Criton. 

The type form is found in the northern part of Batjan 
or Seki Island, and Oberthiiri at Halmaheira in the large 
Bay east of the island of Djilolo or Gilolo. Whether the 
<? of Oberthiiri differs in any respect from that of the 
typical Criton, 1 am unable to say ; but generally the 
females of the respective species of Troides have a greater 
tendency to variation than have the males. 

I must here take the opportunity of saying that the figs, 
on my plate of Criton are redrawn from the Felder types, 
while those on pages 28 and 29 of this vol. are also 
from specimens in Mr. Rothschild's Museum ; and I am 
indebted to him for the pleasure of describing the vars. 
Felderi and Oberthiiri, and figuring the latter. 

I would also call attention to the great differences be- 
tween the respective females of the Felder type, in plate 
40, of the typical form on page 29, and the var. 5, Oberthuri 
and Felderi on plate 41. 



Ornlthoptera Iris, Rober, " Ent. Nachrichten," page 369, 3 t. (1888). 

„ „ Staudinger, " Iris," iv , page 74 (1891) (as a local form of Haliphron ?) 

„ „ Rober, " Tijdschrift voor Ent." vol. xxxiv., page 270 (1890). (Iris differentiated from Haliphron). 

Troidei Haliphron Irii, Rothschild, •■ Novitates Zoologies:, vol. ii., page 208 (1895). 

6* . Anterior wings intensely velvety black, shot with 
grey reflections ; adnervular rays only just visible, or 
almost shaded into the black of the wing. Undersurface 
as above, except that the adnervular rays, and a slight indi- 
cation of white at the distal end of the cell are rather 
lighter ; fringe lunules dull white, and very delicate. 

Posterior wings velvety black, shot with grey reflec- 
tions ; a narrow discal band of yellow extending from the 
subcostal nervure to a speck of yellow outside the 3rd 
median nervure ; a small speck of yellow also at the distal 
end of the cell. Underside as above, except below the 
median vein and over the submedian area, which is rather 
lighter black. 

Head, antennae, thorax, and abdomen densely black, 
anal valves reddish black ; pronotal collar red ; underside 
of thorax black and red, abdomen black, legs robust and 

Length of costa of anterior wing 61, of outer margin 
58, and inner margin 30 mms. Width of posterior wing 

25, and length 39 mms. Length of abdomen or antennae 

26, and of head and thorax 20 mms. 

Length of Legsj^t P^r: femur, 9; tibia, 9; tarsi, 12 
with trochanter 2nd » " 9 ' " 12 ; " ^ 



12 ; 


? . Anterior wings light brown ; adnervular light rays 
sordid creamy-white, extending from the cell almost to 
the hind or outer margin, and from the costal nervure to 
the 3rd median nervule, again partly along the submedian 
fold, with a large leaf-like mark at or near the anal 
angle, through which the distal portion of the submedian 
vein passes. The sordid whitish mark also occupies 
rather more than i-3rd of the distal portion of the cell. 
Undersurface as above, except that the light marks are 
less sordid ; fringe rays creamy white and delicate. 

Posterior wings deep black, with olive grey reflections ; 
the central yellow patch of ruddy yellow is small, only 
extending on the disc from the ist discoidal nervure to 
the submedian fold, and i-4th of the cell at its distal end, 

or less than i-4th of the whole wing; fringe lunules 
creamy white ; undersurface as above, the yellow area 
whiter in tint. 

Head, antennae, eyes, thorax and abdomen above and 
below varying degrees of rather dark brown ; pronotal 
collar red ; pectoral patch also red. 

Length of costa of anterior wing 75, of outer margin 56, 
of inner margin 46 mms. Length of posterior wing 50, 
and width 33 mms. Length of abdomen or antennae 26 
mms. ; of thorax with the head 21 mms. 

Length of legs 
with trochanters 

ist pair, femur, 10; tibia, 9; tarsi, 10. 
2nd ,, „ 13; „ 13; T 4- 
3rd „ „ 12; „ 13; „ 13- 

Habitat, Island of Letti. 

The originals of my figures on PI. 646, and the subjects 
of these descriptions are in the Tring Museum of the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild. 

The pseudoneura in the cell of the anterior wing are 
in two groups, in both sexes. In the $ the ist or upper 
pseudoneurus originates at a short distance from the base 
of the subcostal vein, and terminates just beyond the 
base of its 3rd branch ; the 3 other pseudoneura com- 
mence at the base of the wing, spreading out fan-like to 
the distal end, or 2-3rds of the extent of the cell. In the 
? the arrangement is very nearly the same, but the ist 
and 4th commence at the base, while the 2nd and 3rd 
branch off a little above the base of the 4th. 

[The ? of this species closely resembles the var. of 
Dohertyi ? figured on Plate 64, figs. 7 and 9, but the 
posterior wings are more dentate in Dohertyi 2 , and the 
$ of Ins is smaller and different in outline from the same 
sex of Dohertyi. The pseudoneura of Dohertyi in both 
sexes are arranged in 2 groups of 2 each, the 2nd branch- 
ing from the ist at i-3rd of its length, and the 4th 
branching from the 3rd at half its length, — thereby show- 
ing that the two forms are only distantly related.] 


Ornithoptera Riedeli, Kirsch, "Proceedings of the Zoological Society," page 275, note 1, U tg, i, i ( f ). a (») (18S5). 
» » Rober, " Tijdschr. voor Ent." vol. xxxiv., page 266 (1891). (j ?). 

" » Grose-Smith and W. F. Kirby, ' • Rhopalocera Exotica," vol. ii., Orn. p. 3 t., 2 f. I, (<f). 2. (|). 189*. 

Troidea Riedeli, Rothschild, "Novit. Zoologicae," vol. ii., p. 211, n. 17. (1S93). 

<?. Anterior wings. Costa arcuate, though rather 
more slightly than in the 5 ; the outer margin nearly 
straight, but sufficiently curved into the costa at the 
apical angle ; interior margin nearly straight ; wings 
velvety or silky black, with a greenish sheen ; only the 
very faintest indications of the light adnervular rays on the 
3 median nervules. Under surface as above, except that 
the nervules have more or less broad light rays attached, 
but greatly subdued to a dark grey by black scaling ; the 
pseudoneura only visible in the cell on the under-surface 
—the lowest or 3rd bifurcating very near to the distal end 
of the cell. 

. Posterior wings, velvety-silky black, with a very broad 
discal area of rich ruddy golden yellow, and a small area 
of the same colour at the distal end of the cell ; this area 
of yellow is beautifully opalescent when viewed obliquely 
opposite the light, almost as richly as in the <? oiMagel- 
lanus, only the opalescent prevailing tone is olive green ; 
the submarginal black border is fairly broad, and lunate 
between each vein ; the outer margin of the wing is slightly 
lunate, with only the slightest trace of the light fringe 
lunations ; the veins running through the yellow area are 
well pronounced in black. 

Under surface as above, except that the yellow is les s 
coppery in tone, and the opalescence more richly green- 
The abdominal-marginal fringe short and sparse. The 
head, antennae, thorax, and abdomen velvety or silky 
black, pronotal collar carmine or coral red ; eyes nitid dark 
brown. The subdorsum of the thorax is black, the legs 
nitid black, the red pectoral patch only slightly seen ; the 
abdomen sub-dorsum black, with the three lower articula- 
tions slightly yellow, and the anal valves brown. 

Length of costa 68 mms. ; of outer margin 47 mms. ; of 
inner margin 33 mms ; greatest length of posterior wings 
44 and width 27 mms. 

Length of thorax with the head 25 mms. ; of abdomen 
25, and of antennae 30 mms. 

Length) 1st pair, Femur, 8 ; Tibia, 7 ; Tarsi, 8 mms. 

of ' 2n d „ „ 11; „ 10; ,, 10 „ 
Legs: J 3rd ,, ,, 10; ,, 11 ; „ 17 f> ' 

Habitat : Timor Laut. In the Author's Museum. 

5 . Anterior wings. Almost entirely like the upper 
wings of Criton var. oberthiiri, ? , except that the light area 
of the distal end of the cell is not quite so large, the ab- 
nervular light rays are whiter, and extend almost to the 
outer margin, and the black of the wings slightly warmer 
in tone. Under surface as above. 

Posterior wings like those of Oberthiiri except that the 
yellow discal area is not quite so extensive, being reduced 

between the 1st and 2nd discocellular nervules to four 
spots of colour ; that only a minute yellow spot is found 
at the distal end of the cell, the discal ovoid black spots 
are broader, and either separated by black-scaled yellow 
from the submarginal black band, or where connected are 
laterally scaled in the same manner ; the submarginal 
black is acutely lunate towards the discal spots, and the 
outer margin rather more lunate or dentate ; there is also 
a light fawn-coloured patch between the 3rd median branch 
and submedian fold, and a slight light scaled line on the 
lower part of the abdominal margin. Under surface as 
above, except that the yellow portions are less ruddy in 
tone, there is no dark scaling, and the fawn-tinted white 
of the submedian area above becomes yellow on the 
underside. The yellow portions of the wing on both 
surfaces are, when viewed obliquely opposite the light, 
opalescent green — most prominently on the underside. In 
Oberthiiri this is not the case. 

Length of costa of anterior wing 82 mms. ; of outer 
margin 58 mms. ; of inner margin 45 mms. Length of 
posterior wing 55, and greatest width, 39 mms. 

Head, antennae and thorax black, eyes nitid dark 
brown ; abdomen warm silky-brown. Under side of thorax 
velvety black, with the usual lateral red patches; 
the legs nitid black ; abdomen black the last four 
articulations laterally and subdorsally scaled, and golden 
yellow ; anal tuft brown ; the lateral black dots only four 
in number. Only three of the anterior cell pseudoneura 
are traceable beneath, the 2nd or central one seen pro- 
minently in the distal white area. 

Length of thorax with head, 10 mms. ; of abdomen or 
antennae, 15 mms. 

Length fist pair, Femur, 10; Tibia, 10; Tarsi, 13 mms. 

of j2ndpair, „ 11; ,, 12; „ 15 ,, 
Legs: (3rd pair, „ 10; „ 12; ,, 16 „ 

Habitat : Timor Laut. 

If we were only acquainted with the 2 of this species 
we should be inclined to regard it as a fine example 
of Criton v. oberthiiri, notwithstanding the difference of 
locality ; but the knowledge of the 6* makes it a certainty 
that it is a different species from Oberthiiri, and an instance 
of persistence of typal pattern in the females. 

In the Author's Museum. 

Timor Laut is the largest of a group of small islands 
situated south-west of the Aroe or Aru Archipelago, and 
exactly west of the Southern part of New Guinea and 
Prince Frederick Henry Island, in the Arafura sea. 
Tenimber Island is a little north, and the Kei Islands, 
north-east of Timor Laut. All these islands are rich in 
fine Papilionidae and Ornithoptera. 



Ornithoptera Ehadamanthus, Boisduval, " Species General Lepidoptera," vol. i„ page 180, note 8 ( ¥ , toe ¥ var. a, nec 3 (1836) ? . 

„ „ Doubleday, Wesiwood and Hewitson, " Genera Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. L, page 4, note 10 (1846) 3 ? . 

a , Horsfield and Moore, " Cat. Lep. E-India, Comp. Museum," vol. i„ page 88, note 1857) 3 ? . 

„ „ Reakirt, ' : Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia," p. 444, n. 1 (1864) 3 ¥ . 

„ „ Moore, "Proc. Zool. Soc," p. 755 (1865). 3 ¥. 

„ „ Druce, "Proc. Zool. Soc," p. 108, n. 1 (1874). 3 ¥. 

„ „ Distant, "Rhop. Maiayana," p. 326. n. i. t. 27a, fig. 5 ( ¥ ), and p. 327. f. 106 {3) (1885). 

„ „ Wood-Mason and Niceville, "Journal Asiatic Soc. Bengal," p. 373, n. 172 (1886). 3 ?• 

„ ,. Elwes and Niceville, "Journ. As. Soc. Bengal," p. 438, n. 148. (1886). 3 ¥. 

„ „ Elwes, "Trans. Ent. Soc. London," p, 422, n. 393 (1888). 3 ¥ . 

„ „ Watson, "Journal As. Soc. Bengal," p. 53, n. 205 (1891). 3 ¥ . 

„ „ Swinhoe, "Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.," p. 311, n. 371 (1893). 3 ? . 

„ „ Leech, " Butterflies of China," p. 513 (1893). 3 ¥ . 

„ „ de Niceville, " Gazetteer of Sikkim," p. 170 n. 457 (1S94). 3 7 . 

Papilio Rhadamanthus, Gray, "Cat. Lep, Ms. B. Mas." vol. i., p. 6., n. 14 (1852). 

„ „ Gray, "List Lep. Ins. B. Mus." vol. i., p. 5, n. 16 (1856). 

Ornithoptera .ffiacus, Felder, " Wien. Ent. Mon." vol. iv., p. 225, n. 71 (i860). ¥. 
Papilio (Eacus, Felder, "Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien," p. 291, n. 33 ? . 

Ornithoptera Rhadamanthus, v. Amphrisius, Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep." p. 520 (1871) 3 . 

„ „ Staudinger and Schatz, " Exot. Schmett.," vol. i., p. 4. (1884). 3. 

„ „ Fickert, " Ueber die Zeichn. Gatt. Orn.," p. 733, 743 (1889). 3. 

„ „ var. Thomsoni, Bates, "Thomson's Straits of Malacca," p. 546(1875). 3. 

„ Minos, Obertbiir, "Et. d'Ent., vol iv., p. 32, n. 14 (1879). 

„ ■> i> vol. xi., p. 14 (1886). 

Papilio (Ornith.) Rhadamanthus, Niceville, "Journ. As. Soc. Bengal," p. 98, n. 255 (18S3). 3 ? . 
Ornithoptera CEacus, Manders, " Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 535 (1890). 3 ¥ . 
Troides OEacus, Rothschild, "Novit. Zoological," v. 223, n. 20 (1895). 3 ¥ •* 

Ornithoptera 03acus, Moore, "Lepidoptera Indica," vol. v., p. 148, plate 422, f. 1, ia (igoi-1903). 3 ¥ . 
Pompeoptera .Eacus, Rippon, in Wyteman's " Genera Insectorum," Fam. Papilionidaa, Sec. Troides," p. 14. (1902). 

In the examination of a large series of the oriental 
species ^Eacus, 2 , we are at once struck by the amount 
of variation within very restricted limits to which the 
different examples are subject : and the fact also that 
though no two specimens are quite alike, yet the wing 
patterns are always practically identical one with the 
other. The differences appear to be on the anterior wings in 
the width of the adnervular discal rays, the amount of 
sordid white in the cell, and the more or less broad and 
graceful character of the submedian light area. On the 
secondary wings the discal black marks between the veins 
vary in length and breadth in the different examples — 
thereby continually modifying the amount of the yellow 
area, though not to any great extent, and the appearance 
of the indented submarginal band is also slightly affected. 
I give, on the plate devoted to this species figures of Felder's 
type, which may be compared with those drawn from 
examples in my own collection, to illustrate my point. It 
is also of interest to note the remarkably close resemblance 
of the 2 2 of this species, to some of those of Cerberus, 
another widely distributed oriental form. The $ $ of 
iEacus exhibit very little tendency to variation — though 
the bodies of no two examples are alike in the way in 
which the yellow and black are distributed ; but the $ S 
of Cerberus, on the posterior wings, vary incessantly in the 
number of the black orbicles on the disc, as is the case 
very much with the Javan Pompeus. 

8 . Primaries deep velvety black ; the light adnervular 
rays extend from the 3rd median branch up the disc to the 
third subcostal vein ; they are broad in the middle portion 
of the disc, and extend in length nearly close to the outer 
margin of the wings ; they are all semi-diaphanous, and 
denseley but minutely scaled, so as to greatly subdue their 
whiteness into a nitid grey : the light of any bright object 
can be seen through these rays, when the insect is held it : 

if the insect is held over a dark object all the rays appear 
very dark grey, but as a matter of fact they take the 
colour faintly of any object over which the wing is placed. 

This observation it may be here stated, applies very 
much to the rays of some of the other forms or the Genus 
Pompeoptera ; only a faint trace of this nitid grey is found 
at the distal end, and halfway along above the median 
nervule, in any of the examples ; the veins of the wings 
are very black and stout, but the submedian nervure is 
only just traceable in the black of the lower part of the 
wing. The under surface of the primaries is nearly as 
above, except that the cell contains a larger area of grey : 
the central black band is divided by grey, the pseudoneura 
are well shown, the adnervular rays are broader and 
lighter, and the space above the submedian vein is partly 
occupied with the same intensity of grey — the interior 
margin alone being quite black : thus the underside is 
altogether much lighter than the upper side. 

The posterior wings are a rich silky golden yellow ; the 
veins are very black — the median and discocelluar nervules 
being the stoutest ; the base is black ; a submarginal 
band of three rather long conical, one dentate, and two 
lunate black marks constitute the black outer margin of 
the wing— the three lowest with a bordering and apex of 
black scales ; the submedian area and abdominal fold are 

The undersurface as above, except that the hind sub- 
marginal black marks are more uniform in shape and with- 
out any bordering of black scales ; the submedian black is 
narrow from the base till half-way, when it broadens out 
to the 3rd median vein, with a small triangulate yellow 
spot near to the inner angle ; and the abdominal margin is 
silky rufous ; the abdominal marginal fringe of black hairs 



[In an example from Rossel Island, on both surfaces of 
the posterior wings, between the 2nd and 3rd median'ner- 
vules is a discal suboval black spot. In another example, 
the submedian area is silky yellow, with two black spots at 
its lower end ; and the light rays of the anterior wings on 
the undersurface are considerably broader than in the 
examples quoted above.] 

Head and thorax velvety black ; antennas black ; pro- 
notal collar coral red. Underside black, with the usual 
pectoral red patches ; legs black ; eyes nitid brown. 
Abdomen above, rufous grey, and black towards the anal 
end, the articulations lemon yellow ; on the underside 
yellow, with the usual lateral black dots ; anal valves dark 

Length of costa of anterior wing 68 mms. ; of outer 
margin, 50 mms. ; of inner margin, 33 mms. The pos- 
terior wing rounded, with the costa much curved — the 
abdominal margin nearly straight, and 31 mms. in length. 
Greatest width of wings 28 mms., greatest length 39 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennas 26, and of thorax with 
head, 20 mms. 

Length ( 1st pair : Femur, 9; Tibia, 7; Tarsi, 10 mms. 
of < 2nd ,, . ,, 10 ; „ 11 ; ,, 12 ,, 
Legs 1.3rd ,, : „ 11; ,, 10; ,, 13 ,, 

2 . Anterior wings rufous black ; the adnervular rays 
grey white, with a creamy tint, all delicately scaled. 
The grey white streaks of the discoidal cell extend from 
the distal end half way towards the base of the wing, 
thereby framing in one half of the black cell area ; in this 
light grey frame the pseudoneura are quite seen ; in some 
examples the black area is divided half-way towards the 
base by the grey into two beautfully shaped pyriform marks, 
their widest ends being at the distal part of the cell, and 
the second or central pseudoneurus passes midway through 
the grey like a true vein ; the other pseudoneurae are 
well shown in the grey framing, until they are lost in 
the black towards the cell base ; but between these two 
varieties of cell pattern there are many gradations, till in 
some examples the grey almost entirely occupies the cell 
nearly to the base, leaving the black pyriform marks very 
small and shorter in length. 

The undersurface of the wing as above, only that the 
light marks are a little lighter, and not scaled, except in 
the cell, and the black becomes more of a greyish brown. 

Posterior wings, outwardly lunate, yellow ; the outer 
margin consists of a band of seven cone-like black 
lunations, extending into the disc about 10 mms. each, 
or 13 mms. each from the base of each section 
of the outer margin ; a transverse discal band of seven 
pyriform black marks, varying in length, of which the two 
nearest the abdominal margin are the longest, and the 
mark midway of the disc is the smallest ; the base of the 
discoidal cell to i-3rd is black, and also the base of the 
submedian area— the latter being creamy-whitish entirely 
to the inner margin, and slightly scaled ; one half of the 
lower part of the wing, nearest to the abdomen, is dark 
scaled ; the veins are very stoutly black, especially the 
the subanal ones, the latter separated from each other by 
yellow, and from the black of the marginal lunations ; and 
the scaling of the corresponding portion of the wing on the 
upper side is absent from the undersurface. 

_ Head, antennas, and thorax black, eyes castaneous 
nitid brown, pronotal collar crimson, underside of 
thorax and legs black, with the usual lateral or pectoral 
crimson patches. Abdomen above dark silky brown : 
beneath yellow, with two rows of lateral black dots, [the 
males have only one], anal tuft deep fleshy red. 

Length of costa 86 mms. ; of outer margin 64 mms. ; 
of interior margin 40 mms. ; greatest width of wing 45 
mms. Greatest length of the posterior wing 52 mms. ; 
greatest width 38 mms. 

, Length ( 1st pair: Femur, 11; Tibia, 6; Tarsi, 10 mms. 
of 2nd „ : „ 12; ,, 8; „ 13 
Legs: (3rd „ : „ 12 ; „ 8; „ 15 „ 

Habitat. Assam. In the Author's Museum. 

An example of the ? of this species in my collection, 
from Omei Shan is bluish-grey on the anterior wing rays ; 
the cell has two short narrow pyriform black marks only, 
and is densely scaled on a grey ground nearly to the base ; 
and the discal and submarginal black marks of the 
posterior wing on the under surface are rather smaller, 
the submarginal more oblong, more separate from the 
black frings lunules, and the discal marks are quite conical. 
Length of anterior wing costa 82 mms. The underside 
of the abdomen with the second row of lateral black dots 
so large as to occupy nearly all that part of the body. 

In a second example from the same locality, all the 
marks of the posterior wing are broader and longer, so as 
almost to touch each other, and to greatly restrict the 
yellow area of the disc on the upper surface. 

[Note. — The scaling of the lower half of the posterior 
wings on the upper surface is a constant character in the 
2 of this species, and serves to readily distinguish it from 
the S 2 of Minos or Cerberus. ] 

Habitats: Cochin China; Darjiling ; Bengal; Siam ; 
Malay Peninsula ; Cachar ; Tavoy and Sinbyoodine ; 
common in the hot valley of Sikkim — at an elevation of 
2,000 to 3,000 feet, common in low valleys from May 
to October ; Chin Lushai ; Khasia Hills in Assam ; China 
many localities ; Western China ; Nepaul ; Moulmein ; 
Tonking ; var. of the form (Thompsoni) Straits of Malacca ; 
Burmah ; Ta-tsien-lu ; Shan States ; Tenasserim ; Masuri 
(N.W. Himalaya) ; Dacca ; Sagaing or Saigon ? Ava 
(Lower Burmah) ; The Hills of Chittagong; Upper 
Mekong ; Omei Shan ; Rossel Island. 

A specimen of the <? from Oby or Obim Island in the 
Author's Museum, only differs from the typical examples 
from other localities in having on both surfaces of the 
posterior wings, just above the submarginal cone, and 
between the 2nd and 3rd median branches a suboval black 
spot, and an increased density of the delicate black hairs 
which flow longitudinally over the yellow area within the 
2nd and 3rd median branches, and the submedian yellow 
from the base. 

The Island of Oby, or Obim as it is spelled in my map 
in vol. I., and also in the old maps of this region, is a 
small mass of land situated south, with a slight inclination 
east of Batjan, in longitude i2j°2o' to i28°io', and S. 
latitude i°i5' to i°4o'. 


Ornithoptera Amphimedon ? , Doubleday and Hewitson, " Genera Diurnal Lepidoptera," t. i, f. 2. (1846.) 
Papilio Darsius, Gray, "Cat. Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus." I., p. 5, n. 11. (1852.) 3 $ . 
„ „ Gray, "List. Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus." I., p. 4, n. 13. (1856.) <? ? . 

„ „ Horsfield and Moore, "Cat. Lep Ins. Mus. East India Company," I„ p. 87, n. 176, t. 2, f. 2, 2a, larva, pupa. (1857.) 

„ „ Felder, "Wien Ent. Monatschrift," iv., p. 97, (i860.) St. 

Ornithoptera Darsius, Tennent, " Nat. Hist. Ceylon," p. 425. (1861.) 
Papilio Darsius, Felder, " Verh. zubei Ges. Wien," p, zgi, n. 24. (1864.) <? ? . 
Papilio „ W. F. Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lepid." p. 519. (1871.) 
Ornithoptera Darsius, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," iv., p. 30, n. 8, (1879.) 3 S . 
Ornithoptera „ Moore, " Lepidoptera of Ceylon," vol. i., p. 155, rigs. 1, ia, lb. (1881.) i ? . 

„ „ P. H. Gosse, " Clasping Organs in certain Lepidoptera," in " Proc. Linn, Soc." series II., Zoology, vol. ii., pp. 286, 287, plate xxvi., figs. 8-11. (188* 

„ „ Fickert, " Ueber die. Zeichn. Gatt. Ornith." pp. 736 and 743 (in Zoologischen Jahrbuchern) . (1889.) it. 

„ „ F. A. Walker, " Oriental Entomology," part ii., p. 15. (1889.) 

Troides Darsius, Rothschild, " Novitates Zoological," vol. ii., p. 203, n. 10. (1895.) $ t . 

„ „ Moore, " Lepidoptera Indicas," vol. v., p. 149, plate 418, fig. 1. larva and pupa, ia, lb. (1901-1903.) f? ? . 

This species is only to be found in the Island of Ceylon. 
As far as I am aware no example has ever been taken in 
any other locality. It is also the only species of Troides 
inhabitating Ceylon, a rather remarkable fact, considering 
that other much smaller eastern islands and localities are 
richer in the forms of this group, and that Ceylon supplies 
over 16 species of Papilio, the majority of which are found 
commonly also in India. Of other butterflies of the 1st 
sub-family of Papilionidse, viz., the Pierinae, about 27 
species, belonging to 9 Genera also inhabit the island, 
making in the two sub-families, about 44 species, or 11 
Genera ; or, allowing for new discoveries since the time 
when Sir E. Tennent wrote his Natural History of Ceylon, 
50 species and 11 or 12 genera — a very fair number for 
one family of Lepidoptera. 

O. Darsius is generally found hovering over the flowers 
of the heliotrope, according to Sir E. Tennent, seeking the 
honey which that flower supplies ; but the larva feeds on 
the leaves of the aristolochia, and the betel leaf. It is the 
largest of the Ceylon Diurnea — though rivalled sometimes 
by the glorious Papilio polymnester, and the spectre like 
Hestia Jasonia. Of course, among the Heterocerous Lepi- 
doptera we find much larger species ; as for example 
Attacus atlas, the cinnamon feeding moth, common at 
Columbo, often 12 inches in expanse of wings ; A. lunula, 
Anther <za Myletta (the Tusseh silk moth which feeds on 
the wild almond Terminalia Catappa, and the castor oil 
plant), A. Assama, and Tropcea Selena, the milky-green 
swallow-tailed silk moth. Indeed, in almost every part of 
the world the Bombycidce and Noctuidce furnish many much 
larger insects than are to be met with among the day 
butterflies, with the exception of the S. and Central 
American Caligos. 

$ . Anterior wings a rich velvety black ; the adnervu- 
lar rays almost obsolete, or only faintly visible — being so 
intensely subdued by brown-black scaling ; the veins only 
just detectable. Undersurface of wing, as above, except 
that the light rays are less obscure, especially those 
bordering the 3 median nervules : which are of subdued 
olive-grey ; the black areas of the wing are slightly shot 
with bluish olive green ; the veins on this surface appear 
to be very thin. 

Posterior wings, velvety black ; the lower third of the 
discoidal cell golden yellow ; a broad discal area of the 

same yellow divided into 6 compartments by the veins ; 
outer submarginal band very broad, and sinuate : the out- 
line of the wing lunate : the light fringe lunules only slightly 
visible in the wings ; the veins dividing the yellow area of 
the disc very stout and jet black ; the abdominal fold 
which conceals the androconia deep brownish-black. 
Undersurface in every respect as above, except that the 
black is slightly shot with bluish reflections ; and the inner 
margin is rufous brown. The pseudoneura of the anterior 
wings are faintly visible. 

Head, antennae and thorax, velvety black ; eyes, nitid 
brown ; pronotal collar, red, but obscure : abdomen, 
dorsally piceous-brown — the annuli slightly indicated with 
yellowish-grey — subdorsally the abdomen is yellow, sub- 
dued by brown scales ; anal valves brown-grey. Under- 
sides of thorax black, with the usual pectoral red marks. 

Length of costa, 74 mms. ; of posterior margin, 52 mms. ; 
of interior margin, 40 mms. Greatest width of wing 38 
mms. Greatest length of posterior wing, 50 mms. ; and 
with, 30 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennas, 32 mms. ; of thorax 
with head 20 mms. 

Length f 1st pair : Femur, g ; Tibia, 7; Tarsi, 11 mms. 
of \ 2nd „ . ,, 11 ; „ 12 ; ,, 14 „ 
Legs (-3rd ,, : „ 10; ,, 11; ,, 14 „ 
including the trochanters. 

Habitat : Ceylon. 

The area of yellow at the distal end of the posterior 
wing cell varies in the different individuals of this sex, as 
well as in shape ; in some it is rather more extensive than 
in the example described above ; in others it is only an 
obsolete spot, while in others the whole cell may be black. 
On the undersurface of the anterior wings also the ad- 
nervular rays in some examples are well expressed, and 
all of them much lighter than in the above example ; the 
subdorsum and sides of the abdomen also may be found 
well marked by a double row of black spots or patches, be- 
coming coalescent, and filling the whole of the basal 
annuli. Length of costa in two other examples 70 and 
84 mms. respectively. 



5 . Anterior wings a rich raw-sienna brown ; the ad- 
nervular rays very prominent and creamy-white, especially 
nearest the cell, but greatly subdued towards the outer 
margin ; the triangular space partially bounded by the 2nd 
and 3rd subcostal nervules is white, and there are also 3 
white subcostal lines above this ; the submedian fold with 
a short white double line ; the submedian vein is also 
bordered 1.3rd its length with a creamy-white ray ; the 
distal end of the cell with a small double arcuate white 
mark ; all the veins prominent and blacker than the colour 
of the wing. Undersurface nearly exactly as above, except 
that the discal rays are a little lighter than above. Fringe 
lunules creamy white, and sufficiently prominent. 

Posterior wings deep black from the base to within 
about 1.4th of the distal end of the cell, and transversely 
in a nearly straight line from the submedian fold to the 
1st discocellular nervule ; then follows a rather narrow 
discal area or band of yellow, divided into compartments 
by the thick black veins, the distal fourth of the cell being 
of the same colour, and the submedian portion creamy- 
white ; next comes a transverse discal broad band of black 
cones and marks, extending from the submedian vein till 
it blends with the costal black ; an outer transverse band 
of yellow marks or dentations, subdued by scaling follows, 
and lastly a broad submarginal border of black lunations, 
with their fringe lunules prominent, and creamy-white ; 
the abdominal marginal fold is dark sienna brown. 

Undersurface as above, except that the anterior wings 
are darker, and the rays lighter : and that all the black 
parts of the posterior wings are darker, and the yellow 
much brighter. 

Head, antennae and thorax, velvety black; pronotal 
collar, narrow and crimson ; eyes, nitid brown ; abdomen 
above, rufous brown ; lateral and dorsal portions, yellow, 
with double rows of black spots ; the 3 annuli nearest the 

base almost filled up with black : the anal articulation 
quite rufous black ; thorax beneath, with the crimson 
lateral or pectoral spots ; legs, black. 

Length of costa, 82 mms. ; of outer margin, 60 mms. ; 
of inner margin, 40 mms ; greatest width of wing, 50 mms. ; 
greatest length of posterior wing, 50, and width 37 mms. 
Length of abdomen or antennae, 50 mms. ; of thorax with 
head, 15 mms. ; width of abdomen, 10 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair 
2nd ,, 

femur 10 ; tibia, 8 ; tarsi, 10 mms. 
15; . » 12; ,. 15 „ 

including the trochanters. 

There is a certain amount of blue sheen on the under- 
surface of the anterior wings. 

Habitat : Ceylon. 

In another example of the ? the anterior wings and the 
posterior cell are a lighter and warmer brown, and the 
general black of the posterior wings tends towards warm 
brown, while all the yellow areas are of a more subdued 
yellow on the underside of the wings. Length of costa of 
the anterior, 85 mms. In a third and smaller example the 
light rays are more restricted and subdued on the anterior 
wings, which are warmer brown ; the upper or basal half 
of the posterior wing is warm rufous brown ; the yellow 
discal area is narrower, and the lower half of the wing black, 
with only a transverse band of nearly obsolete yellow 
cuneiform marks ; the fringe lunules, dull yellow — all the 
lighter marks on the undersurface of both wings being a 
little brighter and more defined. Length of anterior costa, 
71 mms. 

Habitat : Ceylon. 

In the Museum of the Author. 


Papilio Eques Trojanus Minos, Cramer, " Pap. Exot." vol. iii., 4, t, 195, f. a. (1779.) ? . 
Papilio Eques Trojanus Astenous, Fabricius, " Spec. Ins." vol. ii., p. 10, n. 38. (1781.) 

» „ , t » Jablonsky and Herbst, " Naturs. Schmetteriinge," vol. i., p. 206, n. 7, t. 4, f. 2. (1782.) 

» h » « Gmelin, " Syst. Nat.'' vol. i., 5, p. 2234, n. 297. (1790.) $ . 

„ „ „ Minos, Esper, " Ausl. Schmett." p. 127, n. 56, t. 32, f, 1. (1792.) 

V » » Astenous, Fabricius, " Ent. Syst." vol. iii., I., p. 19, n. 52. (1793 ) ?. 

Papilio Amphrysius, Godart, Encycl. Meth., vol. ix., p. 27, n. 7. (1819.) ? . 

Ornithoptera Heliacon, Boisduval, " Species General Lepidopteres," vol. i., p. 178, n. 7. (1836.) J . 
Papilio Pompeus, var. e Minos, W. F. Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep." p. 518. (1872.) 
„ Minos, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Ent." iv., p. 32, n. 14. (1879.) 3 ? . 

„ Pompeus, var. Minos, Wood Mason, "Journal Asiatic Society Bengal," p. 86. (1881.) 3 ? . 

„ Minos, Staudinger and Schatz, " Exotische Schmett. "vol. i., p. 5. (1884.) <??. 

„ „ Aitken, " Journal Bombay Nat, Hist. Soc, p. 35, n. 73. (1887.) 3 s , 

Papilio (0.) Minos, Hampson, "Journal As. Soc. Bengal," p. 363, n. 193. (1888.) <? ? . 

„ Davidson and Aitken, Ibid, p. 361, n. 64. (1890.) (Life History). 

„ Pompeus, var. Minos. Fickert, " Ueber die Zeichnungsv. Gatt. Ornith." p. 730. (1890.) 

Papilio (0.) Minos, Fergusson, "Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Society," p. 445, n. 167. (1891.) 
Troides Minos, Rothschild, " Novit. Zoologicae," p. 203, n. 11. (1895.) 3 ? 

Ornithoptera Minos, F. Moore, " Lepidoptera Indica," vol. v., p. 142, pi, 419, figs. 1 larve and pups, 1a, 3, ib, ? . (igoi-1903.) 

$ . Anterior wings velvety or silky black, with a 
greenish-olive sheen, when viewed obliquely opposite the 
light ; the adnervular light rays in some positions almost 
obsolete, — in others just visible, — if held over any light 
object, such as a sheet of white paper, they appear some- 
what prominent, and of a dull reddish black, the membrane 
at such positions being semi-diaphanous, silky, and densely 
scaled with infinitely minute dark atoms ; half-way from 
the base of the wing the median nervure and a small 
portion of the 3rd nervule is bordered with pale yellow, 
subdued by black atoms, as is also the upper part of the 
median nervure. All the veins except the costal and sub- 
costal, and the submedian are well shown and stout ; the 
pseudoneura, examined obliquely, are sufficiently visible ; 
the fringe lunules of the outer margin are very thin, and 
are white. Underside of anterior wing as above, except 
that the adnervular rays are very prominent and greenish 
white, yellowish towards the bases of the median vein, and 
that the outline of the discoidal cell within is prominently 
bordered with the same light colour nearly to the base of 
the median, and i-3rd from the distal end to the 1st sub- 
costal nervule ; the pseudoneura are like true veins, and 
slightly and gracefully bordered also with the light marks ; 
a few grey atoms between the 2nd and 3rd submedian 
branch, and two submedian grey rays are also present. 

Posterior wings rich silky golden yellow, filling the whole 
cell, and occupying nearly the whole of the disc ; the sub- 
median and abdominal-marginal areas are velvety black ; 
the precostal basal area reddish black ; the black hind- 
marginal band or border is very broad, deeply lunate, or 
rather, dentate towards the disc : the apices of the two 
lower dentations with a small patch of black scaling ; a 
mass of very delicate black hairs flow from the of the cell 
on to the yellow, half-way of its length, and over the 
median and submedian areas ; the outer marginal white 
fringe lunations are very thin ; the outline of the posterior 
margin is delicately lunate. Undersurface as above, 
except that a small black discal spot is within the 2nd 
and 1st median nervules : all the marginal dentations are 
bordered with greenish yellow-grey stripes : a grey line 
borders the 3rd median branch : an orbicular black spot 
is found on the same branch, just above its corresponding 
dentation : a congeries of grey atoms is on the submedian 

black : and the abdominal fold underside is fawn-brown, 
to which is attached a dense fringe of black hairs. The 
yellow on both surfaces of the wings is suffused slightly 
with a pale green ; the veins stout and very black. 

Length of anterior wing costa, 74 mms. ; length of outer 
margin 54 mms. ; length of inner margin 37 mms. ; greatest 
width of wing about 46 mms. ; greatest length of posterior 
wing 47, and width 37 mms. 

Thorax and head velvety black ; antennae black ; eyes 
nitid brown ; underside of thorax brown-black, with the 
usual lateral red patches ; legs nitid dark brown ; thorax 
yellow, with a central longitudinal stripe of fawn yellow ; 
anal valves fawn-grey ; abdomen dorsally yellow, with two 
lateral rows of black dots or spots, the uppermost only 
partially visible. 

Length of abdomen or antennae, J32 mms. ; of thorax 
with head, 22 mms. 


Legs : 

1st pair 
2nd ,, 
3rd „ 

Femur, 11 ; Tibia, 7 ; 
,, 12 ; ,, 10 ; 
„ 13; >. 11; 

Tarsi, 11 mms. 

„ 13 M 

Habitat : Shivaroy Hills. 

2 . Anterior wings dark brown — slightly lighter towards 
the outer margin ; adnervular light rays all very prominent, 
and gracefully formed, each one terminating very near the 
outer margin, and ochraceous grey in tint, slightly reduced 
and shaded outwardly by atomic scaling ; the angle 
between the 2nd and 3rd subcostal nervules is also of the 
same tint ; the submedian vein runs through a bordering 
of the same tint from about half-way from the base to near 
the outer margin, the lower division of the light-tinted 
mark being extended to the inner-marginal outline by a 
coalescent patch of light atoms ; the inner outlines of the 
discoidal cell from the distal end to within a little of the 
base is of the same light tint, so reduced towards the base 
by red-brown scaling as to be lost in the dark brown at 
very near the base of the cell ; the costa is very black to 
about half-way from the base ; the veins are all very stout 
and dark, and the pseudoneura can be sufficiently traced 
at their terminals : the submedian fold is also fairly 


4 o 

Undersurface as above, except that all the light rays 
are somewhat brighter: there is a light submedian fold-ray, 
and the submedian nervure runs through a broader light 
area : the light inner borderings of the cell outline is 
lighter and more conspicuous — extending along the 
median vein to the base, and from the discocellular and 
subcostal veins to within one-third of the base ; the 2nd 
pseudoneurus unites with the discocellular nervule as a 
continuation of the black of the cell. 

Posterior wings deep rich golden reddish-yellow, rather 
subdued in tone within the cell from the base by brown- 
black hairs ; this yellow occupies nearly the whole of the 
cell, and extends, with the interruptions of the dark cones 
over 2-3rds of the disc ; a broad discal transverse row of 
large black cones, of which the largest is on the upper part 
of the disc, have their bases towards the outer margin, 
and their apices towards the cell ; a very broad black 
outermarginal band, is lunate or sinuate at its inner out- 
line ; the outline of the hind margin is lunate, with yellow 
fringe-lunules ; the base of the wing is black ; the precostal 
area is brown, and the whole of the submedian area and 
fold to the interior margin is warm rufous brown, with a 
light stripe at the inner or abdominal angle. 

Undersurface of wing as above, except that the sub- 
costal area is black, the discal black cones and divisions 
of the outer-marginal border are edged slightly with white ; 
of the latter the two lower divisions thereby become oblong, 
there is also a small spear-shaped white mark on the outer 
side of the 3rd median branch, and a second below what 
is a narrow black rudimentary cone in the submedian area 
— the remainder of the fold and inner margin being rufous 
brown ; with a yellowish stripe from the rudimentary cone 
to the abdominal angle, and a continuation of the yellow 
inner marginal outline. 

Thorax, head, and antennae deep black; eyes nitid 
brown ; underside of thorax and legs black, with the usual 
lateral red patches ; abdomen above rufous brown, beneath 
yellow, with the usual lateral row of black spots. 

Length of costa 87 mms. ; of hind or outer margin 58 
mms. ; of inner margin 45 mms.; greatest width of wing 
50 mms. Length of posterior wing 52 mms. ; width 38 
mms. Length of abdomen or antennas 30 mms. ; of thorax 
with head 20 mms. 



1 st pair: Femur, 10 
2nd „ : „ 
3rd „ : 

Tibia, 7 ; Tarsi, 14 mms. 

The other two pairs of legs were lost from the specimen. 

Habitat: Malabar Coast. In the collection of Mr. 
F. Moore. 

A second 2 from the same locality has the number of 
adnervular light rays on the anterior wings restricted to 
the four median branches, and these deeply shaded ; the 
light edging inside the cell is also very restricted and 
rudimentary ; there is a faint clouding of white scales be- 
neath the submedian nervure. The black discal cones in 
the yellow of the posterior wings are shorter than in the 
specimen described above : the under surface of all wings 
similar to the corresponding example described above, 

only all the lighter marks are brighter and more con- 
spicuous : and the lateral black dots of the abdomen are 
larger. Length of costa 79 mms. 

Habitat ? In the collection of Mr. F. Moore. 

A ? from Northern India also has the anterior wing 
rays all well shown, but sordid grey ; on the under- 
surface as above, but brighter. The discal black cones of 
the posterior wings shorter than in the first example quoted 
— the large black spot between the 1st and 2nd subcostal 
nervules excepted ; the subcostal area is rufous brown ; a 
small basal portion of the cell is black ; and a long sub- 
conical black mark is attached to the 3rd median branch, 
in the submedian area. Undersurface as above, except 
that the cones are shorter — their apices slight black — 
scaled, and the abdominal lateral black spots are very 
large. Length of costa of anterior wing, 71 mms. 

Habitat : Darjiling. 

In the Author's Museum. 

A 2 from Sumatra has the light rays restricted to the 
upper part of the anterior wings, and rendered sordid by 
scaling ; there is a light patch at the distal end of the 
cell, divided by the 2nd pseudoneurus, also scaled ; on the 
undersurface this is rather larger and lighter, and the 
normal number of rays are present, and also brighter : on 
the posterior wings the black cones are shorter, broader, 
and more obtuse than on the first example described, and 
their bases coalesce with the apices of the submarginal 
band-dentations ; undersurface as above ; the cones are 
also six in number. The lateral black dots of the abdo- 
men are large, and in two rows, and the subdorsal yellow 
is very bright and pure. Length of costa, 85 mms. 



istpair: Femur, 10 ; Tibia, 8; Tarsi, 12 mms. 
2nd ,, : ,, 11 ; ,, 12 ; ,, 15 „ 

3rd „ ■ u 11 ; » 11 > » *5 »» 

In the collection of Mr. F. Moore. 

A § from the Shivaroy Hills differs from the $ de- 
scribed above only in having on the undersurface of the 
posterior wings a small, almost obsolete black on the disc 
between the costal nervure and 1st subcostal, and 1st and 
2nd subcostal nervules ; and the submedian black are 
with a central patch of white atoms. 

Also in Mr. Moore's collection. 

Localities in which Minos has been taken : — Trevan- 
drum, Malabar, Bombay, Nilghiri Halls— (from 3,000 to 
7,000 feet altitudes), Travancore (common up to 4,000 
feet), S. India, Tenasserim (small examples), Buxa (in 
Bhutan), Cannanore (Malabar), Assam, China, Sumatra, 
Shivaroy Hills, Rangoon, Darjiling. 

In the character of the wing patterns, this species bears 
a striking resemblance in both sexes to Vandepolli. The 
$ , though not generally quite so large as Vandepolli is 
almost identical in pattern — the chief differences being 
that the anterior wings are relatively narrower, and slightly 
less rounded at the apical angle, the light rays are rather 
less defined ; the black of the posterior wings occupies no 
part of the cell, whereas i-3rd of the cell area from the 

4 i 

base is black, as is also the basal part above the cell in 
Vandepolli: the yellow spaces between the veins in Minos 
are less broad, and the outermarginal band has no scaling 
at the apices of the dentations in Vandepolli on either 
surface : Minos has sometimes a discal black spot or two 
on the discal undersurface, but Vandepolli has none. The 
abdomen of Vandepolli is black above, in Minos it is fawn 
colour : the anal valves in the latter are grey-pearly fawn, 
and black in the former. But at a glance it can be seen 
that Vandepolli is very distinct as a species from Minos. 
In the 2 2 it will be seen that the anterior wings of 
Vandepolli are altogether broader than those of Minos, in 
all examples ; the wing-rays are very broad and promin- 
ently grey- white in most of the examples of Vandepolli, 
but often almost obsolete in Minos : the distal end of the 
cell has always a larger grey patch than has Minos, and 
the pseudoneura are most prominent : the hind wings are 

more alike in the two species, but with occasional ex- 
ceptions the discal black cones of Vandepolli are larger and 
longer than those of Minos, and the hind marginal black 
border has its divisions less lunate at their apices in 
Vandepolli ; important differences may be seen between 
the colouration and markings of the abdomen of the two 
forms. The locality for Vandepolli is Java, but Minos 
does not occur in that island. Yet notwithstanding their 
resemblance, it is evident that the two forms are quite 
specifically distinct, though their relationship is very close. 

The 2 2 of JEacus (Rhadamanlhus) on the underwings 
bear a rather close resemblance to some of those of Minos 
— the arrangement, form and position of the black mark- 
ings being very similar ; the same may be said of the 
Javan Pompeus and its Indian Analogue, Cerberus, thereby 
exhibiting a not very distant relationship to each other. 


Pompeoptera Staudingeri, Rober, " Entomologische Nachrichten," page 369. (1888). 

<? . Primary wings above velvety or silky black. The 
light discal adnervular rays are sufficiently prominent, 
creamy grey towards the outer margin ; bluish dark grey 
towards the discoidal cell ; the cell is immaculate black, 
with the faintest indication of a grey outline at the distal 
end ; the pseudoneura in the cell are fairly prominent ; 
the veins are all very prominent ; the outer marginal 
fringe with creamy-white lunules. 

Under surface of primaries very dark and silky brown ; 
the adnervular rays very light greyish white, free from 
dark scaling (contrary to what they are on the upper sur- 
face), and extending almost to the outer margin ; there 
are no white marks on the disc below the 3rd median 
nervule ; the cell which is black with 3 white streaks 
from midway to the distal end, whereof the first and third 
are the broadest ; the marginal fringe lunations rather 
whiter than above. 

Secondary wings, deep velvety or silky, black ; with a 
discal area of rich golden yellow, extending from the 
subcostal nervure to the 3rd median nervule. This area 
or yellow band occupies exactly half the surface of the disc 
above the 3rd median nervule, the remainder of the disc 
consisting of a broad submarginal black band ; the distal 
i-3rd of the cell golden-yellow ; the submedian and inner 
marginal areas black, the line indicating the position of 
the inner marginal fold sufficiently visible ; the usual 
fringe lunules are absent ; a number of light hairs flow 
from the base of the wing over and below the cell. 

Undersurface of wing nearly as above except that the 
yellow area between the costal and 1st subcostal veins 
occupies less space than on the upper surface, is suffused 
slightly with a greenish tint, especially nearest the costa, 
a thin line of yellow atoms is in the black beneath the 
subcostal, a few similar atoms are in the cell close to the 
yellow area, a small group is below the 3rd median ner- 
vule, and two thin lines of atoms follow the course of the 
2nd and 3rd median nervules into the submarginal black 

The posterior wings are delicately lunate on the outer 
margin, the light fringe lunules are visible on the under 
surface. The outer margin of the anterior wing is 
nearly straight. The inner marginal fringe of brown hairs 
is fairly conspicuous. Head, antennae and thorax are 
velvety black ; the eyes rufous brown ; the pronotal collar 
red ; abdomen dark rufous brown. Beneath, the legs are 
long, graceful, and slender ; the thoracic red patch very 
prominent and extensive on both sides ; the dorsal part of 
the abdomen is yellow. 

Length of costa of anterior wing 57 mms ; of outer 
margin 44 mms. ; of inner margin 31 mms. Greatest 
length of posterior wing 40 mms. ; greatest width 26 mms. 

Length of antennae or abdomen 25 mms. ; of thorax 
with the head 20 mms. 

Length [ 1st pair: Femur, 10 ; tibia, 8; tarsi, 11 mms 

of J2nd ,, : ,,12; ,, 14; ,, 15 „ 
Legs: (3rd „ : ,, 11; ,, 10; ,, 16 „ 

Habitat : Selaru, Loeang Island, Babber. 
In the Tring Museum. 

? . Anterior wings rufous brown, not very dark in tint ; 
the adnervular light rays are very broad and conspicuous, 
and extend from the upper to the lower part of the wing 
— that is to say, they border all the veins and the sub- 
median fold from the costa to the submedian nervure, and 
reach nearly to the outer margin in their course ; they are 
rufous grey in tint, and subdued by brown atoms : the 
spaces between the lower ones are also lightly sprinkled 
with grey atoms on the brown of the disc ; more than half the 
discoidal cell is occupied from the distal end by a streaky 
grey patch of atoms enclosing a dark patch ; the veins 
are all very obtrusive ; the fringe lunules greyish white. 

Undersurface as above, except that the light discal rays 
are more rufous grey, and purer in tint, and not subdued 
by dark atoms ; the light cell area is as above, slightly 
more extensive, with some dark atoms uniting the basal 
brown with the distal white. 

Posterior wings deep silky or velvety black ; only a very 
limited area or discal band of golden silky yellow occupies 
about i-5th of the disc from the 1st subcostal vein to the 
submedian fold, the latter section subdued with white ; the 
distal half of the discoidal cell is also of the same yellow ; 
the inner, or abdominal margin is rufous brown, with a 
marginal white streak, and some white atoms ; the pre- 
costal cell is rufous brown ; all the rest of the wing is deep 
silky or velvety black, with bluish reflexions ; the fringe 
lunules are dark grey; a mass of dark hairs flows over part 
of the golden areas from the base. 

Undersurface as above, except that the yellow is not so 
pure, and the black slightly rufous towards the outer margin ; 
there are two adnervular discal yellowish spots midway of 
the disc on the 2nd subcostal, the discoidal, and 1st 
median veins ; and the 2nd and 3rd median nervules are 
slightly bordered with light yellow atoms nearly to the 
outer margin. 

The outer margin of the anterior wing is nearly straight 
(or only slightly lunate) ; the posterior wing is more 

Head, antennae, and thorax, warm velvety black ; eyes 
rufous brown ; abdomen above, rufous brown ; lateral 
parts more rufous, and with lateral black dots on yellow 
and white atoms above the yellow ; subdorsum yellow, with 
two rows of black marks between the articulations. 
Thorax with prominent red pectoral patches. Legs, nitid 
black and slender. 



Length of costa, 76 mms. ; of outer margin, 53 mms. ; 
of inner margin 45 mms. Length of posterior wing, 52 
mms. ; of costa, 37 mms. ; of abdominal margin 40 mms. 
Greatest width of wing, 31 mms. Length of abdomen or 
antennas, 41 mms. ; of thorax with head, 23 mms. 

Length [1st pair : femur, 10; tibia, g; tarsi, 12 mms. 
of j2nd ,, : ,, 11 ; „ II ; ,, 13 ,, 
Legs: (3rd ,, : ,, 11; ,, 11; ,, 16 ,, 

Habitat : Selaru, Loeang Island, Babber. 

This species is related to Plato and Iris, and is certainly 
a member of the Haliphron group. Its nearest affinity is 
with Iris. 

In the Tring Museum. 

I am indebted to the Hon. Walter Rothschild for the 
use of the examples from which the above descriptions 
are written. 

Babba, or Baba Island as it is spelled in the Admiralty's 
Chart, is one of a small group of islets situated at a com- 
paratively short distance west of the Tenimber Islands in 
the Banda Sea, in about i3i°east longitude and 90 south 
latitude, or about 100 miles due west of the Tenimber 
Group. The recorded depth of the ocean at about this 
locality is 2627 fathoms, that is to say nearly the deepest 
recorded part of the sea between the West Coast of New 
Guinea and Timor on the south-west, and the Celebes on 
the north-west — the deepest part of the Banda Sea is 2880 
fathoms. The depth diminishes in the direction of 
Celebes and Timor, though not so greatly as it does to the 
east and north-east towards New Guinea. The seas of 
Banda, Arafura, and Flores are thickly studded with archi- 
pelagos and small islands ; and doubtless many interest- 
ing local forms of Pompeoptera will be found on these 
islets, which appear to be pretty rich in insect life, and its 
different orders. Loeang Island belongs to the same 


Troides Haliphron, sub-species pistor, W. R. Rothschild, " Novitates Zoologicae," vol. iii., page 91, 1896. 

This form, which I did not sufficiently mention on page 
25 of this volume, is described by Mr. Rothschild as " S 
very similar to T. Haliphron pollens of Oberthur, but 
differs in the abdomen being less edged with yellow be- 
neath, and in the first discal yellow mark on the hind wing 
being usually smaller." 

_" 2 . Most specimens as pale as pattern, some darker; 
differs chiefly in the abdomen being less edged with yellow 
underneath, in the discal area of the hind wing being 
below more yellow, often as yellow as above, in the yellow 

spot in the cell being less extended, reaching only as far 
as the origin of the subcostal nervure, in the first discal 
yellow mark being larger, and in the whitish mark behind 
the cell being less extended down towards the base." 

" Habitat : Kalao Island and Djampea Island, between 
Celebes and Flores." 

These islands are in the sea of Flores, about 121 east 
longitude, and o.o°5o' south latitude. 

A 4 


Var. Papuensis. 

Ornithoptera Helena, var. Papuensis ? , Wallace, Trans. Linn. Soo. Vol. XXV., pp. 38, 39. (1865). 
Troides Oblongomaculatus papuens:3, Rothschild, Novitates Zoologies, Vol. II., p. 214. (1895). 

Linnaeus' species HELENA appears to have differen- 
tiated into a number of local forms, of great interest, 
which are very instructive when studied together. Several 
of these are now known, but probably others yet remain 
to be discovered. Of one of those described by Wallace, 
with the above varietal name, no male was known to 
him ; and as far as I am aware, no description has 
hitherto been published of the sex. The responsibility 
therefore devolves upon me to give such a diagnosis as 
may be necessary, after which Mr. Wallace's brief des- 
cription will follow, so as to enable us to understand the 
types ; and this will be followed by a more detailed 
description from the example figured on plate 45 of this 


Primaries : Smoky black, silky and shaded into olive 
brown towards the outer margin. Underside similar 
except that the colour becomes more fuscous towards the 
posterior margin. The veins and wing-folds fairly con- 
spicuous on both surfaces. Secondaries, a rich golden 
yellow on either surface, the veins deep black in the 
yellow, with a broad black posterior marginal border, 
irregularly curved or dentated inwardly ; not quite i-3rd 
of the discoidal cell obliquely black towards the base, and 
all but a small portion of the space between the costal 
nervure and 1st subcostal branch the same colour ; the 
space within the precostal nervure fuscous brown ; under 
surface similar in every respect, except that the yellow 
towards the hind margin bordering all the veins is softened 
off into a subdued green, containing black atoms 
which follow the broad black border ; the abominal 
margin and fold are black, shot with a bluish grey 

Thorax and head velvety black; collar crimson scarlet; 
underside fuscous brown, with pectoral red spots ; legs 
black ; eyes chesnut brown ; antennae black ; spirotrompe 
a moderate length ; abdomen yellow beneath ; dorsal, 
fawn brown, the last 3 segments accentuated with yellowish 
white ; anal valves pearly light fawn, with a minute dot 
midway, close to the segment ; 5 lateral black dots on the 

Antennae with 48 articulations. 

Length of costa 66 mms. ; width of Primary 30 mms. ; 
length of secondary wing 40 mms.; width 30 mms. Length 
of antennae or abdomen 25, and of thorax with head 17 

Length of Legs 

1 st pair, femur 8, tibia 9, tarsi 14 mms. 
2nd ,, ,, 11 ,, 11 ,, 12 mms. 
3rd ,, This pair of legs was absent from 
the specimen. 

Hab. New Guinea. 

Type in the collection of Mr. Walter Dannatt, who 

kindly allowed me the pleasure of describing and figuring 
his example. 

Pompeoptera Papuensis, ? . Wallace. 

I quote from Wallace's paper in Trans. Linn. Soc, 
Vol. xxv., pp. 38, 39.* 

" O Helena b, local form Papuensis : Female sooty 

black, 2 first branches of the sub-costal nervure margined 
with whitish near their origin ; markings of the lower wing 
of the same tint of orange yellow as is O Helena $ , but 
not so glossy. Male not known. Hab. New Guinea, 
Salwatty (Wall)." 

The type is probably in the Hewitson Collection, British 
Museum, under the name O. Helena. 

S . From Mr. W. Dannatt's collection. Primaries 
silken greenish-brown or black ; the 5 branches of the 
subcostal nervure, the 2 discoidal nervules, and the 1st and 
2nd median nervules passing through yellow ochraceous, 
white, or cream coloured rays from their origin ; the 
same light colour within the discoidal cell, but graduated 
into the black by black atoms. Under surface similar, 
except that the light mark within the cell extends sub- 
costally to near the base ; fringe lunules ochraceous white. 
Secondaries golden yellow, with brown black hairs near the 
abdominal margin, and a broad border of black to nearly 
1 -3rd of the wing, broadly and strongly, and irregularly 
indented. The black also occupies nearly the basal half 
of the cell, all but a small portion of the costal, sub-costal 
spaces, and the space below the 1st subcostal branch ; in 
the area of black in the latter region is a reddish yellow 
mark deeply curved on each side ; and between the 2nd 
subcostal and the discoidal branches is a large orbicular 
sub-marginal black spot. The under surface is similar, 
except that the dentations of the marginal black border, 
and the orbicular spot are subdued by light atoms, the 
last but one enclosing a small black spot surrounded by 
the light atoms ; there are also whitish suffusions on the 
yellow between the nervules extending from the hind 
margin towards the base ; the yellow of both surfaces of 
the wings is redder and richer than in the 6* . 

Thorax, black reddish-brown ; collar, crimson-scarlet ; 
head black, eyes reddish-brown ; antennae black. Under 
side of thorax brown, with pectoral crimson patches. 
Abdomen smoky silky-brown ; lateral parts whitish 
ochraceous ; subdorsal more yellow, with a row of 6 lateral 
black dots ; anal tuft, red ochraceous. 

The pseudoneura on the upper wing are fairly promi- 

Length of costa 86 mms. ; width of upper wing 42 mms. 
Length of lower wing 54 mms., width 40 mms. Length 
of abdomen or antennae 30 mms. ; thorax with head 
30 mms. 

* On the Phenomena of variation and Geographical Distribution as illustrated by the 
Papilionidffi of the Malayan Region. 



fist pair, femur, g ; tibia, 9 ; tarsi,i3 mms. 
] .ength of legs 2nd ,, ,, 10; „ 12; ,, 15 ,, 
U r d ,, „ 11; „ 12; ,, 16 ,, 

Articulations of antennae, 48. 

Hab., N. Guinea 

2 . In the museum of Messrs. Godman and Salvin. 
Upper wings rich fuscous-brown ; the white outer end 
of the cell and margins of the veins faintly but broadly 
indicated, being subdued by the brown atoms till they are 
fuscous brownish-white. The whole colour of the wings 
that of a Euplcea ; the two middle pseudoneura are well 
defined with a dark clouded longitudinal mark between 

them. Secondaries of the normal type. Under surface 
similar, but lighter in colour. 

Length of costa 82 mms. 

Hab. N. Guinea ; out of Saunders' collection. 

A Male in the Godman-Salvin coll. has a depth of the 
black border of the hind wing of 1 2 mms. The costal length 
of this <? is 69 mms. Hab. Port Moresby, N. Guinea. 

It should be observed that the shape of the abdomen 
of this species or variety (in the 2 at least) differs much 
from that of other species, as will be seen by a reference 
to plate 45. 


Var. Melpomona, Var. Nov. 

6* . Primaries rich velvety black, shot with dead green 
reflections ; veins well defined ; median nervure fairly 
stout. Under surface similar, with a little fuscous toward 
the outer margin. Secondaries: the yellow more greenish- 
lemon than in Papuensis. The area of the yellow about 
the same in proportion as in Papuensis ; the black areas 
of the wing nearly similar on both surfaces to those of 
Papuensis ; the sexual abdominal pouch silky greenish- 
black ; fringe hairs rather long. The tooth-like projection 
of the yellow into the black border between the 2nd 
subcostal branch and discoidal nervure, is as strongly 
shown as in the other forms. There is a tendency for 
the subcostal nervure to branch out into a black abnor- 
mal vein on both surfaces. [See plate 45.] I have 
noticed this phenomenon on the lower wing of several 
species of Rhopalocera ; and it is occasionally to be met 
with on the upper wing. I have also seen two or three 
examples among the Ithomicz, and Heliconidice.] The 
pseudoneura are fairly visible in the discoidal cell of both 
surfaces of the Primary wings. 

Length of costa 72 mms. ; width of upper wing 41 
mms. ; length of hind wing 45 mms. ; width 35 mms. ; 
length of abdomen or antennae 28 mms. ; of thorax with 
head 20 mms. The crimson pronotal collar thin, and 
only faintly seen. Articulations of antennae 44 mms. 

Hab. New Guinea. 

The type is in the rich museum of the Hon. Walter 

2 . Primaries olive-greenish silky brown ; creamy white 
within the cell, with black graduated atoms, the area of 
which is i-3rd of the cell (in Papuensis it is only about 
1 -5th) ; also a slightly greater area of creamy white with- 
out the cell. Under surface similar, except that faint 
cloudings of creamy atoms are on each side of all the 
nervures, almost to the exterior margin. Secondaries : 
in Papuensis the yellow occupies about half the area of 
the wing: in Melpomona only slightly over i-3rd, and is of 
a redder tint — almost orange (a yellow subdued by 
ochraceous red scales) ; the yellow within the submedian 

nervure and its 3rd branch is whitish towards its lower 
end, and continued in the black above as yellow atoms, 
as is the case with Papuensis ; between the 2nd subcostal 
branch and discoidal nervule are two faint yellow spots, 
or wedge-shaped marks, indicating the position of a con- 
tinuation of the yellow patch, with a tendency towards 
forming a suborbicular black patch as in Papuensis ; also 
a few aggregated atoms of yellow just below the 1st sub- 
costal nervule ; abdominal margin of wing soft smoky 
brown. Under surface of secondaries ; the yellow area 
in salmon colour ; the marginal black border broad, within 
which are four orbicular black spots, united by a broad 
black line, with the border set on a sinuated ground of 
grey atoms, which modify the salmon yellow beneath ; 
a narrow sinuate transverse mark of grey atoms between 
the 1st and 2nd subcostal nervules ; fringe lunules salmon 
coloured white. 

Abdomen : dorsum, fuscous brown ; subdorsum, och- 
raceous salmon-coloured whitish ; with 6 lateral black dots. 

Length of costa 75 mms. ; width of upper wing 41 
mms, ; length of hind wing 50, and width 41 mms. ; 
length of abdomen or antennae 27 mms. ; articulations of 
antennae 42 ; length of thorax with head 18 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair : femur, 9 ; tibia, 9 ; tarsi, 12 mms. 
2nd ,, : ,, 11 ; ,, 12 ; ,, 15 ,, 
3rd „ : „ 10; „ tz\ „ 16 „ 

Hab. New Guinea ; but locality unknown.* 

The type is in the museum of the Hon. W. Rothschild, 
who gave me the pleasure of describing and figuring this 
beautiful and interesting form. 

* I would here take the opportunity of emphasising the importance of attaching 
labels with definite localities to all specimens sent home from foreign countries. 
Simply to say that a species wastaken in New Guinea, is not much more satisfactory 
than to give S. America as the habitat of a butterfly or beetle, or the Indian Ocean 
as that of a shell, as was formerly the custom in many collections and even books. 
To know the exact locality of a specimen is always most desirable. Every true 
naturalist will endorse this proposition. 


Fapilio Eques Trojanus Amphrysus, Cram., " Pap. Exot. III. p. 43. t. 219, Fig. A. (1782). s . 
Papilio Amphrysus, Jablonsky, " Naturs. Schmett.," I. p. 197, n. 2, t. i. f. 3 (1784)- <? 
„ „ Esper, " Ausl. Schmett," p. 133, n. 59, t. 34, fig. 1 (1792). J = 

„ „ Fabricius, " Mant. Ins." p. 3, n. 23 (1787). $ 

„ „ Gmelin, " Syst. Nat." I. 5, p. 2230, n. 287 (1790). •? • 

„ „ Fabricius, " Ent. Syst.," III. 1, p. 11, n. 33 (1793)- J • 

Troides Amphrysus, Hiibner, " Verz. bek. Schm." p. 88, n. 923 (1816). <r 
Papilio „ Godt., " Ency. Meth." p. 27 (1819), t . 

„ „ Gray, " List. Lepid. Ins. B. Mus." I. p. 6, n. 18 (1856). <f . 

Ornithoptera Amphrysius, Boisd, " Spec. Gen. Lep." I. p. 178, n. 6, t : 1. B. f. 1. (1836). s ? . 

„ ■„ Doubld., Westwood and Hewitson. " Gen. Diurn. Lepid." I. p. 4. n. 8 (1846). 

„ Amphrysus, Vollenhoven, " Tijdchrift " v. Ent. III. p. 71, n. 8 (i860) J ? . 
Papilio Amphrysus, Felder, " Verb., z. bei. Ges. Wien," p. 291, n. 34 (1864) <? ? . 

Ornithoptera Amphrysus, Wallace, "Trans. Linn. Soc." Vol. XXV. p. 38 (1865). 
Papilio Amphrysus, Butler, " Cat. Diurn. Lep. descr. Fabr." p. 235, n. 5 (1869) s $ . 
„ Amphrysius, W. F. Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep." p. 520 (1871). 
Ornithoptera Amphrysus, Druce, " Proc. Zool. Soc." p. 356, n. 2(1873). 
Ornithoptera Amphrysus, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie " IV. p. 30, n. 9 (1879) s ? . 

„ Amphrisius, W. F. Kirby, Cat. Coll. Diurn. Lep. of W. C. Hewitson p. 1. (1879). 

Ornithoptera Amphrysus, P. H. Gosse, "Clasping Organs in certain Lepidoptera," Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. V. II, Zool. p. 281, 292 (1883). 
Ornithoptera Amphrysus, Staud. and Schatz, "Exot. Schmett." I. p. 5 (1884). 
Ornithoptera Amphrysus, Fickert, " Ueber die Zeichnungverhaltnisse der Gatt. Ornith." Separatabdruck aus den Zoolgischen Jahrbiichern, p. 739 (1889). 
Troides Amphrysus, Rothschild, "Novitates Zoologies:," p. 228, n. 25 (25a) (1895). 
Ornithoptera Amphrysus, W. F. Kirby, " Handbook to the order Lepidoptera Vol. II. p. 265 (1896). 
„ „ E. Martin Duncan (in Cassells' Nat. Hist. Vol. VI. p. 51) (1896). 

„ „ V. palabuana, Friihstorfer, Ent. Nachr. p. 44 (1894. 

Pompeoptera Amphrysus, Rippon, in Wytsman's " Genera Insectorum " (Lep. Rhopal Sec. Troides) p. 13. (ig02(. 

The Amphrysus group of Pompeoptera is rather rich in 
local forms, each of which merits (for convenience sake), 
a distinguishing name. We have, first, the type form 
which occurs in Java (especially the Western portion of 
that large island) ; next we find in Sumatra the form 
Sumatranus of Hagan closely resembling the type, 
but with the veins of the lower wings more promi- 
nently curved in the $ , the yellow adnervular rays 
less prominent or almost obsolete on both surfaces, with 
minor alterations of the colour of the abdomen, and the 
yellow area of the hind wings strongly suffused with green, 
somewhat like what obtains in cuneatus of Oberthiir. 
Sumatra is N.W. of Java, and there is no difficulty in 
understanding that in the two localities, which are com- 
paratively near to each other, some slightly modified 
forms (but only slightly) would occur ; though it is 
remarkable that Oberthiir's cuneatus (a rather smaller 
insect than the type), also inhabits W. Java. In this 
latter there is rather more yellow on the anterior wings ; 
the yellow hind wings are suffused with green, as in 
Sumatrana, and there are 4 cuneiform discal black marks 
on both surfaces of the $ . The form ruficollis of Butler 
from Borneo and Sumatra has less yellow on the upper 
wings than the type, the adnervular rays are nearly white 
instead of yellow ; and the posterior wings may be said 
to be entirely yellow except a delicate lunular black 
border ; the abdomen is yellow with a faintly pink dorsal 
stripe. All these possess, as in the type form, a red 
pronotal collar, more or less hidden by the pilose black 
of the thorax ; but Druce's flavicollis from Borneo is dis- 
tinguished only from ruficollis by its yellow collar on both 
sexes. Now Borneo is a considerable distance east from 

Sumatra and North from Java, so that the presence of two 
or three such closely allied forms suggests the possibility 
of many more intermediate links being yet discovered. 
Another var. palabuana of Friihstorfer comes from Palabuan 
in Java ; and ruficollis has been taken in Malacca a long 
way N. West of Borneo, and in Nias, a small island off 
the nearly central coast of Sumatra. But if we travel 
onwards to the N.E. and North of Borneo the process of 
differentiation from the type form is seen to have resulted 
(in the Philippine archipelago) , in the beautiful Magellanus 
of Felder, with a $ very like that of the type,_ the 
hind-wing yellow area being shot on both surfaces with a 
rich opalescence— which also, only in a lesser degree, 
appears on the ? . In the 2 2 there are important 
colour differences, chiefly on the hind wings — also a con- 
siderable difference on the anterior wings of flavicollis — 
still greater in Magellanus on all the wings. 

Considered altogether, we may regard all the known 
forms of Amphrysus, with the exception of Magellanus, as 
living, roughly considered, within an area bounded by an 
isosceles triangle — or very approximately 24,000 square 

$ . Anterior wings brownish black with yellow adner- 
vular rays ; the yellow area with black atoms extending 
from the subcostal vein to the 1st median branch ; below 
the latter the yellow is only half the length of the vein, one 
half of the space nearest the median nervure being occupied 
by black ; a thin area within the cell at the distal end is 
yellow ; a yellow discal spot is bisected by the 2nd 
median nervure ; a yellow discal spot, forming a line on 


the upper side of the 3rd median nervule, and a small 
linear spot of yellow is on the submedian nervure at the 
anal angle. Undersurface similar to the upper, except 
that the discal row of yellow rays is complete, not 
interrupted. The Posterior wings are a rich golden 
yellow, with all the veins delicately formed, the upper 
branches beautifully curved, and very black ; the sub- 
marginal black border is delicately and gracefully dentated 
inwardly, with a black elongate spot united to the 
dentation within the 2nd and 3rd median branches, or 
at near the anal angle ; the abdominal margin to the 
submedian nervule is black ; the fringe-lunules yellowish- 
white and very slightly shewn. The fringe-lunules of 
the anterior wing are also white. The undersurface 
only differs from the upper by the anal angular black spot 
adjacent to the dentation being very faintly represented ; 
the abdominal margin black and rufous brown. 

Head, antennas and thorax black ; abdomen with a 
dark and light-brown broad longitudinal dorsal stripe, 
gradually narrowing towards the anal segments ; all the 
remainder of the abdomen, above and below, a rich 
greenish golden yellow, thickly and minutely dotted all 
over, and with the usual lateral black dots. The 
pronotal collar, and the lateral portions of the thorax 
red ; the legs black and lower portion of thorax with mixed 
black and yellow scales; abdominal fringe rather long, 
and rufous. 

Length of costa 80, of outer margin 50, and of 
inner margin 37 mms. ; length of posterior wings 44, 
and width 35 mms. ; length of abdomen or antennae 28 
mms. ; of head and thorax 20 mms. 

Length of Legsf Ist P air : femur ' 10 tibia ' 10 > tarsi ' 11 

with b trochante°rs 2r \ d » » " *3 i » M 

(.3rd ,, „ 11; ,, 12; 


$ . Anterior wings moderately light brown, darker 
towards the outer margin, with 6 trigonate moderately 
long yellowish-white marks or rays on the disc from the 
submedian nervure to the ist median nervule, and the 
remaining adnervular rays or marks, brownish-white and 
well expressed ; a small brownish-white area also within 
the cell at the distal end ; the pseudoneura very distinct ; 
the fringe-lunules brownish-white. 

Posterior wings with the discal yellow area occupying 
one third of its extent, followed by a band of 5 conical 
large black marks, and a row of adnervular yellow cunei- 
form marks, the outer submarginal part of the wing being 
a dark brown united to the black cones ; 3-4LI1S of the 
cell is yellow, the area between the median and its 3rd 
branch and the submedian is yellow-scaled and subdued 
into brown by scales or atoms. The abdominal margin 
is rufous brown. The under surface of both wings 
similar to the upper, except that the light marks on the 
anterior wings are nearly white and more definite, and 
the two adnervular rays of the 4th and 5th subcostal 
nervules are only indicated by white atoms ; that 
the discal and discocellular areas are yellow white 
instead of yellow, and the submarginal yellow spots are 
not subdued by scaling as above ; there is also a white 
fringe-line at the apical angle, and a faint white spot at 
the anal angle. 

Head, antennse and thorax black ; pronotal collar red ; 
abdomen light brown ; underside of thorax with red 
pectoral patch on each side as usual ; underside of 
abdomen yellow, dotted with brown atoms, and first 3 
segments from the base dark brown. 

Length of costa 76, of outer margin 53, and inner 
margin 43 mms. ; of posterior wing 50 mms. ; greatest 
width 35 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 28, of thorax and 
head 21 mms. 

Length of 

ist pair 
2nd ,, 
3 r d ,, 

femur, 10; tibia, 8 ; tarsi, 13 mms. 

13 ; „ 12; „ 17 „ 

including the trochanters. 

The outline of the anterior margin of the 2 is consider- 
ably concave, in the <? rather less so. 

Habitat, W. Java <? , S. Java ? . 

My figures and descriptions of this species are from 
specimens in the Tring Museum. 


Ornithoptera Sumatranus, Hagen, " Iris," Vol. VII., p. 14, n. 5. (1894). 
Troides Amphrysus Sumatranus, Rothschild, " Novit. Zool. Vol. II., p. 232, n. 25, d. (1S95). 
Pompeoptera Amphrysus, var. Sumatranus, Rippon, Section Troides, p. 13, in Wytsman's " Genera Insectorum." (1902). 

S . Anterior wings velvety-black ; the adnervular rays 
golden-yellow, but only very slightly shewn, being little 
more than a few short streaks of yellow scales, and these 
very faintly indicated on the lower part of the disc ; a 
very contracted yellow group of scales in the cell, on the 
upper half of the discal end ; also slight streaks of yellow 
scales along part of the costal and subcostal nervures ; 
the veins slightly rufous brown. Undersurface almost 
entirely as above ; the fringe lunations of the outer 
margin white. 

Posterior wings a rich golden yellow, with dull green 
reflections, or opalescence ; the scalloped or dentated, 
margin is, like that of the type form, narrowly black and 
graceful, extending as a long black mark half-way up by 
the 3rd median nervure ; the costal margin, a small basal 
portion within the cell, the submedian area and the 
abdominal fold concealing the androconia are deep velvety- 
black ; a few long black hairs flow down from the median 
vein over the yellow ; and a few minute black atoms are 
grouped on the yellow disc between the ist and 2nd 
discoidal nervule. The character and colour (nearly a 
flesh tint) of the androconia (as shewn in my plate fig. I.), 
is similar to the prevailing tint of the abdomen. 

Undersurface as above, with a thin line of dark atoms 
parallel to the black from the apical angle ; from the sub- 
median nervure a line of rufous fringe-hairs proceed, and 
partly covers the sides of the abdomen when the insect is 
at rest. 

Thorax, head and antenna? velvety-black ; eyes dark 
rufous brown ; beneath, black, with red pectoral patches 
and red pronotum. 

Abdomen fleshy red-brown, with a rather darker dorsal 
longitudinal stripe ; each side of the lighter part of the 
abdomen is margined by black, with yellow outline ; the 
upper part of the anal valves black ; the sides and sub- 
dorsum yellow and yellow-green, with the usual lateral 
rows of black dots ; anal valves flesh-coloured. 

Length of costa 74, outer margin 54, and inner margin 
41 mms. Greatest length of posterior wing 45, and width 
33 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 29, and of head and 
thorax 23 mms. 

Length of 

ist pair : femur, 9 ; tibia, 7 ; tarsi, 10 mms. 
2nd „ : „ 11 ; „ 11 ; „ 14 „ 

.3rd „ = .. 11 ; >. 11; » 14 „ 
including the trochanters. 

Hab. Karo, Sumatra. 

? . Anterior wings dark rufous brown ; the adnervular 
rays from the 2nd subcostal nervule to the ist median 
nervule sordid yellow-white and long ; all below of the 
same colour, short, variable in length and shape, begin- 
ning at more than half way from the median vein, or 

nearest to the outer margin, and subcuneiform ; the mark 
within the cell irregular in shape at the distal 5th of the 
cell, and sordid whitish-yellow. 

Undersurface as above, but the light marks are a purer 
and brighter whitish-yellow, and nearly all are margined 
with light yellow atoms. The fringe lunules white. 

Posterior wing with yellow disc, and the distal half of 
cell yellow ; a band of 6 large suborbicular black discal 
spots, followed by a scalloped submarginal band of 
yellow ; the broad outer-marginal band is densely black 
and lunated ; fringe lunules whiter ; the base, costa, basal 
half of the cell and abdominal margin black, but the 
submedian area is deeply rufous with a line of light 
yellow atoms ; the black edge of the submedian sinus is 
powdered with greenish and black atoms on the yellow ; 
the submarginal yellow band is also subdued by black 
atoms ; the abdominal margin is irrorated by yellow 
scales ; abdominal fringe black, a mass of delicate dark 
hairs proceeds from the base into the yellow of the cell, 
and lower part of the yellow disc. 

Undersurface as above, except that the yellow areas 
are not subdued by black atoms, only one narrow streak 
of yellow atoms is on the abdominal margin, there are no 
dark hairs proceeding from the base into the yellow, one 
rather small black ovoid spot follows the band of 6 large 
black macula? below the 3rd median nervule, and all the 
macula? and the inner lunate edges of the outer-marginal 
black band are slightly powdered with grey atoms. 

Head, antenna?, eyes, and thorax black ; abdomen very 
dark brown ; underside of thorax black-brown ; legs 
blacker ; no red pronotum or pectoral red marks. Abdo- 
men beneath yellow, with the usual row of lateral black 
dots ; the segmental incisures well defined. 

Length of costa 76, of outer margin 60, and inner 
margin 55 mms. ; length of posterior wing 55, and width 
40 mms. 

Length of abdomen 30, of antenna? 26, and of thorax 
with the head 23mms. 

Length of 

ist pair : femur, 11 ; tibia, 8 ; tarsi, 12 mms. 
■ 2nd „ : 12 ; ,, 12 ; ,, 15 ,, 

lfc ^ s (3rd ,, : ,,12; „ 12; „ 16 „ 
including the trochanters. 

Hab. Battak Mountains, E. Sumatra. 

The originals of these descriptions and figures are in 
the Tring Museum. 

The $ of this form in its general colouration and ap- 
pearance wonderfully resembles the $ of P. cuneatus of 
Oberthiir from W. Java, except in the omission of the 
beautiful discal row of cuneiform black marks on the 
posterior wings of that species. 



Ornithoptera cuneifera, Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Ent." IV., p. no, sub. n. g (1879). s 
Papilio (Ornithoptera) Ritsemse, Snellen, " Notes Leyden Museum," p. 153 (1889), <? ? , 
Troides Amphrysna cuneifer, Rothschild, "Novit. Zool." Vol. II., p. 229, n. 25 (6). (1895). 
Fompeoptera cuneifera (or cuneatus ?) Rippon. in Wytsman's " Genera Insectorum, sec. Troides." p. 14 (1902). 

I first give M. Oberthur's original description of this 
variety of Amp hrysus, which was published in his " Etudes 
d'Entomologie," in 1879. The description applies only 
to the 6* . It was reserved for Mr. Snellen to describe 
the ? later on under the name of RitsemcB. 

" Tres cureiux Papillon, beaucoup plus petit que les 
individus ordinaires d'Amphrysius, ayant le contour ex- 
terieur des ailes inferieures plus profund, les parties 
saillantes plus argues et les nervure peu courbees pres de 
l'extremite. De plus, dans la partie jaune de 1' aile 
inferieure, entre les nervures, on voit cinq taches noires 
triangulaires ; la quatrieme surtout est tres grosse. Sur 
les dessus de l'abdomen, deux taches noires soyenses se 
detachent sur le fond fauve pale." (Catalogue Raisonne 
de Papilionidae de la coll. de Ch. Oberthiir). 

$ . Anterior wings velvety black, with the adnervular 
rays and the subcostal veins a rich silky yellow. These 
rays only extend to the 2nd median nervule, whose par- 
ticular ray forms only a small yellow pyriform spot ; 
fringe-lunules white ; a thin yellow line borders the distal 
end of the cell ; all the yellow rays are subdued by black 
atoms ; the veins are all fairly prominent above the black. 
Undersurface almost exactly as above, with the addition 
of 2 faint yellow marks below the rays. Posterior wings 
rich golden 3'ellow, suffused on the disc and at the distal 
end of the cell by an emerald green tinge ; the veins all 
vividly black ; the outer marginal black band is rather 
narrow, and sinuate or dentate, with a rather long pointed 
dentation at the anal angle ; the abdominal or inner 
margin is broadly black, and there are 4 black cuneiform 
marks between the veins of the disc, of which the 2nd 
from above is the longest ; these are elegant in form, and 
dotted with yellow atoms. Undersurface as above, except 
that the intra-venal cuneiform marks are rather smaller, 
and the 1st subcostal nervule is thickened in a black 
mark towards the outer margin, the base is black, the 
black marginal dentation at the anal angle is as short as 
the others, and the broad abdominal fold is reddish- 
brown ; fringe-lunules white ; abdominal fringe of long 
hairs red. 

Head, antennae and thorax black ; eyes brown ; pro- 
notal collar red ; abdomen pale fawn colour, silky, with 
2 dorsal black, nearly rounded, spots ; the anal segment 
with black dorsal triangulate mark : abdomen beneath 
and on the sides greenish and golden yellow, with the usual 
lateral row of black dots, and the incisures black ; anal 
valves fawn colour ; thorax beneath black, with the pec- 
toral red patch ; legs black. 

Length of costa of anterior wing 67, of outer margin 50, 
and inner margin 40 mms. ; width of posterior wing 32, 
and length 39 mms. Length of abdomen or antennae 26, 
and of thorax with head 20 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair 
2nd ,, 
3rd ,, 

femur, 10; tibia, 9; tarsi, 11 mms. 
10; „ 11; „ 13 „ 
9; „ 11; II 14 M 

Habitat: W. Java. 

$ . Anterior wings, fuscous brown ; the adnervular 
rays creamy-white, with brown scaling ; these rays com- 
mence at the 1st median nervule, the initial rays being 
broad, and the others becoming narrower till they become 
at the costa thin streaks of white ; in length they nearly 
reach the outer margin of the wing at near the apical 
angle ; from the second median nervule to the submedian 
nervure are also four short rays or light marks, varying a 
little in size and shape, with a slightly sordid yellow tinge ; 
1 -4th of the discoidal cell at the distal end is also creamy- 
white, subdued by brown scaling ; the fringe-lunules are 
thin and white. Undersurface as above, except that the 
adnervular rays are purer, and the short rays or marks 
are more yellow and five in number ; the pseudoneura, 
except the central one, are almost invisible. 

Posterior wing : the cell diagonally and narrowly 
fuscous brown from the base, followed by a creamy-white 
patch in nearly 3-4ths of the cell, subdued by brown 
scaling, and a yellow area of i-4th at the distal end ; 
outside the cell from the 1st subcostal to the outer half of 
the 2nd median nervure is a narrow area of yellow, sinuate 
or lunate in the outer direction ; the remaining half of the 
space between the 2nd and 3rd median branches and to 
the submedian fold or sinus is creamy-white, subdued to- 
wards the base, and reaching longitudinally down 2-3rds 
of that part of the wing ; the abdominal marginal area is 
fuscous brown ; the discal area of the wing is black, with 
a submarginal group or band of small disconnected and 
triangulate or cuneiform yellow marks, 12 in number, and 
a thin streak of white atoms at the apical angle; the 
fringe-lunules are prominent and white. Undersurface 
nearly as above, but the yellow and light areas are only 
slightly scaled at the base of the cell, and are shaded into 
the yellow ; the submarginal band of yellow marks are g 
in number, of which the first two are sublunate, between 
the costal and 2nd subcostal veins, the 3rd and 4th 
between the 2nd subcostal and discoidal veins, the 5th is 
attached to the discoidal vein, the 6th and 7th are double 
sized and cuneiform to the 1st and 2nd submedian, and 
the 8th and gth— the latter a long yellow mark at the anal 
angle — to the 3rd median branch ; there are also 2 sub- 
marginal white marks of atoms united to the fringe lunules 
of the lower part of the wing ; a brief line of yellow atoms 
is also at the costa. 

Head, antennae and thorax black ; eyes brown ; dorsum 
of abdomen fuscous brown ; pronotal collar red. Under- 
side of thorax dark brown with the pectoral red spots ; 
legs black; abdomen, subdorsum and sides greenish 
yellow, with the usual black dots — the segmental incisures 


Length of costa 80, of outer margin 59, and inner 
margin about 45 mms. ; length of posterior wing 56, and 
width 44 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 28, of thorax with head 
21 mms. 

t ,1 r fist pair: femur 8; tibia, 8; tarsi, 12 mms. 
Length of ! / . Ig ;j 

legS (3rd „ : „ 11; „ 12; ,. 16 „ 
including the trochanters. 

Habitat, W. Java. This species or variety inhabits 


Mount Gede, according to Fnihstorfer, at an altitude of 
6,000 feet. 

The posterior wings of the $ are distinguished from 
the typical Amphrysus and its varieties most effectually 
by the beautiful group of cuneiform black marks on the 
yellow disc. It appears also to be a smaller form than 
either of those, in both sexes. 

The originals of my descriptions or figs, are in the 
museum of the Hon. W. Rothschild, at Tring ; and the 
original type of cuneifera is in the collection of Mr. 
Oberthiir at Rennes. 



A comparison of the different forms of the Amphrysus 
group will give us the following results, by which we may 
be able to judge of their relationship to each other. 

(a) . The type species Amphrysus 6* with velvety black 
anterior wings, and all the adnervular rays and marks in 
both surfaces, yellow ; the fringe lunules on both surfaces 
yellow ; all yellow marks very prominent. Posterior wings 
yellow, with moderately broad black lunate border ; with- 
out black maculae, except one elongate spot at the anal 
angle united with and above the marginal lunation or 
dentation (on the under surface of the wing this mark is 
onby faintly indicated by black atoms or scaling) ; the inner 
or abdominal marginal fold is broad and black above, 
partly rufous on the underside ; abdominal fringe, rufous. 
Undersurface of wing, similar. Head, antennas and 
thorax, black ; pronotal collar red ; abdomen, greenish 
yellow, with a broad central longitudinal black and rufous 
vitta above. 

2 . Anterior wings on both surfaces, rufous brown ; 
with sordid white and yellow discal rays, and the distal 
end of the cell sordid white ; on the undersurface the light 
areas are yellow white ; fringe lunules white. Posterior 
wings, 2-3rd of the cell and i-3rd of the disc, yellow ; base 
of the wing and subcostal area, rufous brown ; outer 2-3rds 
of the disc black, with a row of yellow marks midway ; the 
submedian area, rufous brown, and above the submedian 
fold very sordid brown yellow ; fringe lunules, white ; 
abdominal fringe, rufous or burnt sienna. The under- 
surface of the wing as above, except that the yellow area 
is whitish yellow. Head, eyes, antennae and thorax as in 
the 9 ; abdomen, rufous brown above ; yellow below. 

(b) . var. Ruficollis. 3- . Anterior wings black ; the ad- 
nervular rays and cell marks (at distal end) faintly orange 
yellow and white, and not so prominent as in the type 
form ; fringe lunules, white, being only thin outlines; under- 
surface the same. Posterior wings, rich silky golden 
yellow, with the outer marginal outline black, with the 
submarginal row of black lunations situated midway from 
each vein ; an elongate black spot at the anal angle ; the 
base of wing, rufous above the precostal cell ; the veins 
rather curved, thin, black, and very graceful. Under- 
surface similar ; inner margin, sienna brown on both 
surfaces ; abdominal fringe, black. Head, antennae and 
thorax, black ; eyes, red brown ; pronotal collar, red ; 
abdomen, greenish lemon-yellow, with fleshy pink dorsal 
vitta, and white anal valves. 

(c) . Sub. var. Flavicollis $ . Anterior wings, black ; all 
the yellow rays and marks yellow, with white terminals 
and prominent ; outer marginal fringe lunules thin and 
white. Posterior wings and abdomen as in Ruficollis : head, 
eyes, antennae and thorax the same as in Ruficollis, except 
that the pronotal collar is yellow instead of red. 2 . 
Anterior wings, pale amber brown, and brownish-grey cell, 
shaded darker towards its base. The undersurface 
similar. Posterior wings with the cell, costa, and outer 
area of median and other veins, yellow; the disc is oc- 
cupied with black to 3-5ths of its area, and contains a 
submarginal band of yellow marks ; the base of wing, 
fumous brown, as is the abdominal area. Undersurface 
similar ; abdominal fringe short and dark ; head, eyes, 
thorax, &c, and collar, as in the 3 ; colour of abdomen as 
in the 3 . 

The 2 2 oiRiificollis andFlavicollis differhomthoseofthe 
type form in having the costa of the anterior wings rather 
more pointed at the apical angle, and in the very different 
appearance of the vars of submarginal lunate spots of the 
posterior wings. The 2 of Flavicollis bears rather a strik- 
ing resemblance to the 2 of Andromache. 

(d) . var. Cuneifera. 2. Anterior wings, silky black ; the 
light rays and marks, yellow, subdued by black atoms ; 
undersurface the same. Posterior wings, rich silky yellow, 
with lemon-green shading and reflections ; a discal row of 
four cuneiform black marks ; outer marginal band broadly 
black and sinuate ; at the anal angle the black division is 
sharply dentate, but only faintly shown on the under- 
surface ; base of wing, dark brown ; abdominal area 
black ; fringe lunules white (on both wings) ; abdominal 
fringe, burnt sienna-red. Head, thorax, &c, as in the 
type form ; pronotal collar, red ; abdomen, rufous brown 
above ; with lateral yellow outline and two dorsal black 
spots ; anal valves, grey and black ; underside of thorax 
with lateral red patches ; of abdomen, yellow green ; 
undersurface of wings as above. 2 . Anterior wings, 
rufous brown, with greyish-ochraceous broad rays, and 
yellow marks ; distal end of cell broadly grey. Under- 
surface similar, but the light parts are purer in colour. 
Posterior wings with the greater portion of the disc black, 
and a submarginal band of small yellow marks ; the distal 
end of the cell and a small portion of the disc yellow ; the 
remainder of the cell and disc grey, subdued by scaling ; 
tho base of wing and subcosta, and inner marginal area, 
rufous brown ; fringe lunations conspicuous and ochra- 
ceous-grey ; abdominal fringe, burnt-sienna. Under- 
surface of wings nearly as above, the lighter parts purer 
in colour, with congeries of white atoms. Head and 
thorax, &c, as in the 3 ; abdomen, brown above, greenish 
yellow beneath. 

(e) . var. Sumatrana. 3 . Anterior wings rather narrower 
and longer than in the other forms ; black, with only 
faint indications of the yellow rays and marks ; under- 
surface as above. Posterior wings yellow, shaded with 
lemon green, and exceedingly like the wings of Cuneifera 
except in the absence of the cuneiform marks ; under- 
surface as above, except that the abdominal marginal 
fringe is very whitish red. Head, thorax, &c, like the 
other form, but with no visible red collar above, but with 
red pectoral patches ; abdomen, very rufous or flesh- 
coloured grey, with lateral large spots, black dots, flesh- 
coloured anal valves ; underside, yellow and greenish. 
2 [A bold, strong-loooking insect.] Anterior wings, warm 

dark brown ; with all the rays and marks sordid yellow 
grey ; undersurface of wings, warm dark brown, the yellow 
marks all brighter and a purer yellow. Posterior wings 
with yellow disc and the distal half of the cell yellow ; a 
band* of suborbicular black spots, followed by a scalloped 
submarginal band of yellow ; the remainder of the wing 
velvety black ; the abdominal marginal area rufous, with 
yellow atoms ; undersurface, similar. Head, thorax, &c, 
black on both sides ; abdomen, dark brown above, yellow 
beneath. Thorax, with no pectoral red patches. 

(f) . var. Palabuana, Friihstorfer, from Palabuan, S. W. 
Java, anterior wing of the 3 with the adnervular rays 
almost dark reddish-brown. 

(g) . var. Olympia 2 , Honrath, from S. E. Borneo, is 
only a slight variety of Flavicollis. 

•By a miscalculation in pacing, this article is. unfortunately, misplaced ; it should have been on page 51, before the article on P. Nereis. 





Ornithoptera flavioollis, Druce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p. 356. (No figure.) 
Troides Amphrysus, abr. (c) Flavicollis, Walter Rothschild, Novitates Zoologies, n. 25, p. 231, Vol. II. (1895). 

Mr. S. B. J. Skertchly, in the Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History, 6th series, Vol. IV., p. 210, in his paper 
on " The Habits of Certain Bornean Butterflies," speaks 
of 0. flavicollis as very common at one place on the river 
Tinkyo, where he camped all May, 1888. This var. 
according to the same authority is one of the earliest 
butterflies on the wing in those wonderful forests in 
Borneo, so that it evidently makes a long day. The 
earliest butterflies do not begin to fly before 7 a.m., and 
Ruficollis is one of them ; he retires latest also, does not 
trouble himself about cloudy weather as is the manner of 
some butterflies, and cares little about a shower of rain, 
though he does not carry an umbrella — an indifference 
which would certainly make a collector's mouth water and 
his heart rejoice, if it were common to all lepidoptera 
when he was on the war path ! The Hestias and some 
others of the Danaince though they rise nearly as early, 
and are nearly as restless or industrious, are not quite as 
enterprising or brave, for Skertchly tells us they may be 
seen, during cloud and rain, "pitched, often on an exposed 
shrub, where, with folded wings, they patiently get wet; " 
a habit possibly like that of the ass in standing with his 
back to the storm while the pelting rain comes down, 
looking very miserable, but probably under the impression 
that he is keeping himself dry, or at any rate as dry as 
possible under the circumstances. 

This var. of Amphrysus or Amphrisius is evidently very 
common, as far as the <? $ are concerned;- for a great 
number must have reached our collections. Of the ? S 
so much perhaps cannot be said. 

Mr. H. Druce, in the proceedings quoted at the head 
of this article thus describes Flavicollis, giving it specific 
rank : — 

" $ . Upper side : Similar to 0. Amphrysus from Java, 
but differs in the following respects : Anterior wing more 
elongated, with the yellow markings at the end of the cell 
smaller ; the posterior wing rather paler in colour, with the 
black scallops and the black border much narrower. It is at 
once distinguished from all other species by its bright 
yellow collar. The neuration of the posterior wing differs 
slightly from 0. Amphrysus. 

" ? . Anterior wing sooty black, with all the veins 
broadly bordered with dusky white ; the marginal series 
of black spots on the posterior wing are much broader 
than in Amphrysus, almost reaching the discoidal cell ; 
very like the posterior wing of 0. Miranda, Butler. 

" I have examined 35 6* 6* and $ ? of this species, and 
they do not differ in any respect. Hab. Borneo. In 
the colls, of H. Druce and O. Salvin." 

In the Plate [PI. 51] illustrative of this variety, I have 
given (figs. 3, 4, 5), portraits of the two sexes, and also 
(figs. 1,2) of the variety ruficollis $ of Butler. The latter 
var. is placed first, as it appears to diverge least from the 

typical or parent form Amphrysus, as may be seen by a 
careful comparison. In the females of ruficollis 1 find 
little or no difference except in the colour of the collar, 
but in flavicollis there are undoubtedly important differ- 
ences, while the ? here figured is so unlike in many details 
even the accepted form that it might ultimately merit a 
new varietal name, if we were able to find a male to match 
with it. 

$ . (Fig. 3). Anterior wings velvety black, with rich 
golden lemon-yellow rays, greyish towards the outer 
margin, within which are the chief nervules ; these reach 
to within a short distance of the outer margin ; the upper 
part of the cell, with part of the costa, of the same colour, 
forming altogether an elongated oblique patch midway of 
the upper part of the wings ; this encloses the black 
nervures (very broadly black), and the 1st and 2nd pseu- 
doneura, and an elongate cloud of black atoms within 
the cell. 

Posterior wings intense silky yellow, more golden at the 
hind margin, greener at the base. Wings delicately 
scalloped or curved, with black incurved marginal spots, 
a black marginal line, and an elongate black spot twice 
the length between the 2nd and 3rd median nervules, 
with yellow atoms dividing it midway ; the base brown ; 
abdominal fold brown, with pearly kid-white on inner 
edge, and a brown line to complete the shape of the fold. 

Abdomen primrose yellow, with a fleshy pale brown 
dorsal stripe to within the 2nd anal segment ; subdorsum 
slightly orange yellow : lateral dots minute ; anal valves 
with two sharp crossed spine-like points, soft fawn greyish 
white, with a slight black outline above. Thorax, on the 
under sides with only a small patch of red near the base 
of the wings : pronotal collar yellow, nearly shaped. 

The yellow of both surfaces of the wings shot with green. 
The pseudoneura are prominent on the under side of the 
anterior wings. The veins of all the wings very black 
and exquisitely curved. Some of those of the posterior 
wings curve round at the exterior margin, and become a 
part of its thin black border. 

Length of costa 78, width of anterior wing 41, length 
of posterior wing 48, and width 36 mm. ; of abdomen or 
antennas 31, thorax with head 12 mm. ; width of thorax 
12, of abdomen 12 mm. ; 

( 1st pair: femur, 11; tibia, 9; tarsi, 15 mm. 
oflegs-Und „ „ 12; „ 12; „ 15 ,, 
(3rd „ ,, 11; , 12; ,, 15?,, ; 
width of abdominal fold 5 mm.,length 25 mm. Hab. Borneo. 

? . Anterior wings, pale umber brown, with brownish 
grey rays and marks ; within the cell the same grey, 
graduated from pale brown at the base to the purer grey at 
the discocellular nervules and beyond, the effect being pro- 
duced by graduated brown atoms, the Pseudoneura quite 
prominent. Under surfaces similar, except that the brown 


and grey are more pure, from the absence of the atoms, 
and the Pseudoneura are well marked. 

Posterior wings less intense lemon yellow ; the very 
broad dark-brown margin nearly reaching the discoidal 
cell in the 3 lower divisions, which are also more pointed 
than are the 3 superior ; the yellow spots enclosed by 
this form a very regular submarginal band, the 3 inner 
ones dusted with black atoms. The dark brown altogether 
occupies about 3-5ths of the wing area, and the yellow near 
the base is furnished with delicate, almost invisible brown 
hairs. The base is warm brown. The abdominal fold 
within the submedian nervure is pale fawn-brown, darker 
nearer the inner margin. Under surface, pale primrose 
yellow ; and very dark sepia brown ; abdominal fold pale 
brown with a very short fringe. 

Outline of posterior wings dentated, with white lunar 
spots above, fawn-coloured below. 

The different divisions of the subcostal nervure larger 
than those in the Priamus group. 

Eyes chesnut brown ; femora with yellow scales over 
nearly their entire length. 

Abdomen : dorsum fawn-brown, with lateral border of 
yellowish grey ; subdorsum lemon yellow with lateral black 
dots. Thorax : smoky brown above, lighter below : sides 
with a slight spot of red. Collar orange yellow. 

Length of costa of upper wing 85, width of wing 47, 
length of under wing 57, width 40 mm. ; length of 

abdomen and antennae 30, width of thorax 10, of abdomen 
10, length of thorax with head 21 mm. 

C 1st pair: femur, 12; tibia, 8; tarsi, 13 mm. 
Oflegsj2nd „ ,, 13; „ n; „ i 2 „ 

Urd ,» „ 12; „ 11; „ 16 „ 

Hab. Borneo. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Frederick Moore 
for the privilege of figuring and describing these specimens, 
from his splendid Indian collection. 

6* . In the British Museum. Body more than usually 
robust, same size as that described above ; orange yellow 
on upper wings extends exactly as in the var. ruficollis, 
that is, less than half the length, so that Mr. Moore's 
examples are subvarieties of Druce's var. No other 
difference. Hab. Borneo. 

2 . Brit. Museum. Length of costa 87 mm. One 
tear-shaped spot in the cell close to the discocellular 
nervule, its apex pointed inwards. The pseudoneura 
faintly represented. Under wings black, with their marks 
more gracefully formed tha n in Mr. Moore's specimen. 
Hab. Borneo. 

? . Brit. Museum. Length of costa 94 mm. Alto- 
gether more robust than the above ; the grey of the 
wings slightly more drab coloured. Hab. Borneo. 

In Plate 10 and fig. 4, vol. L, of this work is a represen- 
tation of the under wing of a var. of the ? in the Brit. 
Museum. Hab. Borneo. The shape of the yellow 
collar is 



Ornithoptera ruficollis, Butler, Trans. Linn. Soc, 2nd Ser. Vol. L, p. 552. (1875.) 

„ „ Distant, Rhopal, Malayana, V. I., t. 328-30 with plain fig., V. II., p. xxvii., a. 1. (1871.) 

„ „ Fickert, TJeber die Zeichn. der, Gatt. Orn., p. 739. (1888.) 

Troides Amphryaus, abr. (d), ruficollis, Walter Rothschild, Novit. Zoologies, n. 25, p. 232, Vol. II. (1893.) 

$ . Described by Butler. "Allied to O. Flavicollis : 
wings smaller, comparatively narrower ; outer margin of 
Primaries more distinctly inarched. Collar carmine. 
Expanse of wings 5 inches 4 lines to 6-1. <? . Malacca." 

[The inarching of the outer margin is not absent in 
Flavicollis, but in some examples quite as prominent.] 

? . Described by Distant. " Anterior wings above 
blackish, with the following greyish markings : — 2 large 
contiguous spots at the end of the cell, the area above and 
beyond the apex of the cell elongately continued along the 
nervules, and a spot near the apex of 2nd and 3rd median 
nervules and of submedian nervure. Posterior wings 
above very bright pale yellow; the neuration, a large 
basal transverse patch extending from base of cell to costal 
margin beneath the costal nervure, the abdominal margin, 
and the posterior margin inwardly scalloped and con- 
nected with a submarginal series of 6 larger spots placed 
between the nervules, the 3 uppermost of which are irre- 
gularly rounded, the 4th, 5th, and 6th pyriform, black, 
near the abdominal fold and above the submedian nervure 
the ground colour is dusted with dark greyish scales beneath 

as above, but the greyish markings on the anterior wings 
paler beneath, and the posterior wings not dusted with 
dark greyish near the abdominal margin. Body above, 
with the head and pronotum black, the last with a narrow 
carmine collar ; abdomen above greyish brown ; abdomen 
beneath with about half of its lateral margin bright 
yellow ; thorax beneath and legs black." 

Plain figs, of both surfaces given by Mr. Distant on 
page 329 of his work, differ little from the var. sketched 
from the Brit. Museum. 

Relative to " Var. ? PI. xxvii. a 1," he remarks, " this 
variety differs from the typical form by having the sub- 
marginal row of spots to the posterior wings distinctly 
separated from the posterior margin." 

In my Plate (51, figs. 1, 2), I present portraits of the upper 
and under sides of the S from an example in my own collec- 
tion. All that need be said about it is that it differs only in 
the slightest degree from examples of Flavicollis which I 
possess, except that the red collar is wider than the yellow 


one, the yellow of the under wings is warmer than in 
Flavicollis, and the apex of the upper wings more rounded. 
One small specimen of Flavicollis has the apex sharply 
pointed. Hab. Borneo. 

$ . In Brit. Museum. Agrees in every respect with the 
Flavicollis figured in my plate, except in the presence of a 
minute yellow line on the subcostal vein, and that the 
yellow of the cell and costa does not extend so far 
inwards — little more than i-3rd. Length of costa 84 mm. 
Hab. Malacca. 

6* . Brit. Museum. Yellow of Primaries generally 
redder. Length of costa 54 mm. Hab. Malacca. 
Another S in same collection has the yellow of Primaries 
orange tinted. A $ from Penang, costal length 75 mm., 
presents no other difference. There is no ? of this 
variety in the Brit. Museum at present. 

These are certainly only local varieties of P. Amphrisius : 
the greatest differences being that in the <? $ the yellow 
of the upper wings is much more broadly marked both 
within and without the cell, but in no one is the yellow 
within the cell carried so far as in the fig. in our plate — 
not above i-3rd. In the 2 upper wings the grey stripes 
and patch close within the cell are almost of the same 
shape and extent as in the $ , differing therefore greatly 
from the figure, and from the S of Flavicollis. The same 
may be said of the under side. 

There are 2 $ $ in the Brit. Museum most near to 
Ruftcollis, with red collar, and exceedingly rich green- 
yellow under wings. The markings of the Primaries are 
only faint stripes, and there is the faintest indication of 

yellow on the discoidal cell, and between the nervures of 
the costa. These will have to be considered later on as 
a new variety. A S also appears to belong to it from the 
same loeality in Borneo (20 miles up the Sundu river, 
near the Lymbang), differing from the S of P. Amphrysius. 

Reverting once more to the interesting paper of Mr. 
Skertchley, in the Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol. iv., 
p. 218, we find him saying, in connection with the variety 

" The <? has one peculiarity in flight which may be 
used in courting, and is certainly used on other occasions. 
In basking among the foliage on sunny riversides, it often 
flies slowly along moving only its forewings, the hind 
wings drooping at an obtuse angle to the line of flight, 
trailing like a rich robe of golden silk. In a freshly caught 
specimen this position can be easily induced. A furrow 
in the inner margin of the ? wing allows the notch of the 
h. w. to be elevated easily without interfering with the 
partial action of the f. w. In such flight the f. wings only 
move through a small angle. On the inner margin of the 
h. w. there is a strong fold fringed with hairs, forming a 
pouch. In normal flight and when at rest this pouch is 
closed, but when the h. w. is drooped the pouch opens. 
It may therefore be a scent pouch, and this particular 
flight the normal courting flight." 

Skertchly does not mention the peculiar contents of 
the pouch, or say whether any portion of the cottony 
material was dissipated after the flight. It would be 
interesting to know. 

In our plate, fig. 2a, will be found a sketch of the $ 
anal valves of ruficollis drawn as it appears when quite 
closed, from a specimen in the author's museum. 


Ornithoptera Nereis, William Doherty, Journal Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Vol. lx., Pt. II., No. 1890, p. 30 

This species occurs on an island situated about 80 
miles west of Sumatra, called Engano. A long line of 
islands and islets, forming several obvious groups, extends 
from the great Nicobar island, and chief of the group of 
that name (that is north of the equator, with a positive 
west of Sumatra), down to the equator, including in its 
course the Cocos, Hog, Baniak, and Nias groups of islands ; 
then south of the equator we find Mintaon, Sebeeroo, 
Sepora, Poggy, Nassau, and lastly Engano. The latter 
is 180 miles south of the Nias group, and 210 miles from 
Java, being situated north of that great island. A con- 
siderable portion of this long line of islands is usually 
included in what are called the Sunda Islands, of which 
we might almost say Sumatra itself is the monarch — being 
separated only from Java by the Straits of Sunda. Mr. 
Doherty tell us that Engano is wholly surrounded by deep 
sea, with a coast protected by its extensive coral reefs 
from the agencies which are gradually wearing away the 
other islands. He says " the deep sea that surrounds 
them swallows up all the alluvium from their streams ;" 
and " the tremendous surf on their western shore steadily 
undermines their hills, and under this process the islands 

have long been wearing away." How much this process 
is delayed or modified by the stupendous volcanic agency, 
always more or less at work in Sumatra, Java, and the 
Straits, it would be difficult to say, but this influence 
must be very great in any case. 

Zoologically Engano is considered by Doherty to be an 
outlying member of the Nias group, with Javan affinities, 
and an area of about 120 square miles. It is called 
Pulo Telanjang, or the Naked Island, by the Malays, 
because the inhabitants till recently went about in a 
nude condition. 

The description of the island by Mr. Doherty is very 
interesting ; and to this, with what the writer in the 
Tidschrift van Neclerlandsch Indie, or the Journal of the 
Dutch Indies, says about its people and products, I refer 
the reader for further information. Mr. Doherty obtained 
about 10 species of land shells, most of them new, on the 
island, and only a small collection of Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera, in the former of which it would seem there 
were relatively more butterflies than moths, while among 


the beetles the Elateridce were dominant, and the Phytophaga 
very rare. No species of Cassida was taken at all ; frogs, 
toads, snakes, and lizards abound ; but he says nothing 
about the birds, or the higher vertebrata. He collected 50 
species of butterflies, and saw two or three more. Of 
these he felt justified in considering 13 to be new, in- 
cluding nearly all the Danaidce, and three species of 
PapilionidcB, reckoning the Ornithoptera as one. The 
following are Mr. Doherty's descriptions of P. Nerds, to 
whch are added my own additional observations on his 
types and co-types, from which the figures in the plate 
are drawn : — 

" $ . Above black, the cell immaculate, the veins of the 
disc black, bordered with rather conspicuous whitish rays. 
Hind wing golden yellow, bordered with a deeply scal- 
loped black band, which is only about i-ioth of an inch 
wide at the ends of the veins, the base black above the 
middle of the costal space, including the root of the cell ; 
two (in one specimen five) black discal spots subanally in 
the gold below, the white streaks near the veins are more 
continuous, and the end of the cell is slightly touched 
with whitish ; a little red at the base of the wings." 

[The inner subanal spot is 3 or 4 times the size of the 
outer, and on the underside of the wing where they are 
repeated they are slightly larger. The under surfaces of 
the wings are in all respects like those above with the 
exception that the golden yellow of the secondaries is 
more lemon in intensity, and that the space between the 
3rd median nervule and submedian nervure contains a 
rather large black spot, separated from the brown that 
occupies part of the space by golden yellow atoms, with 
an elongate spot close to the anal angle, also divided by 
golden scales or atoms. The sexual pouch is silky olive 
black above, brown black below, with brown black ab- 
dominal fringe.] 

"2. With the outer third of the cell entirely dull 
whitish the whitish streaks between the veins coalescing, 
and extending nearly to the outer margins, the black rays in 
the middle of the spaces not nearly reaching the cell ; 
hind wing very dull golden, the border wide, the discal 
spots coalescing widely with each other and with the outer 
black band, so as to enclose small yellowish lanceolate 
spots in pairs, divided by the veins. Below, the hind wing 
is dull pale whitish-yellow, without any golden tint ; this 
area extends only to the upper subcostal vein, and 
occupies 2-3rds of the cell. Several males and two 
females were taken, but one of the latter was unluckily 
destroyed, and the other is worn." 

On the Primaries the white between the veins is not so 
much modified by dark dustings of scales as in other 
species, and is very closely copied on the under surface of 
the wings. The yellow of the secondaries is within the cell, 
between the 1st and 2nd subcostal nervules, a small 
portion of the space close to the 3rd median nervules, 
and between that and the submedian nervure, more or 
less whitish like the under surface. A streak of whitish 
and dustings of whitish scales are also found on the 
abdominal fold. 

The opaque white of the under surface of the hind wings 
distinguishes this form from all others in the Pompseus 
group. The affinity of this species is with P. minos, of 
Southern India. 

There are six specimens of this species in the collection 
of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, all that were collected, five 
of them $ $ and one 2 , including the two types. I have 
numbered these specimens for future reference. 

Nos. 1 and 2 have only one subanal black spot on 
the upper side, and two on the underside : the outer one 
being a mere dot, which can be seen from the upper 
side in certain lights. No. 3 has three black spots on 
the underside of the right wing, and two on the left : the 
larger, inner one, is repeated on the upper surface, and 
faint clouded indications of the others are visible. The 
space between the submedian nervure and 3rd median 
nervule contains two black spots also, the upper one 
surrounded by black scattered scales on a whitish yellow 

No. 4, which I have figured in the plate, will speak for 
itsslf (fig. 3), as will No. 5 the type. No. 6 (the ? ) also is 
fully represented in the plate. 

$ . Head : eyes chesnut black, articulations of antenna? 
48. Abdomen: the dorsal brown black, enclosing a longitu- 
dinal stripe or patch on three of the segments of a red 
fawn colour ; the lateral lemon yellow ; subdorsal redder 
lemon. Five lateral subdorsal black dots, obscurely 
represented. Anal valves delicate fawn colour. Pseudo- 
neura fairly prominent in the discoidal cell of the upper 

Length of costa, 67 mms. ; antennae and abdomen, 28 
mms. ; thorax with head, 19 mms. ; width of primaries, 
36 mms. ; of hind wing, 31, and length, 42 mms. 

No. 1 $ , Length of costa, 72 ; of No. 2 <? , 68 ; of No. 
3 71; and of var. <?, 67 mms. 

2 . Head : eyes chesnut black. Articulations of antenna?, 
46 mms. Thorax and abdomen smoky brown ; lateral 
parts of the latter a sordid yellow with five black dots, 
and of subdorsal yellow. Anal tuft reddish brown. 

Length of costa, 82 mms. ; of antennae and abdomen, 
28 mms. ; thorax with head, 20 mms. ; width of primaries, 
each, 41 mms. ; of secondaries, 39 mms. ; and length, 
55 mms. 

Le°-s ( Ist P airfemur > 11 ; tibia » 7; tarsi, 11 mms. 
° ■ 2nd „ „ 10; „ 12 ; ,, 15 „ 
(3rd „ „ 10; „ 10; „ 15 „ 

In the 2 the legs are so broken away that no measure- 
ments are possible. 

Hab. Engano. 

I am indebted to the Hon. L. Walter Rothschild for 
the pleasure of figuring this lovely species. 

A prominent feature of the $ S of this species is the 
beautiful gradation of the silky golden or greenish yellow 
of the under wings to a very green ruddy yellow towards 
the base and interior margin. Viewed obliquely against 
the light, the golden becomes intense. 


Papilio Pompeus, Cramer, Pap. Ex. I., t. 25, f. A., t (1775)- 

Esper, Aus. Schmett., t. 24, f. 2, ? . (1785-1798). 
„ ,. Herbst, Pap., t. 2, f. 3 (1788?). 

1, Astenous, Fabricius, Sys. Ent. iii., i., p. 19, 59 (1793). 
Papilio Pompeus, Merian, Ins. Surinam, t. 72 (1719) (loc. error). 
Troide* Astenous, Hubn, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 88 (1816). 

„ Heliacon, Donovan's Ins. India, t, 18, f. 1 (1800). [Cerberus form ?] 
Papilio Amphrisius, v. Godart, Enc. Meth. IX., p. 27, n. 7 (1819). 
Amphrisius Nymphalides, Swainson, Zool. 111. Ins. II., t. 98 (1833). 
Ornithoptera Pompeus Heliacon, Boisdv. Spec. Gen. Lep., p. 18 (1836). Java and Sumatra. 
[Boisduval regards pompeus as a synomyn of Heliacon. The two forms pompeus and cerberus are here united.] 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, <? ? , Doubleday and Hewitson's Gen. of Diurn., Lep. I., p. 4, n. 9 (1846). Java. 
„ „ „ Gray, Cat. Lep. Ins. B. M. I., p. 5, n. 13 (1852). 

„ List Lep. Ins. B. M. I., p. 5, n. 15 (1856). 
„ „ Horsfield and Moore, Cat. Lep. Ins. Mus. East India Company, I. p. 87, n. 177 (1857). 

„ Verh. z. b., Ges. Wien., p. 291, n. 28 (1864). [Gives "Java" as " New Guinea (eadem ? ")] 

„ „ <f ?, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., p. 756 (1865). Bengal. [This form is Cerber us of Felder.] 

„ Wallace, Trans. Linnasan Soc, V. xxv., n. 9, p. 39 (1865). 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, <T ? , Vollenhoven, Tijdschr. v. Ent. III., p. 71, n. 7 (1866). Padang (Sumatra), Java, and N. Guinea. [The Java example may be Pompeus, but the 

others will probably be Cerberus ; Vollenhoven calls them Heliacon of Felder.] 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, Butler, <? ? , Cat. Diurn. Lep. descr. Fabricius, p. 235, n. 4 (1869). 
Papilio Pompeus, W. F. Kirby, Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lepid., p. 519 (1871). 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, Distant, Rhop. Malayan*, p. 326 (1871). 
Ornithoptera Heliconoides, <r ? , Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., p. 592 (1877). 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Entomologie, (Cat. Raisonne de Pap. de la Coll. de Ch. Oberthiir), p. 32 (1879). 
Ornithoptera Heliconoides, i ? , Wood Mason, Journ. Asiatic Soc, Bengal, p. 252, n. 94 (1881). Andaman Islands. [This is Cerberus.'] 
Ornithoptera Heliconoides, Staudgr. and Schatz, Exot. Schmett I., p. 5 (1884). 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, 3 ? , De Niceville, Journ. Asiatic Soc, Bengal, p. 373, n. 171 (1866). Cachar. [One 3 taken August 6th at Irangmara, 1 ? on July 2nd at Sildubi, 

1 ? taken on July 28th, at Irangmara. These are Cerberus.] 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, W. F. Kirby, Cat. Diurn. Lep. formed by the late W. C. Hewitson, p. 1 (1879). 
Ornithoptera Pompeus, ? 3 , Watson, Journal of the Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, p. 26 (1888). Burmah. [Cerberus form.] 
Dr. F. A. Walker, Oriental Entomology, Part II., p. 13 (1887). 
„ „ Si, Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond., p. 422, n. 394 (1888). [The Cerberus form.] 

Ornithoptera Pompeus, Fickert, Ueber die Zeich. der Gatt. Ornithoptera, p. 727, f. 5, Taf. XXI. 3; f. 6, Taf. XXI. ? ; Pupa and larva, figs. 4, 5, Taf. XIX. (1889). 
3 ? , De Niceville, Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, p. 387, n. 86 (1890). Chin-Lushai. [Cerberus form.] 
„ „ Watson, Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, p. 387, n. 86 (1890). Lamtok. [Cerberus form.] 

„ „ 3 ? , De Niceville, Gazeteer of Sikkim, p. 170, n. 459 (1894). [Cerberus form ; very common.] 

0. Pompeus, W. F. Kirby, Nature, Vol. 51, p. 254, col. 2. Larva and Pupa, p. 255, col. 1 (1895). 
Xroides Helena Cerberus, W. Rothschild, Novitates Zoologicae, V. II., p. 219 (1895). 

it .. .• Handbook to the Order Lepidoptera, V. II., p. 264. Larva, p. 264. Pupa, p. 265. (1896.) 

<? . Anterior wings velvety black, slightly graduated to 
a warm brownish black towards the posterior margin ; the 
nervures fairly distinct, but the nervules are almost con- 
cealed by the dense black in a perfectly fresh example, 
except when viewed obliquely ; the adnervular rays are 
so much subdued into a warm dark brown as to be seen 
with difficulty ; the fringe lunules creamy white, and 
fairly conspicuous. Under surface dark smoky brown, 
very black from the base, much lighter towards the pos- 
terior margin ; the adnervular rays, all but those con- 
nected with the 2nd and 3rd median nervules, very 
faintly expressed (or almost entirely obsolete) ; the latter 
are bluish white and prominent ; a short bluish white 
streak also on the sub-median nervure ; the fringe rays 
whitish, with 4 hastate discal marks very faintly indicated 
by greyish atoms nearly parallel to the outer margin, and 
intersected by the 4 branches of the median vein. The 
3rd median nervure starts just beyond the cell. 

Posterior wings a rich silky golden-yellow, with a slight 
greenish tinge, especially towards the base ; base of the 
wing and subcostal region velvety black, interrupted by 
the sub-apical yellow portion of the general yellow wing 

area ; 5 sub-marginal black orbicular spots run parallel to 
the posterior margin, whereof the first, situated between 
the 1st and 2nd discocellular nervules is large, the next 3 
below much smaller, and the 5th 2-3rds the size of the 
1st ; the posterior marginal black border moderately 
broad and dentate ; the abdominal wing fold and part of 
the sub-median area velvety black ; the fringe lunules 
creamy-white, and obscure. [The androconia within 
the fold are fawn-coloured ; very densely arranged, first 
in a line along the sub-median wing-fold, and then in 
several sets of densely-arranged masses on the whole of 
the rest of the pouch interior ; the first line of these hairs 
or scales is formed quite after the manner of a feather, 
with the base of the quill starting from near the base of 
the wings so that the feather rays are all curved down- 
wards : at what may be called the hinge of the fold there 
is a narrow line or canal dividing the remainder of the 
androconia from the feather-like portion, so as to allow 
of an easy closing up of the fold : the remaining masses 
of these peculiar scales have much the appearance of the 
densely clothed soft short fur of a vertebrate animal, and 
are arranged much in the same manner ; the middle 
portion of this mass is depressed, and as the feather-like 



rays are deeply concave, and consequently their termi- 
nals are much raised, it will be manifest that the depres- 
sion mentioned above allows space for the terminals to 
fit in conveniently, so that when the pouch is closed, as 
it nearly always is, the abdominal portion of the wing 
should lie as nearly flat as the rest of the wing ; 
the two edges of the fold, i.e. where they meet when 
the fold is quite closed, are within nearly white, especially 
towards the base of the wing. The peculiar form of the 
fold when nearly open will be understood by reference to 
plate 57 figs. 5, 6.* On the under surface of this fold the 
abdominal fringe of cilia or hairs, which are black and 
long, all start from the outer part of what I call the hinge 
of the fold, down the whole line of the inner margin, so as 
to enclose nearly the whole of the subdorsal portion of 
the abdomen of the insect. In the 2 2 of this genus the 
abdominal fringe hairs are much shorter and fewer in 

Undersurface : The golden silky yellow, and all the 
dark areas of the wing are exactly the same in position 
and outline as above, but on the sub-median yellow area 
is a small sub-anal orbicular brown spot, within a patch 
of sparsely-dusted black atoms ; the anal angle is black, 
and the abdominal margin warm brown-black ; the fringe 
lunules, piceus. Eyes, nitid brown-black, and very 
prominent, with no light margin ; villose tuft of the head 
velvety black ; antennae black, and stouter than in some 

Thorax velvety black : pronotal collar red, but almost 
concealed in some examples ; underside of thorax black 
with the usual pectoral red patches, but varying in extent ; 
legs black. 

Abdomen golden yellow, with the dorsum dark warm 
brown, the middle segments with a longitudinal fawn- 
coloured stripe, and all the annulations expressed in 
yellow ; the usual lateral sub-dorsal black dots ; and 
valves light fawn-coloured with a dorsal triangulate brown 

Length of costa of primary wings 6g mms. ; of posterior 
margin 54, and interior margin 36 mms. ; of secondary 
wings, width 34 and length 43 mms. Length of antennae 
or abdomen 27, and of the thorax with the head 18 mms. 
Articulations of the antennas 38. They are sometimes as 
many as 42 and 44 in some examples from the same 
locality. [See plate 56, figs. 1 and 2] 

Hab. Java. 

2 . Anterior wings black smoky brown, with the outer 
5th of the cell buff or creamy white, blended into the dark 
part of the cell by dark atoms ; the adnervular discal 
rays are of the same light tint and coalesce so as to form 
a continuous light area only divided from the distal part 
of the cell by the nervures — thick rays extending nearly 
from the subcostal nervure to the 2nd median nervule, 
and their terminals to a short distance of the posterior 
margin ; the rays are graduated towards the posterior 
margin by smoky brown atoms till their terminals become 
greatly subdued, so as to nearly melt into the general 
brown of the disc ; on the 3rd median nervule is a short 
rudimentary white adnervular submarginal ray, dusted 
with fumose atoms, and two others above and below the 

Ha another part of this work I hope to give figs, showing the structure of these 
scales, and those of the sexual brands of the i Ornithoptera in the ist Vol. 

submedian nervure. The veins are all sufficiently stout 
and prominent ; the fringe lunules are creamy or buff- 
white. The 3rd subcostal branch commences a little 
beyond the cell ; the pseudoneura are fairly distinct, the 
3rd terminating with a prominent black interrupting spot 
on the discocellular nervure. 

Posterior wings, golden yellow ; the basal end of cell, the 
base of the wing, and costal and subcostal part of the 
wing the same brown as that of the anterior wing, inter- 
rupted by a small sub-apical yellow mark ; the posterior 
marginal black border projects into the yellow area of the 
wing in a series of long adnervular cones, surmounted by 
large black subcordiform spots, which are often connected 
with the cones themselves, and are 6 in number — the 6th 
being indeterminate in shape, only separated from the 
border by a small patch of yellow, and dusted with white 
atoms ; the interior margin is brown, dusted with white 
atoms outside the submedian fold, while the yellow out- 
side the 3rd median branch is subdued with a delicate 
buff-white, which becomes greenish at the anal angle. 
The fringe lunules are buff-white. The wings are strongly 
dentate, especially at the terminals of the 2nd and 3rd 
median nervules ; the veins intersecting the yellow area 
of the wings are stout and deep black. Undersurface of 
the anterior wings in all respects almost entirely similar 
to the upper surface, with a faint streak of white atoms 
on the submedian fold. 

The posterior wings also differ very little on the under 
from the upper surface, except that the row of discal 
black spots are rather larger, and more irregular in shape, 
and are not united with the conical projections of the 
black border as above : they are all bordered with patches 
of white atoms : there is an orbicular black spot in the 
yellow at the anal angle : and all the yellow spaces be- 
tween the nervules are intersected and subdued by stripes 
of pale white, a part of the yellow of the cell being treated 
in the same manner. The veins are all fairly prominent. 

Head and thorax velvety black ; eyes dark castaneous 
brown ; antennae black ; pronotal collar red — the colour 
nearly concealed by the black ; with large pectoral red 
patches within the dark brown ; legs stout and black ; 
abdomen fumose brown — each annulation divided by fine 
yellow lines, the sides and subdorsum golden and pale 
yellow with lateral black dots, and dorsal small black 

Length of costa 70 mms. ; width of anterior wing 46 
mms. ; length of hind wing 54, and width 36 mms ; length 
of abdomen or antennae 26 mms. ; of thorax with head 
21 mms. 

t ( ist pair : femur 12; tibia 7; tarsi 11 mms. 

ofkfs: \ 2nd » " 11 ; » r 3 5 « 13 n 


12 ; 

12 ; 


Habitat, Java [Cramer's type was from Java]. 

For the $ described in this paper see PI. 56, figs. 1, 2, 5. 

For the 2 see PI. 57, figs. 1, 2. 

2 . The posterior wing of a variety is figured on PI. 
57, drawn from both surfaces. It will be seen that while 
the amount of variation from the type fig. is fairly notice- 
able the general plan of the pattern is followed in this 
variety. Not so, however, in the case of the interesting 


variety which I have introduced in PL 56, figs. 3 and 4. 
Here "the upper wing bears a considerable resemblance to 
Doherty's nereis, while the posterior wing is very distinctly 
different in the pattern arrangement. The wing is more 
strongly dentated than in the type form ; a marginal 
band of black cones, larger than those of the type form 
extends from the apical to the anal angles ; an oval black 
spot is between the 2nd and 3rd median branches above 
the cone ; 2 faint atomic spots between the 1st discocellular 
and 1 st median branches ; the marginal cones are finished 
with black atoms. The basal half of the cell, the costa, 
and part of the area of yellow between the costal and 
subcostal nervures is occupied by black ; the abdominal 
margin and part of the submedian area are dark brown, 
with a short narrow white streak at near the anal angle. 
The under surface of the wing is similar to that above, 
except that the marginal cones are rendered incomplete 
in shape by whitish atoms, the fringe lunules are rather 
broader, and a discal row of 5 black spots obtains, of 
which the 2nd and 3rd are atomic ; there is also a V-shaped 
white mark on the black parallel to the costal and sub- 
costal veins. The body of the insect is like that of the 
? type ; length of costa 76 mms. The specimen is believed 
to come from Java, and is in the museum of Mr. H. Grose- 
Smith, to whom I am indebted for the pleasure of figuring 
and describing it. 

A J in the collection of Mr. F. Moore is smaller than 
the usual examples (the length of the anterior margin 58 
mm.) The anterior wing is smoky Velvety brown ; the 

adnervular rays more than usually light — slightly greenish 
in tone ; the exterior wing with a basal black cone with- 
in the cell, and the usual outer marginal bands of black 
cones, but the yellow is immaculate. This is evidently 
the type form for Java ; for an example in my own 
collection from Java is larger. (Anterior margin of 
anterior wing 66 mms), the adnervular rays very obscure, 
the basal 5th of the cell is transversely black ; an or- 
bicular black discal spot between the 1st and 2nd 
median branches, a larger oval spot united to the apex 
of the anal angular cones, and between the costal vein 
and the subcostal branch on the left wing only is a small 
black dot ; a small yellow apical spot is also on the black 
of the costa. A second example has the black dot re- 
placed on both wings by an irregular black spot, and the 
spot between the 1st and 2nd median branches is only 
small and rudimentary. This pattern arrangement is 
like that which generally prevails in most of my examples 
of the cerberus form, and those I have seen in other 
collections — though many of the cerberus examples are 
without any other spot on the yellow of the midwing 
except the oval spot at near the anal angle, sometimes 
confluent with the curve of the margin, sometimes 
separate from it. The cerberus examples are generally 
larger than in their Japan relatives, and the black of the 
anterior wings is much deeper and colder in tone. 

An example of the 6* pompeus in the Hope Museum at 
Oxford has a large apical orbicular spot. 


Papllio Cerberus, Felder, " Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien." p. 2gi. n. 31 (1864) id. " Reise Novara, Lep. I., p. 19, n. 10 (1865), ? 3 . Darjiling, Sylhet. 
Papillo Pompeus, Var. c. P. Cerberus, W. F. Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lepid.. p 520 (1871). 
Ornithoptera Heliconoides, Moore, " Proc. Zool. Soc," p. 592 (1877), 3 ? . 

Wood-Mason and de Nic^ville, " Journal Asiatic Soc. Bengal," p. 237, n. 65 (1880), 3 ? . Andatnans. 
Hephaestus, Distant, " Rhopalocera Malayana,"p. 328., n. 2. t., 27, f. 2, ( 5 ) ab. 3 ( $ ), 4 ( $ ), (1885) Malay Peninsula. 
„ „ Weymer, " Stett. E. Zeit," p. 270 (1885), Nias. 

Cerberus, Fickert, " Ueber die Zeichn. Gatt. Ornith.," p. 732 (1889), $ 5 . 
Hephsstus, Hagen, " Iris" VII. p. 18, n. 3 (1894), P P- Sumatra. 

Cerberus, " Staudinger und Schatz," Exot. Schmet. I. p. 4, t 2 (1884). g , N. India (Java, local error. 
Swinhoe, " Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond." p. 311 n. 372 (1893), Khasia Hills in Sylhet. $ $ . 
Papilio (Ornith.) Cerberus, Robbe, "Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgae," p. 123, n. 1 (1892), Sikkira $ 5 . 
Troides Helena (d) Cerberus, Rothschild, " Novitates Zoological," vol. II., p. 219 (1895). 

This form may generally be distinguished from the Javan 
Pompeus by its more elongate wings and darker colouring ; 
also by its larger size. 

It is found to inhabit continental India, from Sikkim 
to Assam ; and also Burmah, Sumatra, Banguey, Penang, 
Borneo, Lombock (Wallace), and the Isle of Nias. Of 
course the Nias and Sumatran representatives are 
varieties of Cerberus, just as the Andaman Island form of 
Heliconoides, Moore, is a recognised and marked variety of 
Cerberus or Pompeus (whichever we may please to consider 
the type name to be). In India Cerberus has a wider 
range than P. Rhadamanthus and is in flight during a 
longer period of the year. It is found in hot valleys at 
from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, and flies with a slow sailing 
about the flowering trees from May to October, 
according to Elwes, who quotes the species as 
Rhadamanthus, though it is evidently Cerberus. Accord- 
ing to Lieut. E. Z. Watson, (communicated by 

Mr. J. A. Murray to the Victoria Natural History 
Institute), Cerberus (Pompeus Watson) is common at 
Beeling in Upper Tenasserim, and Poungadaw in Upper 
Burmah ; at the first locality he found it from January 
to April, in the second during October and November. 
Beeling is a village 60 miles north of Moulmein, surrounded 
chiefly by bamboo jungle, with a fair proportion of large 
trees. Poungadaw is a small village just across the old 
frontier, 30 miles North West of Thayetmyo, in the 
midst of a jungle of low bushes, very inferior to Beeling 
from a butterfly point of view. 

Among the other localities where Cerberus has been 
taken, may be mentioned The Khasia Hills, where, 
according to Col. Swinhoe, it is common ; also at 
Darjiling and Kurseong, according to Robbe, and Assam 
generally, Bengal (Felder), Malacca, the Natuna Islands, 
the Banquey Islands, and Padang, Sumatra, and New 
Guinea (?) 


Lionel de Niceville, "Gazeteer of Sikkim," p. 170, n. 459 
(1894), says of Cerberus, " The N. Indian form has been 
described by Felder as 0. Cerberus, but it cannot, I think, 
be separated from the typical form, which was described 
from Batavia in Java (by Cramer)." It is more common 
than Rhadamanthus, and occurs at the same time of the 
year. Mr. de Niceville also speaks of the species as 
having been collected by Mr. F. E. Dempster during the 
expedition to Chin Lushai in 1889-90, and at Lamtok on 
June 4th, 1890. 

The Andaman Island form of Pompeus or Cerberus was, 
in 1877, described by Mr. F. Moore (Proc. Zool. Soc, 
p. 592), as a distinct species under the name of O. 
Heliconoides. For the sake of comparison, this description 
is here reproduced. " S Upper side of fore wings 
entirely black ; hind wing golden yellow, with black 
abdominal fold, and, from base of submedian to middle 
of lower median veinlet, a marginal band formed by a 
series of 9 conical spots, decreasing in size from the anal 
angle ; the 1st or anal elongated at its apex, the 2nd, 3rd, 
5th and 6th each with a contiguous small upper round 
spot ; the space at base of wing broadly across end of 
cell to middle of costal vein also black. Undersides as 
above ; forewing very slightly grey, streaked along the 
base of the lower median veinlets. 

" 2 Forewing with prominent greyish white streaks along 
the veins, and similar streaks within the end of the cell : 
hind wings with black abdominal fold, a partly con- 
stricted elongated spot above the anal angle, outer 
marginal band of large continuous cones, a discal series 
of 5 small spots, the space at the base of the wings 
occupying the interspace between the costal and sub- 
costal to near its end. Under-side as above. Abdomen 
greenish to black above, yellow at the sides and beneath. 
Red collar slightly perceptible in 2 . Expanse $ 5 6-8ths, 
2 6 4-5th inches. S. Andamans (Port Blair)." 

" In a series of 4 examples of the <? from the above 
locality one specimen had all the black spots of the hind 
wings absent except the first or anal, which is fused with 
the marginal conical spot, as is generally the case in the 
continental specimens. In another the 2nd spot is 
present on the upper side only ; in a third the 2nd and 
3rd, and in a fourth the 2nd, 3rd, and 6th." In the con- 
tinental specimens, these variations occur on both sides 
in a large series of example, as may be seen by examining 
any of our collections, public or private — indeed it is not 
easy to bring together a number of examples with a 
uniformity of pattern from any locality. 

" Of 5 2 2 also two have the upper wings conspicuously 
rayed with white, like some of the Assam specimens, 
and 3 (2 from Little Brother Island and 1 from S. 
Andamans) have the veins of these wings either simply 
bordered on both sides with paler black than the general 
ground colour, or only exhibit here and there faint traces 
of white scales like others from southern slopes of the 
Khasia Hills (Sylhet). The <? $ which are least differen- 
tiated from the 2 2 in point of markings, also resemble 

I them in the fuller and more broadly rounded inner angle 
of their anterior wings." [Wood Mason, " Journal of the 
Asiatic Soc, Bengal, p. 252 n. 94, 1881] . I have thought 
it best to quote almost the whole of this Author's remarks, 
though in a somewhat different order. 

An examination of a <? of Mr. Moore's heliconoides in 
the British Museum Collection may be added : — 

$ . 1st example in the series. Anterior wing quite 
black — the veins almost invisible. Posterior wing yellow 
with broad black marginal cones, the veins being black. 
Under surface the same, except that the anal-angle cone 
is larger and more pronounced than on the upper side, 
and separate from a discal black spot at its apex. 

2 Anterior wing dark brown, a little lighter toward 
the outer margin ; the ochreous-white adnervular rays 
very broad, shaded or graduated very delicately from the 
discoidal cell by a dusting of brown scales ; the cell at 
its distal end is treated the same. Posterior wings 
yellow, with a broad marginal band of black cones, or 
rather dentate marks, each one from the upper part 
of the wing reaching farther into the disc, and at the 
apex of each, though detached from them (except at near 
the apical angle) is a different-sized tear-shaped black 
spot ; the costa, the basal part of the cell, and all the 
space above the 2nd and 1st veins, except two small 
yellow portions, black ; undersurface with the posterior 
yellow area much paler than above, and suffused with 
white ; the white fringe lunules prominent, and united 
with each marginal cone by a dusting of white atoms. 

The type <? of Felder's Cerberus has on the underside 
of the posterior wing, between the 2nd and 3rd median 
veinlets a subconical black spot rather longer than the 
marginal cone beneath, from which it is only slightly 
separated by the discal yellow, and also a faint black 
spot above it ; a small orbicular black spot also between 
the 1st and 2nd median veinlets ; there is also a rather 
large submedian black mark above the anal angle. In 
other respects this example generally corresponds with 
the prevailing specimens of Cerberus. Expanse of the 
anterior margin of the upper wing 71 mms. Hab. Sylhet. 
Felder's type 2 was from Cachar, collected by Dr. 
Stoliczka. The anterior marginal length of the type 2 
of Moore's Heliconoides is 90 mms. 

The types of the Javan Pompeus of Cramer are in the 
British Museum (?) ; of Felder's Cerberus in the Tring 
Rothschild Museum ; and of Moore's Heliconoides in the 
rich Indian collection of Mr. Frederick Moore. 

By the foregoing it will be seen that I propose to 
recognise Pompeus as the type form of this species, by 
reason of its priority of description by Cramer 90 years 
before Felder described its continental relative ; Cerberus 
and Heliconoides will thus be varieties of Pompeus — the 
latter being considered again a local var. of Cerberus. 

A careful comparison of sets of the 3 forms will prove 
that they all belong to one widely distributed species. 


Papilio Aatenous, Eschscholtz, " Kotzebue's Reise," III., p. 205, t. 4, f. 6a, 6b, 6c, (n), (1821). 
Ornithoptera Khadamantus, Lucas, "Lepid. Exot." p. 5, (i i), (1835). 

Amphrysus, Lucas, "Lepid. Exotica," t. 2, f. 1 (<?); (1835). 

Rhadamanthus, Boisduval, "Spec. Gen. Lep." r„ p. 180, n. 8, (1836), <? , and var. ?. 
Reakirt, " Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil." p. 444, n. 1, (1846), 1 3 . 
Oberthur, " Et. d'Ent." IV., p. 32, n. 16, (1879), J ?. 
,. Dewitz, "Nov. act. Kais Lep. Ac. Nat." XIV., L. n. 2, p. 262, t. 2, f. 7, 7a, 7b, (1882), 3 t . 

Staudinger and Schatz, "Exot. Schmett." I., p. 4, t. r, (1884), <T ? . 
,, „ Fickert, " Zoologischen Jahrbuchen," p. 733, (1893). 

,, ,, Leach, "Butterflies of China," &c, p. 513, (1893), s ?. 

Papilio Hephereus, Gray, " List Lep. Ins." Brit. Mus. I., p. 6, n. 17, (1856). 
Ornithoptera Nephereus, " Wallace. Tr. Linn. Soc." Vol. XXV., (1866). 

Staudinger, "Iris," p. 4, (1889). 
,, ,, Semper, "Philipp. Tagfalt." p. 264, n. 386 (1891), <f ? . 

Troidea Rhadamantue, Rothschild, "Nov. Zoologies," Vol. II., p. 224, n. 21, (1895). 

,, ,, Rippon, in Wytsman's "Genera Insectorum," Article " Papilionidae," p. 13, (1902). 

$ . Anterior wings, velvety black ; the adnervular rays 
much subdued, especially the upper ones, by black 
scales on the grey, giving them the appearance of 
being rather greasy ; the pseudoneura just visible. The 
costa of these wings is less arched than in some 
species, and the apical angle is rather pointed. Posterior 
wings golden yellow, the narrow black outer margin divi- 
ded into 4 black cones or lunations, the lowest sur- 
mounted by clouded patches of black scales on the yellow, 
extending in dentate form more or less towards the cell ; 
the abdominal margin and fold black ; the base and costa 
also black, the veins strongly black. 

Under surface of anterior wings as above. The cell 
and distal ends of the pseudoneura a little more promi- 
nent, and partly bordered by white. The submedian 
and interior margin are black. The undersurface of the 
posterior wings as above ; the scaled spots from above 
show faintly through when examined by transmitted 

Head, Antennae and Thorax velvety black ; pronotal 
collar red ; eyes fucous brown ; abdomen above brown, 
the articuli expressed slightly in yellow ; the sides 
and subdorsum yellow, with rather large lateral black 
dots; anal valves light buff. Thorax on the underside 
velvety black, with the usual pectoral red patches ; legs 

Length of costa 66, of outer margin 51 and inner mar- 
gin 35 mms. Greatest length of posterior wings 40 and 
width 25 mms. Length of abdomen or antennae 30, and 
of thorax with head 20 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair: Femur, 12 ; tibia 9 ; tarsi, 10 mms. 
2nd „ „ 12 ; „ 11 ; „ 12 „ 
3rd „ „ 11 ; „ 12 ; „ 15 „ 

Habitat. Most of the Philippine Islands all the year 
round. Common. Not found in Cochin China, nor in 

The species ^Eacus or Rhadamanthus of Boisduval is 
an inhabitant of Indo-China. 

A number of examples in the author's museum are quite 
uniform in pattern. 

2 . Anterior wings dark brown,with prominent adnervu- 
lar white rays, subdued by brown scales ; the pseudo- 
eura very prominent ; the distal i-3rd of the cell scaled 
white or grey, with two long black cones terminating close 
to the distal end of the cell in the grey. Undersurface 
as above, but the rays are purer white, and more promi- 
nent, and the sub-median vein runs part of its course 
through a narrow white streak or ray. 

Posterior wings : the greater part of the cell yellow ; 
the submedian area yellow, and nearly i-3rd of the discal 
area yellow ; the remainder of the wing deep black, with 
an almost obsolete transverse band of minute yellow 
spots ; the marginal light lunations are creamy buff ; a 
brown submedian area indents itself strongly into the 
yellow. Undersurface as above, except that the yellow 
of the wings is richer and purer ; and the transverse 
band of cuneiform yellow marks is not obsolete ; in some 
examples a narrow pale yellow stripe extends up i-3rd of 
the inner margin from the anal angle, and the sub- 
median indentation is only indicated by faint scaling. 

Head, antenna? and thorax above black, eyes nitid red- 
brown ; abdomen above brown, beneath yellow, with small 
lateral black dots. Thorax beneath black with the usual 
pectoral red patches ; legs black. 

Length of costa 33, of outer margin 57, and inner 
margin 44mms. Greatest length of posterior wing 54 
and width 36 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 30, of thorax with head 
18 mms. 

T .« f f 1st pair: Femur, 10; tibia, 8 ; tarsi, 11 mms. 
Length of I / 

LegS ' l 3 rd „ II ; „ 11; „ 15 „ 

,, 11 ; 
Habitat. Philippine Islands. 
In the author's museum. 



An example of the 5 in the author's collection is very 
richly black on both wings— the white very strong, and 
beautifully scaled ; the hind wing above has no discal yellow 
spots. The undersurface of the anterior wing very rich 
grey white ; _ the posterior wings with the transverse band 
of submarginal spots larger, the lower ones yellow, the 
upper white ; and the submedian black extends upwards 
a good way into the yellow. The abdomen above smoky 
black ; the sides and subdorsum rich yellow and orange, 
the subdorsal articulations emphasized in black spots. 

Habitat. Manilla. 

My figure is drawn from this example. 

Specimens of the <? range from 45 mms. for the length 
of the costa to 80 mms., or more. 

There is a great prima facie similarity between th° 
$ $ of Rhadamantus (or Nephereus), and iEacus (o- 
Rhadamanthus) , which has often led to confusion in the 
minds of authors. By observing the following rules the 
3 3 of the two species may be readily separated : — 

a Anterior wings rounded at the apical angle, Mams, 
aa Slightly acute at the apical angle, Rhadamantus. 

b The adnervular rays white on the upper surface, 
JEacus. bb Not so white, but subdued by delicate scaling 
so as to appear greasy, Rhadamantus. 

c Posterior wings with 3 scaled submarginal short 
patches above the lower marginal black lunations, JEacus. 
cc With 4 accuminate scaled patches nearly reach- 
ing to the cell, Rhadamantus. 

d Posterior wings rounded, and normal relatively in size 
to the anterior wings, JEacus. dd Posterior wings not 
rounded but pointed or acute at the anal angle, and 
smaller and narrower relatively to the anterior wings, 

e The abdomen does not extend below the posterior 
wings, JEacus. ee The abdomen extends below the 
posterior wings, Rhadamantus. 

f The pattern on the abdomen differs in the two 

g The ? pattern resembles that of Minos, gg The 2 ? 
totally different, the pattern more like those of the 
Helenus group. 

h Habitat : Cochin China, China, Perak, Siam, &c, 
JEacus. hh Habitat : Sandwich Islands exclusively, 

In an example of the 2 of Rhadamantus in the collection 
of my friend the Rev. Mr. Fuller, the middle adnervular 
rays of the anterior wings are only faintly represented. 


Ornithoptera Helena, Vav. Leda, Staudinger, •• Iris," IV., p. 74. (1891.) 

3 . Anterior wings brown black, immaculate, as in Criton 
undersurface dark warm brown, darkest at the base, grad- 
uating much lighter towards the posterior margin ; the 
adnervular light rays just traceable till they reach to near 
the posterior margin where they are quite defined, well 
formed by grey scales. The whole pattern can be traced 
out by careful examination in a good light. 

Posterior wings velvety black, with a fairly broad discal 
area of rich golden yellow, and i-2rd of the cell, distal 
end, of the same colour. The veins are all very stoutly 
emphasized with black, being thicker towards the outer 
margin ; the arrangement makes the submarginal area of 
black very broad, as it also does with the submedian. The 
submarginal border divisions are not dentate or definitely 
lunate towards the disc, but between the 1st and 2nd dis- 
cocellular veins the yellow indents the black border, some- 
what as among the $ $ of Helenus. Undersurface of the 

wings as above ; except that the yellow occupies slightly 
more of the disc, and its outlines are nearly all scaled with 
black ; there is also a thin line of yellow atoms running 
parallel on the outer side with the 3rd median nervule. 

Head and thorax black ; eyes nitid brown ; pronotal 
collar red ; abdomen light brown above, subdued yellow 
beneath ; anal valves buff brown. 

Length of costa 71 mms. Length of abdomen or an- 
tennae 26, and of thorax with the head 17 mms. 

Length of f Ist P a * r : f ernur > 10 ! tibia, 7; tarsi, 9 mms. 

Legs.° H d " " 12 ; " 12 ' » m 

l3rd ,, ,, 12 ; „ 11 ; ,, 14 ,, 

Habitat, Salayer (or Salajer), Island. 


Ornithoptera Criton Critonoides, Fruhstorfer, " Societas Entomologica," of Zurich, XVIII., p. 50, (1903). 

$ . Anterior wings a rich velvety black, with steel-blue 
reflections ; quite immaculate, and the veins hardly dis- 
tinguishable. Undersurface shining black ; the adnervu- 
lar rays only reach to the upper side of the 3rd median 
nervule, and are light blue ; at the distal end of the cell 
the light blue marks are divided by the pseudoneura into 3 
parts, the upper section being the largest and broadest, or 
i-3rd the cell length. 

Posterior wing : one half the cell rich silky yellow, with 
greenish reflections, curved inwardly towards the base ; 
two-thirds of the discal area of the same yellow, its out- 
line following the outline of the outer margin, and leaving 
a broad submarginal i-3rd black ; all the rest of the wing 
is also black. Undersurface as above. 

Head and thorax black ; pronotum with red collar ; 
abdomen silky black above, yellow beneath. 

Length of costa 67 mms. ; of outer margin 51, and of 
inner margin 35 mms. The inner margin is nearly 
straight. Length of posterior wing 41, and width 29 mms. 
Length of abdomen or antennae 29 mms. ; of thorax with 
head 20 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair : Femur, 10 ; tibia, 8 ; tarsi, 11 mms. 
2nd ,, ,, 10 ; ,, 14 ; ,, 14 ,, 

3rd „ „ 10; „ 14; „ 15 „ 

Habitat, Oby Island. 

In the collections of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Mr. 
H. Grose-Smith, Col. Rimington, and others. 

% . Anterior wings silky dark brown ; the adnervular 
rays just distinguishable in a slightly silky brown. Under- 
surface as above, except in being of a lighter brown, 
rufus-tinted ; the adnervular rays faintly indicated by 
gray atoms : the lighter marks at the distal end of the 
cell also treated in the same way. 

Posterior wings very black and silky ; a yellow mark 
incurved towards the base, from the distal end of the 
cell, one-fourth from the base ; the silky golden yellow of 
the disc only occupies 2-5ths — thereby constituting a very 
broad submarginal black band, with 3 almost obsolete 
small yellow discal spots on the upper part of the wing — 
indicating the commencement of a possible submarginal 
transverse band of yellow cuneiform spots. The creamy- 
white outer-marginal fringe lunations are very thin. 
Undersurface as above, except that the yellow areas are 
outlined whitish, and the transverse band of cuneiform 
spots, though small, extend round the wing, and a small 
group of white atoms is present outside the 3rd median 

Head and thorax black ; eyes, nitid brown ; pronotum 
with obscure red collar; abdomen above silky warm 
brown ; beneath yellow scaled, with large lateral black 
dots, and subdorsal black marks on the articuli. 

Length of costa, 66 mms. ; length of outer margin, 47 
mms., and of inner margin, 37 mms. Greatest length of 
posterior wing, 42 mms. ; greatest width, 29 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae, 26 mms. ; of thorax 
with head, 17 mms. 

The inner margin of the anterior wing is nearly straight. 

tarsi, mms. 

Length of 

1 st pair: Femur, ; tibia, 
2nd „ ,, ; ,, 

3rd „ „ : „ 

Habitat : Island of Oby. 

In the museum of the Hon. W. Rothschild, Mr. H. 
Grose-Smith, Col. Rimington, &c. 

S . A remarkable abnormal variety. Anterior wings : 
nearly one half the cell (outer portion) creamy white ; the 
white continued into the disc so as to occupy a consider- 
able portion of its area — the adnervular rays (which 
extend nearly to the outer margin of the wing) being con- 
fluent with it ; the submarginal brown-black divided into 
a series of long indentations — gradually increasing in 
length towards the costa ; slightly more than half the cell 
from the base black as is also the rest of the wing ; all the 
dark outlines are extensively scaled with white atoms ; 
the marginal light lunations form a continuous buff white 
line up the posterior margin ; the veins all very prominent. 
The undersurface of the wings almost exactly as above in 
colour and pattern. 

Posterior wings, with a central discal area of buff-white, 
slightly yellow tinted, occupying one half the length 
of the disc, and extending from above the 1st discocellular 
to the 3rd median nervule; the remainder of the 
disc is brown-black, interrupted nearly midway by a 
transverse band of adnervular cuneiform creamy-white 
marks, extending from the anal to the apical angles ; about 
1 -4th of the cell from the distal end creamy-white ; all 
the remaining area of the wings brown-black, with a slight 
line of white atoms along the submedian fold. The pos- 
terior marginal lunations with a continuous outline of 
buff-white. Undersurface as above, except that the light 
area is following by a transverse row of suborbicular 
black spots, scaled all round — followed by a transverse 
light band of cuneiform marks, and finished by the sub- 
marginal lunate black band, rather extensively scaled with 
white atoms ; part of the submedian area is also white, 
with a black orbicle. 


Head and thorax brown-black ; abdomen dark brown, 
sordid yellow at the sides, subdorsum yellow — the articuli 
well marked in black. 

Length of costa, 77 mms. ; of posterior margin, 58 
mms. ; and of interior margin, 40 mms. Length of pos- 
terior wing 50, and of width 40 mms. Length of abdomen 
or antennae, 30 mms. ; of thorax with head, 20 mms. 

istpair: Femur, 10 ; tibia, 7; tarsi, 10 mms. 
2nd » » "J „ 12; „ 13 „ 
brd „ „ 10; „ 12; „ 13 „ 
inclusive of the trochanters. 

Length of 

The 3rd subcostal nervule is emitted at 2 mms. from 
the distal end of the cell ; the 4th and 5th at 8 mms. 

Habitat: Oby. 

In the Museum of the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

This is a very distinct variety. Its anterior wing re- 
sembles somewhat the anterior wing 2 of Iris from 
Timor Laut, and the corresponding wing of Nereis. It 
may yet be found to be the 5 of an undescribed species. 


Pompeoptera Pompeus ? , Rippon. The present work, Vol. II, p. 54, pi. 56, figs. 3, 4 (1895). 

In the portions of this work mentioned above, I des- 
cribed and figured an interesting variety (as I at that 
time considered) of the ? of Pompeus (type form) from 
Java. Unfortunately I forgot, in writing the text, and 
the names on the plate, to state that this ? was not a 
type ? , but a variety of the type, though I take note of 
it a little later on. 

The circumstances of the case were these : In the 
cabinet of Mr. Grose-Smith, at that time placed under 
the <? of the type Pompeus, was the insect referred to, 
which I took to be a remarkable variety, as it did not 
fit with any other Javan species, nor indeed with any 
species from extra-Javan countries. It was labelled Java, 
and I had the pleasure of borrowing, figuring and des- 
cribing it. After I had returned it I found later on that 
Mr. Grose-Smith had placed it in a new position, and he 
asked me more than once what I really thought it was. Re- 
cently, in comparing my fig. with those of others allied to 
it, I have arrived at the conviction that it is an indepen- 
dent species, and not a variety ; and I herewith repeat 
my former description of this beautiful form, for which I 
now propose the name P. Hycetus. What the $ of this new 
species is like, time only can show ; and were it not that 
this S is so distinctly unlike anything else which I have 
seen, I should have hesitated to describe the new species 
from the S only. 

? Anterior wings dark fumous brown ; with the outer 
4th of the cell buff or creamy white, blended into the dark 
part of the cell by dark atoms, or scales ; the adnervular 
discal rays are of the same light tint, and coalesce so as to 
form a continuous light discal area, divided only by the 
nervures and nervules ; these rays extend nearly from the 
subcostal nervure to the 2nd median nervule, and their 
terminals to within a short distance of the posterior 
margin, and are nearly uniform in width ; the rays are 
graduated towards the outer margin by smoky-brown 
scales ; on the 3rd median nervule is a short rudimentary 
white adnervular ray, dusted with fumose scales, and 
two others above the submedian nervure. The veins are 
all sufficiently stout and prominent ; the fringe lunules 
are creamy buff-white. The 3rd subcostal nervule com- 
mences a little beyond the cell ; the pseudoneura are 
fairly distinct, the 3rd terminating with a distinct gray 
spot close to the discocellular nervure, but within the cell. 

[In the Genus Pompeoptera the pseudoneura are gen- 
erally very distinct, especially in the females, often 

appearing like thin nervures or veins — an indication that 
probably some remote ancestors of the Papilionidae 
possessed a more superficially complex structure. In the 
cell of the posterior wings of some of the Papilionidae 
these pseudoneura may be found, sometimes prominently 
visible, but often only just traceable by a careful exami- 
nation, in a favourable light.] 

Posterior wings, golden yellow, having somewhat the 
appearance of an example of Pompeus, or of Cerberus, its 
Indian analogue; the basal end of the cell, the base of 
the wing, and costal and subcostal parts of the wing 
black (or brown-black) uniting at the apical angle with 
the black outer marginal border— though partly inter- 
rupted by a small subapical intersection of the discal 
yellow ; the posterior marginal black projects into the 
yellow area of the wing as a series of moderately long 
lunate cones, larger than those of the type form of 
Pompeus, extending as usual from the apical to the anal 
angles ; an oval black spot is between the 2nd and 3rd 
median branches above the lower lunation ; two faint 
atomic spots between the 1st discocellular and 1st median 
branches, the lunular cones are finished with black atoms ; 
a short narrow white streak is near the anal angle ; and a 
triangulate white mark on the black at the apical angle. 

The undersurface of the anterior wing almost exactly 
as above, except that the white is purer, and the brown 
more strongly scaled with white atoms, and the cuneiform 
mark at the distal end of the cell is not obsolute, as 
above. The undersurface of the posterior wing also as 
above, only that the yellow area of the cell and disc is 
lighter except near to the submarginal black border, where 
it is as rich as above ; the marginal lunate cones are ren- 
dered incomplete in shape by a clouding of whitish and 
grey atoms, the light fringe lunules are rather broader 
than above, and a discal transverse row of 5 black spots 
obtains, the 2nd and 3rd being atomic ; also, there is a 
long V-shaped white mark on the black, parallel to the 
costal and sub-costal veins. The body of the insect is 
like that of the 2 of Pompeus. 

Length of costa 76 mms. 

Habitat : Java. 

The type is in the Museum of Mr. H. Grose-Smith, 
and the specimen is at present unique. 




Miscellaneous Notes on the Species and Genera of Troides not included in the 
previous descriptions, and nearly all in the Rothschild Museum at Tring. 


Friihstorfer, in the " Organ of the International Ento- 
mological Society, Zurich-Hottinger," No. 7, p. 51 (1903) 
describes an aberration, from Kaiser Wilhelms- 

Examples of the 2 from Constantinhafen with all the 
black spots smaller than in the specimen figured in plate 
IV, Vol. I of this work, and with the abdominal marginal 
fringe of the <? the purest white ; in two others from 
Binga, N. Guinea, the fringe is ochraceous white. 

2 . All light macular, very ochraceous golden white ; 
the posterior wings especially with rich submarginal 
ochraceous area, dotted with black and very small 
orbicles ; the marginal band very narrow. From Finis- 
terre Mountains, N. Guinea 

2 . Hind wings smaller in proportion than the fore 
wings ; the maculas rather larger ; the light ones very white. 
The hind wings, with the area below the spots ochraceous 
brown. From the same locality. 


An example of the <? from the Upper Aroa River : the 
obdominal marginal fringe very long and delicate, flowing 
down round the abdomen and above, so as almost to 
conceal it. 

In some cases the body of Paradisea, on the upper 
surface is intensely white, with longitudinal central black 
lines, the yellow narrowed at the base and widening till 
the last three segments are entirely yellow ; some 2 2 
are quite small. 

Sch. Meridionalis is captured at the end of June. 


Anterior wing of $ small. The white area of the 2 
anterior wing and cell form two bands practically nearly 
enclosing an irregular dark space ; on the lower half of 
the wings the white marks are large, a me collection. 

2 . The cell marks very large. Example from Waigeu 
larger than from N. Guinea ; all the white maculae very 


A $ from Geelvink Bay with three green orbicular 
discal spots on the posterior wing, the lowest and largest 
with a black spot on the inner point of it. 

A 2 from Aroa River with the anterior wings entirely 
dark rufous-brown ; an outer row of very small, almost 
obsolete, white spots, three in number : an inner cuneiform 
spot between the 2nd and 3rd median branches ; with 
faint traces of subcostal white streaks. Under surface, 
with the outer row of 6 spots, and an inner spot or mark 
rather larger than usual. The posterior wing yellow area 
above orange-yellow and white and scaled : more strongly 
orange at the anal angle. 


$ . Small ; somewhat like Euphorion (or Richmondia) 
and bluish-green. 


2 2 . Very dark, and with few markings ; from Cook- 


$ . From Kiriwini : posterior wing base above the cell 
with a black patch, followed by green and black from the 
costa — all scaled from the base. 

2 . Very large. Anterior wing with one small spot 
between the 2nd and 3rd median branches ; very pale 
brown wing. The posterior wing is darker. 2 . Similar, 
but with a submarginal row of five light spots ; from the 
j Trobriand Islands. 2 from Fergusson Island : anterior 
wing with few spots, very small or absent. $ very blue, 
like Eumczus, and small, with large white marks. 

<? . From Milne Bay and Mailu, very golden green, and 
bluish posterior wings. 

2 . Var. brunnea from Milne Bay ; no spots on the 
anterior wings. 2 with normal large spots, from Redsca 
Bay, N. Guinea. 

<? . Bluish green ; Brown River, N. Guinea. 

$ . With the inner discal spots showing through from 
the under surface ; from Milne Bay. 

6 3 

2 . From Kapaur, with posterior wings and abdomen 
creamy orange or sulphur colour ; anterior wings with 
spots a moderate size, white, and much scaled. 


2 2 . From Alu, Shortland Islands. Very large, and 
darker than those from Rendova. <? with cell of pos- 
terior wing filled in by black ; and shining hairs from the 
base flow over this black. 

2 . From Rendova ; fumous brown and pale brown on 
both surfaces. 

2 2 of Urvilliana collected by Captain Webster at 
Kei Toeal, with buff or white marks ; sometimes all 
buff marks ; the cell almost entirely buff. Most of these 
examples are very large. One <? has the posterior wing 
with the cell green toward the base mingled with black ; 
black near the costa, with green streaks, and an orange 
spot. A 2 from Salawatti with small cell spots — the 
cell itself a rich creamy orange-yellow on both surfaces. 


S . From Batjan ; with much green on the posterior 
wing mingled irregularly with the orange ; but in O. 
Lydius 2 2 there is very little variation. 


$ . From Guadalcanar with body creamy-white yellow 
towards the anal end ; the basal mark black, a faint smoky 
orange longitudinal stripe down three of the segments, 
with two black lateral divided stripes, and subdorsal 
central black stripe ; the abdominal fringe ochraceous 
white, the undersurface creamy white. 

$ . Anterior wing, with upper part of the cell rich 
azure blue, melting into the green. Abdomen or body 
creamy orange white, and nearly obsolete black spots ; 
from Guadalcanar. 2 of Victoria? from Florida Isle, 
with the cell marks nearly entirely white. Small examples 
of the same sex brown black ; some still smaller, light 

Var. Regis $ . Anterior wings with a large green yellow 
apical patch ; posterior wing very blue green ; the cell 
with much black. From Maleita. A s from Bougain- 
ville light brown, with the cell spot very large. <? $ from 
Ysabel Island, with an apical yellow patch, a more or less 
sized black spot between the 5th subcostal and 1st dis- 
cocellular nervules, and some examples without these spots. 
The 2 2 vary in their anterior cell macula : in some the 
spot is entire and large ; in others it is divided more or 
less towards the basal end. 


2 . Very large. Anterior wing with distal half of the 
cell and a large proportion of the disc white ; posterior 
wing yellow ; undersurface all buff colour ; from Stephan- 
sort. 2 . Anterior wing buff-white, posterior wing buff- 

2 . The anterior wings with a very large area of 
creamy white. From New Guinea. 


2 . All light marks buff-tinted on both surfaces. From 
Salayer. A buff-tinted 2 differs from the preceding in 
having an extra spot above the 3rd median vein, and a 
larger submarginal light mark. From Banda. 

P. HELENA. Type Form. 

A 2 from Bouru with anterior wing nearly occupied 
with white. 


2 . From Borneo ; with 4 white subapical marks 
between the 3rd and 5th costal nervules and the dis- 
coidal and 1st median nervule ; the green marks slightly 
white outwardly. 

2 . From Sarawak ; the white portions less vivid. 
The undersurface of anterior wing with submarginal 
white marks leaf-like ; the discal golden green marks are 
tinted to an intense ultramarine blue at the base. 

$ . With pronotal red collar very wide. 

2 . Sarawak ; more golden green. $ . From Labuan 
also ; very golden green, with the small maculae very 
close together. A S from the same locality, with the 
discal band parallel to the median vein, golden green ; 
on the underside of the anterior wing, very regular in 
width, and the base of the lowest mark blue ; a richer 
blue in an example from Sumatra. The uariety albescens, 
with the green marks longer and narrower, and extending 
nearly to the median nervure. The body is a lighter 
brown than usual. 

<? . The underside of the anterior wing of 3 examples 
with very bright golden green marks, with small white 
submarginal spots separated and rather purple ; posterior 
wings, with submarginal double lunate discal blue-grey 
lenticula marks ; from Perak and Malacca. 


$ . Anterior wings with the light adnervular rays, 
except the submedian, narrow and obscure. Posterior 
wings with the yellow area green-tinted, rather more 
extensive than in Naias, but similar in outline ; the yellow 
at the distal end of the cell a little less extensive than in 
Naias ; abdomen dark fuscous brown ; the undersurface 
of the anterior wings with the light rays purer. From 


$ . Anterior wings rich violet black. Undersurface of 
the cell white over the distal half, but obscurely close to 
the veins. Underside of posterior wings with the yellow 
area tinted emerald. From Sumbawa. Examples from 
Tambora, Sumbawa do not practically differ from the 

6 4 


<? . From Palawan. A subcostal yellow mark divided 
by ragged edges of black, and a small submarginal yellow 
spot below the 2nd vein of the posterior wing. <? . With 
long yellow.stripe near the second vein, and a slight yellow 
spot in the cell of posterior wing. 


2 . Anterior wing uniformly grey-white ; amount of 
yellow very much restricted in one or two examples. 
Undersurface with deeper clouding than above. 

2 . Anterior wings with large light area ; the outer 
margin narrowly light fuscous brown, but increasing to 
double the width towards the apical angle, and very 
sinuate ; the discal area clouded wave-like by very light 
brown scales — most extensive at the basal end of the 
sub-median sinus, lighter on the inner margin. 

? . Example very small, and more darkly clouded. 
From Kina Balu. 


Common in low valleys in Western and Central China 
from May to October. 

Beccari, u Annali del Museo di Storia Naturale digenova," 
vol. 15, 1879-80, remarks : " The Ornithoptera are very 
difficult to capture." Some species were taken in the Isle of 
Yule (N. Guinea), by M. Albertis, also at Mount Epa in 
1875. Of these (Poseidon) ? 2 with anterior wings clear 
brown, and slightly grey at the extremity of the wings 
above. Also in N. West N. Guinea the 2 2 were uniform 
brown on the wings (probably the form brunneus) ; at 
Somerset, Cape York, examples with wings uniformly 
brown black ; at Andai, N. Guinea, in 1872 he took a 
variety — " colour du fond est d'un brun fonce uniforme 
avec les parties blanchatres tres obliterees par l'envahise- 
ment de la teinte brune, a l'aile superieure." 


$ With no black maculae on the posterior wing, or 
only one or two black spots, very large. From W. Java. 


Ornithoptera Plateni, Staiidinssr, Correspondenz-Blatt des Entomologischen Vereins "Iris" zu Dresden. No. 5, p. 274 (1888). 
0. Plateni, Dr. C. Fickert, Ueber die Zeichnungsverhaltnisse der Gattung Ornithoptera, page 762 (1889). 

This is probably one of the most remarkable and inter- 
esting forms of the sub-genus Pompeoptera which has yet 
been discovered and described. Although it seems to 
claim a close affinity with several species, notably P. 
Rhadamanlhiis, Haliphron, Criton, and still more Nephereus, 
■ — and in the colour reflections of the upper surfaces of 
the 3 , with the 3 Hippolytus, it is still so distinct from 
them all as justly to merit a specific separation, that 
is to say, if we continue to regard the numerous forms 
of Pompeoptera as so many independent species. It 
would appear to be one of those instructive links between 
the local forms of a widely ranging species which makes 
it so easy to imagine that they all originated from the 
same parents. Dr. Staudinger tells us that — 

" Four almost perfect specimens of this highly interest- 
ing species were sent to him by their discoverer, Dr. 
Platen, in whose honour he named them," and he goes on 
to describe the 3 as distinguished from all known species 
by the "black uppersides of the secondary wings, which 
only on their upper portions have 2 yellow patches." 

[It will be seen, by referring to my plate, that these are 
not really very extensive. At their narrowest they are 
only 4 mm., at their broadest 7 mm., and at their 
longest 20 mm. on the upper surface ; so that the yellow 
occupies less than i-7th of the whole surface of the wing, 
all the remainder being black, the dorsal portion of the 
abdomen partaking of a broad continuation of the same 

"The 3 " he continues, " stands very near to Nephereus 
of Gray, but it has a still broader black margin on the 
hind wings, and is very readily distinguished by the 
totally black outer and inner borders, which exhibit no 
yellow colour below the median nervure and the first 
median nervule." 

[Its greatest extent is 22 by 18 mm., or roughly only 
1 -4th of the area of the whole wing. A 3 Nephereus in 
my own collection has, allowing for the larger size of the 
hind wings, above 25 per cent, more yellow inclosed 
within its borders, and this colour extends right to the 
abdominal fold, which is not the case in Plateni — the 
space between the submedian nervure and the 1st median 
nervule being occupied by a silky dark brown, edged 
with pale ochraceous-brown grey.] 

" — 0. Plateni stands nearest to Nephereus, Gray, which is 
the Philippine form of Rhadamanthus, Boisd, found in 
the southern portion of Asia," (in China) "and which 
may eventually be regarded as a remarkable local 
variety. The 3 in question measures 101 mm. from the 
extreme points of the wings, (in one 3 the fore wing is 
68 mm.) and is a little larger than my largest example of 

I The length of the same wing in the plate is 64 mm., 
or 5 more than the largest and 17 more than the smallest 
3 Nephereus in my collection, or in that of Dr. F. 

' ' — Yet the form of the wing changes often in this species, 
and it becomes almost worthless for the distinction of 
allied varieties. The upper surface is really quite black, 
like velvet, and the light grey longitudinal streaks between 
the veins appear more or less faintly through, according to 
the light ; only at the median branch stand outwards a 
few grey scales on the black. On the under surface these 
peculiar transparent light-grey stripes appear distinctly 
as the bordering of the veins, although they are not quite 
so broad as in Nephereus, and the very small fringe is less 
perceptibly white." 

[In some specimens of the latter they extend almost or 
quite to the posterior margin, and fill up i-4th of the 
space between the 2nd and 3rd median nervules from 
the cell.] 

" The hind wings are black : only on the front margin, 
between the costal and subcostal, and between the 1st 
and 2nd costal veins they are up to a pretty broad outer 
margin silky yellow. The lower yellow stripe-spot is in 
its outermost portion sprinkled with a few blackish 
(Schwarzlichen) scales, whilst under the 2nd subcostal 
nervure, and at the 2nd upper median nervule are a few 
yellow scales on the black scarcely standing out (or 
prominent — ' Kaum hervortretend.'J In the type, in the 
abdominal fold of this species, when opened, will be found 
a sordid brown hair, similar to that in Nephereus. The 
under surface of the hind wing is yellow, with black veins 
and brown black outer and inner borders. The outer 
black border is not only twice as broad as in Rhadaman- 
thus and Nephereus, but its two middle portions are inclined 
inwards (sinuate), and deep down towards the inner have 
a graduated sprinkling of yellow scales (allmdhlig gelb 
bestreut ). The inner border is completely black below the 
1st median nervule and the median nervure, with the 
exception of a narrow yellow stripe at the base. 

2 . " The Primaries of the 2 are so similar to those of 
0. Nephereus that they need no description. The white 
grey basal parts of the veins and stripes at the end of the 
discoidal cell are hardly less than in Nephereus ; on the 
contrary the black outer border is decidedly broader, and 
the yellow colour below the median nervure and the 1st 
median nervule is entirely wanting. In the black outer 
border of the hind wings in 2 2 2 are a couple of small 
yellow patches above, whilst in a third 2 only a small 
rudimentary patch is present. That the 6 yellow patches 
in the centre, divided by the black veins, are smaller than 
in Nephereus is seen by the presence on the black border 
of 2 white-greyish patches on the upper portion of the 
outer margin. The inner yellow spots are more or less 
of a peculiar white or sordid grey, which is never the case 
in any of my specimens of Nephereus ; also below the 
median nervure remain more or less whitish-grey scales 
which in one 2 form a clear broad whitish-grey stripe, 
sprinkled with a little black. Another exhibits close to 
the end of the inner border, a small grey stripe ; the edges 
(or fringes) of all the wings are more clearly speckled 
(gescheckt) with white than in the case of the 3, although 


not so perceptibly as in Nephereus. Plateni has otherwise 
all portions of the body of the same form and colour as 
Nephereus, especially the red collar and red spot on the 
breast, and also the black upper part of the abdomen (in 
2 2? of black grey) and the under yellow part with very 
distinct black dots, especially in one 2 . If a large 
number of Plateni <? $ should later on exhibit on the 
upper sides of the secondaries more yellow patches than 
the present specimens, this would advocate (' sprechen 'J 
its being a Palawan form of Nephereus, therefore the 
present $ gives the impression of a quite remarkable 

S . The red collar of this species is very narrow, and the 
red of the breast is not so extensive as in some other 
forms. On the metathorax it forms a moderate-sized 
red spot ; a minute red spot impinges close to the back 
of the pre-costal nervure ; the red then continues in an 
interrupted narrow line across the mesothorax to the base 
of the costa of the upper wing, to re-appear on the upper 
side as the red collar — (the exact form of which I will 
figure in another section of this work) . 

The abdomen is of a shining bluish-black on the upper 
side, becoming brown towards the anal extremity, where 
it tapers off to a point as it leaves the last segment of 
the abdomen, showing the delicate ochraceous grayish- 
white which is the prevailing colour of the anal extremity 
beneath. The underside of all the segments is a fuscous- 
greenish yellow, the yellow scales of the ist segment being 
more lemon colour, as are the longer scales or hairs of the 
sub-dorsal portion. The thorax is quite black ; the eyes 
are red-brown, the space -between velvety-black. The 
length of the costa 67 ; of the hind wing 38 ; width of 
front wing 40 ; and of hind wing 28 mm. Length of 
antenna and abdomen 27 ; of thorax with the head 18 mm. 
Length of legs 

ist pair, femora 10; tibia, 8; tarsi, 12 mm. 
2nd ,, ,, 11 ; 11 ; ,, 13 mm. 

3rd ,, ,, 10; ,, 11?; ,, I2?mm.f 
Articulations of antenna 44. 

2 . No red collar. The red spots of the breast are two 
in number, moderately large, and triangular on meta- 
thorax ; larger, but same shape on mesathorax, not 
reaching quite to the base of the costa of the upper wing. 
The abdomen above is of a soft light-fawn brown, in 
singular contrast and harmony with the wings ; laterally 
it is a subdued white, more yellow on ist segment, slightly 
fawn-tinted at anal segment ; the subdorsal parts are 
more yellow, with longitudinal black cloudings and seg- 
mental black dots distinct from the cloudings on the last 
four segments, but coalescing with them on the others. 
The thorax and collar are a mixed light and dark brown, 

•Translated from Dr. Staudinger's Paper in the "Correspondence-page of the 
Entomological Society ' Iris ' in Dresden." No. 5, July, 1888, page 274. 

t The tibia and tarsi were lost, so the measurements are only provisional. 

the edges of the tegulae darker than the rest. The length 
of the costa 76, width 40, length of hind wing 46, width 
33 mm., of antenna and abdomen 27, and of thorax, 
including head 20 mm. Of legs 

ist pair, femora — ; tibia, — ; tarsi, — mm. J 
■2nd ,, ,, 11; ,, 11; ,, 15mm. 

3rd ,, ,, 10; ,, 12; ,, 15 mm. 
Articulations of antenna 52. 

It is only when we examine the underside of the S , with 
its resemblance to the <? of Nephereus, and notice the still 
closer likeness of the 2 to that of the latter also that 
we are able to regard this form as being possibly a local 
var. of Nephereus. The appearance of the upper side of 
the 6* would certainly lead us to a different conclusion. 

Hab. Island of Palawan, Philippines. 

I am indebted to Mr. Walter Dannatt, who received it 
from Dr. Staudinger of Dresden, for the opportunity of 
figuring this species ; his specimens being good and valu- 
able typical examples. 

<7 . (In the collection of Mr. A. H. Grose-Smith) has a 
rather more extensive area of yellow in the secondaries, 
extending over half the width of the space between the 
2nd sub-costal and discoidal nervules, and a small portion 
of the space within the discoidal cell, — or 12 mm. at its 
broadest, 10 mm. at its narrowest, and 26 mm. at its 
greatest length. On the undersides of the same wings, the 
scattered black and yellow atoms, so well exhibited in Mr. 
Dannett's example, between the 2nd sub-costal, the discoidal 
and median nervules are as nearly as possible absent, the 
whole space within the borders being a nearly immaculate 
lemon yellow. If this specimen be looked at in the same 
way as when we examine the Philippines species, P. Magel- 
lanus for its wonderful opalescence, we shall see an almost 
equally beautiful change, for the yellow will give place to 
the most brilliant warm emerald and Veronese green. This 
effect is not so well defined in Mr. Dannett's specimen ; 
on the other hand if the yellow be viewed with trans- 
mitted light under favourable circumstances, it appears 
so intensely brilliant as to suggest, as Mr. Grose-Smith 
remarked when we were examining it, the intensity of 
the electric light ! Length of costa 67 mm. 

Habitat, Palawan. Received from Dr. Staudinger. 

2 . (Also in the collection of Mr. H. Grose-Smith.) 
The upper surface of primaries does not differ from 
the example figured ; secondaries, a small semilunate 
black-atomed yellow spot on the black border between the 
ist and 2nd sub-costal nervures, similar to those found on 
the 2 of Nephereus. In no other respect is there any 
variation. Length of costa, 85 mm. Hab., &c, as above. 

The type of each sex is in the collection of Dr. 

X The first pair of legs was lost. 


Ornithoptera (Pompeoptera), Dohertyi, Rippon, Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist.. Vol. II., p. 295. 1893. 

This most important and interesting novelty, discovered 
by Mr. Doherty in the Island of Salibobo or Lirung, one of 
the Talautse Islands* may ultimately throw much light 
on the phylogenetic history of the genus Ornithoptera 
inasmuch as it may be regarded as one of the transitional 
forms, some of which have probably long since perished, 
which would enable us to link together in a natural series 
all the many nominal species which we find it necessary 
to admit into its subgenus Pompeoptera, and even to sug- 
gest, on the side of the female at least, a closer relation- 
ship with the true Ornithoptera than at one time might 
have seemed probable. 

We owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. Doherty for the 
faithful and admirable work he has for a long time been 
doing among the islands and islets of the Malay Archi- 
pelago. In this respect he has been rapidly entitling 
himself to be regarded as a second Wallace. The nov- 
elty which is now before us appears to me to be one of 
the most useful contributions to the Rhopalocerous fauna 
which he has been enabled to send to us. 

I have therefore had much pleasure in dedicating 
this new species to him, partly at the suggestion of Mr. 
Elwes, and partly because I think it is right to give what 
honour we can to those who faithfully spend their health 
and energies in difficult regions of the earth, for the pur- 
pose of discovering those lovely things which furnish us 
with fresh materials for one of the most delightful studies, 
and with an increased knowledge of God's works. 

S . Primaries an intense silky black, almost like a bur- 
nished black, with a faint green gloss in certain lights, 
which gives it an exceedingly rich appearance. The grey 
discal rays which enclose the nervules are so obscurely 
represented as to be scarcely visible except when the 
light is transmitted from the underside. The veins are 
all well expressed, being somewhat lighter on the dark 
and much darker on the light parts of the wing; the 
costa is also of the same tint, especially near the apex 
when viewed opposite the light ; the costal outline is 
nearly straight to two thirds of its length or at the _ ter- 
mination of the costal nervure when it curves consider- 
ably to the apex, which is so much rounded as to pass 
insensibly into the posterior margin ; the outline of the 

•There seems to have been a misunderstanding as to the exact nomenclature and 
position of the Islands in which Mr. Doherty discovered this and other species of 
Lepidoptera; for. in a letter of his, he says, " I see the Proc. Zool. Soc, 1892, calls 
Sangir and its surrounding islets the 1 Talautse Islands,' following a blunder of 
Forbes. There is no other name for this group than the Sangir Group ; and some 
people call Sangir ' Groot Sangir,' to distinguish it from the others. 

•• The other islands lie in deep sea, 100 miles East, and have a wholly different 
fauna. Their Malay name is Talaut, the local name Talaur. and some old English 
charts call them Tulur. My new Ornithoptera is from Lirung or Salibobo, one of 
this latter group." 

To Mr. Doherty's remarks I would add that, according to James Wyld's chart, 
these islands are called the Salibabo group, and are situated about 75 or 80 miles 
nearly due east from the Sangir group, with a slight inclination north. In another 
of his charts they are called the Talautse Islands, but the distance is about the same. 
They appear to be distant from the nearest point of Djilolo about 30 miles, and from 
Morty Island, rather less— being situated N. of the former, and North with a slight 
inclination E. of the latter : they are also about 70 miles S. of Mindanao with an 
eastern inclination. The seas bounded by Borneo, the Philippines, Celebes, and the 
curve extending from Java to Papua, or New Guinea, are simply crowded with 
islands and islets : all, or nearly all, of which may be expected to furnish us in the 
future with many more valuable novelties in every department of zoology, and 
probably many new forms of Ornithoptera. The Researches of Wallace, Doherty, 
and others have probably done little more than to provide us with a good hope of 
many wonders yet to be revealed. 

posterior margin curves somewhat irregularly, with an 
outward trend much greater in proportion at the ter- 
mination of the second and third median nervules than at 
any other part, not excepting the apex ; it is very delicately 
and equally sinuate along its entire outline, with very fine 
reddish-ochreous fringe-lunules between the veins as usual. 

Secondaries entirely glossy black, slightly greenish or 
bluish according to the position in which they are viewed ; 
the veins sufficiently defined in a lighter tint ; the abdom- 
inal marginal sexual pouch or fold is a faintly redder black ; 
the posterior margin regularly and sufficiently scalloped, 
and without the white fringe-lunules. Hence the entire 
upper surface of the wings is absolutely immaculate. 

Under surface of primaries velvety or silky black, less 
dark and more glossy towards the posterior margin ; 
within the discoidal cell, at the termination of the third 
pseudoneurus, are a few scarcely visible grey atoms ; the 
discal grey rays enclosing the nervules are strongly defined 
in a slightly greenish grey, rendered darker by a graduation 
with black atoms towards the cell ; the rays between the 
third and fourth subcostal nervules are only faint streaks 
of grey, and only one occurs on the upperside of the 
third median nervule ; the posterior margin almost 
entirely outlined by the white fringe-lunules, which at the 
apex slightly encroach upon the costa ; veins strongly 
defined. Secondaries a deep silky black ; the abdominal 
fold or pouch browner, with a fringe of delicate hairs as 
long as the width of the pouch ; the discoidal cell 
immaculate ; between the first and second subcostal ner- 
vules is a subquadrate patch of yellow atoms ; between 
the second subcostal and third median nervules a broad 
discal band of lemon-yellow, forming four subrectangular 
patches of unequal length, strongly divided by the 
nervules, the first broadly indented from the direction of 
the cell, sinuate without, the second indented outwardly 
and enclosing an elongate black spot, which nearly 
divides the yellow area, the fourth lunate without and 
sharply indented above ; viewed obliquely with a side 
light this yellow band becomes a rich emerald-green, 
not unlike the green of the typical Ornithoptera ; the hind 
margin is without the ochreous fringe-lunules. 

Head: antenna black; eyes chesnut-brown; haustellum 
silky black. Prothorax with a crimson collar; thorax 
above velvety black, beneath deep black, with lateral 
crimson spots ; legs black. Abdomen pale brown, 
bordered with piceous brown ; the first segment entirely 
piceous brown, the subanal segment also of the 
same colour, margined with creamy white ; the anal 
valves creamy white, with the usual dorsal black ter- 
mination ; laterally the abdomen is of a creamy ochreous 
white ; subdorsal slightly yellower at its junction with the 
metathorax, more ochreous near the anal valve, the first 
and second segments well divided by black ; the lateral 
black dots fairly large. 

The space of wing enclosed by the two branches of the 
precostal nervure is more equal in width than is usual 
till it reaches its junction with the subcostal nervure, 
when, of course, it becomes narrower. This is really a 



very striking character, the nearest resemblance to which 
is found in the male of Pompeoptera hephcestus so far as I can 
discover ; it is also nearly as rectangular in the female. 

Expanse of costa 69 millim. ; width of upper wing 57 ; 
length of hind wing 44, width 31 ; length of abdomen or 
antennae 31 ; of legs, first pair, femur 12, tibia g, tarsi 1? ; 
second pair, femur 12, tibia 12, tarsi 15 ; third pair, femur 
11, tibia 13, tarsi 15 millim. 

? . Primaries : costa equally arched but more rounded 
at the apex, the outline insensibly passing into the pos- 
terior margin, which is not so irregularly curved as in the 
male ; inner margin nearly a straight line. Wings light 
fuscous brown : within the discoidal cell are faint atomic 
indications of grey markings somewhat like those of the 
female of P. haliphron ; the grey discal rays very indistinct 
except those enclosing the first and second median nervules 
(which are fairly though faintly defined), broadly separated 
by the brown margins of the nervules ; the pseudoneura are 
only just visible ; posterior margin with whitish fringe- 
lunules. Secondaries slightly darker fuscous brown ; 
within the cell a faint ochreous rufous-yellow spot close to 
the discocellular nervules ; four very short narrow rufous- 
yellow discal marks, the first 6 millim. long, close to the 
second discocellular nervule, the second the same length 
from the cell, the space between the second discocellular 
and first median nervules broadly incurved and (on the 
right wing only) enclosing a small brown dot ; the third 
7 millim. long from the cell, indented two thirds its length, 
enclosing a brown spot (on the right wing) ; the fourth 
5 millim. long from the cell, indented (on the right wing 
only about half the size) ; extremely faint indications of a 
submarginal band of small spots ; the submedian area of 
wing is clouded pale reddish ochreous, meeting an anal, 
angular, ochreous, sublunate spot, from which two rays 
run partly up the abdominal margin ; margin sufficiently 
scalloped, with ochreous fringe-lunules. 

Under surface : primaries the same colour as above ; 
the grey rays and discocellular markings similar but much 
broader, a brighter ochreous red at the outer margin, 
greenish grey towards the base and confluent between the 
second discoidal and second median nervules ; the marks 
within the cell are formed of microscopic atoms, and are 
divided into three submarks — the first broad, one third of 
the cell in length, the second very narrow and divided by 
the second pseudoneurus, the third or lower one nearly as 
broad and long as the first and divided by the third pseu- 
doneurus ; the marginal fringe with a nearly continuous 
row of ochreous lunules. Secondaries same colour as 
above, but slightly darker ; a large discocellular pale spot 
clouded with atoms close to the discocellular nervules ; the 
discal marks corresponding with the four on the upper 
surface are much paler and extend much further down 
between the nervules — the first is partly pure and partly 
formed by atoms, the second is indented with brown, 
modified by atoms, the third much larger and with a 
large brown indentation, and the fourth very long, but so 
interrupted with brown modified by atoms as to form an 
ochreous ray close to the nervules extending nearly to the 
marginal border ; outside the third median nervule is also 
an ochreous atomic ray close to the nervule, almost has- 
tate, followed by a second longitudinal stripe extending 
lower down nearly to the outer margin ; the submedian 
nervule and the abdominal margin have similar ochreous 
stripes as above, but more prominently developed ; there 
is a broad submarginal band indicated by narrow ochreous 
stripes and cuneiform spots, so meeting and enclosing the 

brown areas between the nervules, especially from the 
second subcostal and third median, as to give them 
almost the appearance of arches, the bases of which are 
the fringe-lunules of the posterior margin. 

Head : antennas deep black ; eyes chestnut-brown ; 
haustellum black. Thorax and prothorax dark brown, 
with crimson collar; lateral crimson spots, and subdorsal 
with less black. Abdomen pale fuscous brown, with 
lateral borders of reddish ochreous ; subdorsal the same, 
with strongly outlined or entirely fuscous brown segments ; 
anal tuft dark brown. 

Expanse of costa 82 millim. ; width of upper wing 61 ; 
length of lower wing 51, width 45 ; length of antennae or 
abdomen 31, of thorax with head 21. The legs, all but 
one, are absent from the specimen. 

By my acquisition of a good series of the <? , and a few 
examples of the 2 since the above description was written, 
I am able to show that this species is subject to a series 
of variations of a definite and fairly constant character ; 
it evidently being possible to meet with a good many 
examples of each type of variation. These types of 
variation are two in number in the $ , and three in the ? , 
and they almost approach the appearance of dimorphison 
or trimorphison. A reference to the two plates accom- 
panying this description will make my meaning plain. 

: In the coloured plate, fig. 3, and in the plain plate, figs. 
1 and 4, represent the first type of variation in the $ . 

I The upper surface of the wings in all specimens is im- 
maculate black ; but the under surface of the hind wings 
has a broad, yellow band of varying width. This band 

! differs little in any of the examples of this type. In fig. 
9 of the coloured plate, and figs. 2 and 3 of the plain plate, 
the yellow band is narrower, more irregular in outline, 
and always more or less interrupted by the black — some 
of the divisions being rendered almost obsolete by the 
black atoms, or by a few yellow atoms on the black. 

The 3 types of variation in the female are also fairly 
constant. The coloured plate, figs. 4 and 5, and the 
plain plate, figs. 7 and 9, exhibit the first type. The 
1 upper surface of the hind wings has only a small discal 
I patch of light colour close to the nervures, divided by the 
i nervules, and also slightly encroaching within the cell, 
with a row of submarginal small spots, divided by the 
J nervules ; in fig. 7 of the plain plate these spots are 
I absent. The under surface of these wings with a similar 
I plan of markings, but larger— the submarginal spots of 
the coloured fig. forming quite an arched band. The 
2nd type of variation is seen in the plain plate, figs. 5 and 
8. The upper surface of wings is quite immaculate, and 
the under surface of all the wings with a more extensive 
series of light markings, the light rays of the upper wings 
filling the greater part of the disc. Fig. 10 is a smaller 
example of this type, with less pronounced markings. 
The 3rd type is seen in fig. 6 of the plain plate. The 
under surface of the Primaries has nearly the whole of the 
disc and i-3rd of the cell whitish ; the secondaries with 
slight discal and cellular marks— the former as white 
lines enclosing the nervules to about midway from the 
cell to the outer margin ; and a broad submarginal 
mottled band of ochreous whitish of great beauty. 

The 1 st type of variation in the S allies the species 
with Pompeoptera iris, Robur; the 2nd type gives the black 
markless S a dark and unspotted 2 . 

[Pompeoptera Dohertyi, p. 2.] 


Greatest length of costa of the S 73 mms., least length 
about 64 mms. ; of 2 , greatest length 80 mms. ; least 
length, 60 mms. 

In the museums of the Hon. Walter Rothschild S and 
2 , the Author, $ , Mr. H. J. Elwes, $ and 2 , Mr. H. 
Grose-Smith, $ , M. Oberthiir, and others. 

Hab. Lirung or Salibobo, Talautse Islands (Doherty). 
Feb. to March 1892. 

Setting aside the remarkable precostal character of the 
male, which allies it to P. hephcestus, the nearest affinity of 
the male is with P. Plateni on the upperside, appearing 
like an immaculate var. of that Philippine species. On 
the under surface of the lower wing the yellow marks 

suggest an approach to those of haliphron ; the female 
also on the upper wing, and somewhat on the under 
surface, comes nearer to the haliphron facies*. The out- 
line of the male primary wing is unlike that of any other ; 
nevertheless we have in this species a close ally of Plateni 
and possibly an old form from which perhaps several of 
the varieties of the haliphron and helena groups have been 
derived by differentiation — a transitional species, the dis- 
covery of which I have long anticipated. After awhile 
other transitional forms will, I hope, be found, and we 
may then be able to understand some of the geographical 
development history of the genus. 

* Since writing the above I have been able to compare the females with a female 
of Pompeoptem iris, Rober, in the rich collection of the Hon. W. Rothschild, and 
am struck with the resemblance of one or two examples of P. Dohertyi with the latter. 

ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY— Since the above was in Type. 

Papilio Yordermani, Snellen, " Tijdschr. v. Ent." XXXVII., p. 191 (June 1895), from Talaut. 
Troides Dohertyi, Rothschild, " Novitates Zoologicae," V. II., p. 227, n. 22 (1895). 
Ornithoptera Dohertyi, W. F. Kirby, "The Bird-winged Butterflies of the East," NATURE, Vol. 51, p. 255, col. 2 (1895) 


Papilio Miranda, j. ?, Butler, "Lepidoptera Exotica," I. p. 3, t. 1 (<r), (1869). 

n n w - F - Kirby, " Synonymic Catalogue of the Diurn. Lepid." p. 519 (1871). 

Ornithoptera Miranda, Druce, " Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud." p. 356, n. 1 (1873). 

» » W. F. Kirby, " Cat. of the Coll. of Diurnal Lepidoptera formed by the late W. C. Hewitson," p. 1 (1879). 

„ „ Oberthur, "Etud. d' Ent." IV., p. no, n. 9, bis. (1879). 

« Distant and Pryer, " Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist." (5) XIX., p. 172, n. 165 (1887). 

n „ Rev. F; A. Walker, "On Oriental Entomology," Part II., p. 15 (no date). 

Troides Mirandus, W. Rothschild, "Novitates Zoological," Vol. II., p. 227, n. 23 (1895). 

An inhabitant of Borneo. But though found in other 
parts of this large island its range seems to be chiefly 
confined, as far as we at present know, to the North-west 
portion of the island, in the rich zoological province of 
Sarawak (or between i° and 2° north latitude, and 109 
40' to 111 40' east longitude), and also to the small 
island of Labuan (which with Sarawak, are valuable 
coaling stations for British ships), situated near the 
north-west coast of Borneo, at a distance of about 30 
miles to the north of the town of Borneo, in 5 22' north 
latitude, and 1 15 10' east longitude. These districts may, 
therefore, be regarded as the Metropolis of the species. 

The interior of Labuan, which is about 70 miles long, 
and 7 in breadth, contains extensive tracts of swampy 
jungle ; while the jungles and forests of the province of 
Sarawak are also well watered by the river Sarawak and 
its tributaries, as well as by the heavy rains which fall 
both in Borneo and Labuan at certain seasons — one of 
the consequences being that the insect fauna, at least 
of Borneo, is exceedingly rich, enormous multitudes of 
species having been discovered already (often of great size 
and beauty), with a splendid prospect of a very large 
future addition, when the island has been more fully 
explored and examined. Its Ornithological glories are 
also very numerous : and the same may be said of its con- 
chological treasures, which number among them such a 
fine shell as the sinistrorsal Helix Brookeana. The 
mineral deposits of Sarawak are also rich in gold, copper, 
iron, antimony, and coal. 

This large and striking insect is in many respects a 
worthy rival of P. Magellanns by its beauty and size, but 
especially for the remarkable rich purple gloss which may 
be seen to overspread the central portion of the front 
wings of the 3 , when viewed in certain positions — all the 
more wonderful and beautiful because the wings are 
apparently a dense black : for it is more difficult to 
discover the exact position in which the gloss is visible 
than it is in the case of P. Magellanus, chiefly because it 
is not always equally intense in every example which I 
have had the opportunity of examining : and indeed a row 
of these butterflies might be viewed by any number of 
superficial observers without this character being dis- 

covered or even suspected to exist. In some examples 
this purple glances over the entire wing area, but it is 
generally most dense at the middle of the wing ; and does 
not occur on the under surface, as the opalescence does 
in P. Magellanus. The hind wings in certain positions 
have their yellow area shot with a delicate emerald green — 
a feature common to the yellow of several other species, 
notably P. Vandepolli and P. Honrathiana. 

If P. Magellanus may be regarded as the Royal Orni- 
thopterus of the Philippines, P. Miranda will merit as 
high a rank for Borneo, or at any rate will closely com- 
pete with T. Brookeana* for beauty. 

I will first avail myself of Mr, Butler's original descrip- 
tion of this species in his " Lepidoptera Exotica," and 
afterwards add such additional observation as may seem 

" $ . Alae anticae nigerrimae, certo situ nitide caerules- 
centes ; striis tridecim (quarta elongato-lunulari) de 
quarta submarginalibus, decrescentibus, flavidis ; ciliis 
flavo interruptis ; posticae flavae nitidae certo situ minime 
virescentes, margine bruni nigro, externo sex-elevato, ve- 
nis nigris ; corpus nigrum, abdomine flavescente. Alae 
anticae subtus regione apicali, sericea, striis supernis 
albidus ; alster velut supra ; corpus thorace nigro, abdo- 
mine flavo valvulis albides ; exp. alar. unc. 6, lin. 4. 

" 5 . Alae anticae supra brunneae venis nigris, striis 
velut mari positis sed albidus ; posticae flavae nigroirrora- 
tae, basi, margin, fasciaque maculari discum fere totum 
obtegente, sericeo-nigris : corpus nigro fuscum collo flavo, 
abdomine paulum pallidiore lateraliter flavo squamoso. 
Alae subtus charateribus multo distinctioribus, aliter velut 
supra ; corpus thorace nigro, abdomine flavo, hoc fusco 
sex-fasciato ; exp. alar, unc. 7, line 5, Sarawak, Lowe $ 2 
Brit. Mus." 

•It will be remembered that Trogonoptem Broohtana was first discovered in Sarawak 
by Mr. A. R. Wallace, though it was subsequently found to be tolerably abundant 
also in Sumatra. 



The following is my own description of this species 
from the examples figured on Plates 66a, 66b, and 66c, 
the originals of which are in the rich Rothschildian col- 
lection at Tring : — 

<? . Anterior wings intensely black, though shaded to 
a slightly lighter tone towards the outer margin ; this 
black is shot or suffused with a rich violet glow, which 
can only be seen, when held in a certain position ; though 
very difficult to be detected, it is nevertheless quite vivid 
when discovered, and the glow of violet travels over the 
wings almost from the base to the discal adnervular rays, 
being even faintly visible over towards the outer margin, 
as the insect is slowly moved by the hand ; the glow does 
not extend above the subcostal nervure, or below the 
submedian vein, or only very faintly ; a discal band of 
whitish adnervular narrow rays commences at the 2nd 
median nervule and continues up the wing almost to the 
costa, curving inwards in position, and away from the 
anterior angle, becoming faintly yellow as they approach 
the costa, and yellow also at their inner ends. There 
are about io, n, or 12 of them in all, for they slightly 
vary in number in different examples of the species. The 
marginal interrupted ciliae are slightly yellowish white, 
and only faintly shown. The veins and discal folds are 
fairly prominent, the pseudoneura of the cell only faintly 

Posterior wings rich silky golden -yellow, with a very 
faint delicate green tinge towards the base ; the base 
velvety black, and black outside the precostal nervure 
which colour unites with the abdominal marginal black, 
and also extends to the anal angle — the abdominal fold is 
slightly accentuated down the middle of this black area ; 
the posterior marginal black band extends from the apex to 
the anal angle, and consists of 6 crescentic divisions of 
moderate breadth ; the outline of wing is crescentic, with 
yellowish white very slight marginal lunations ; all the 
veins are intensely black, and a number of delicate faintly 
dark hairs intrude from the base into the yellow of the 

Under surface of anterior Aving as above — the violet 
glow being quite as rich as on the upper side of the wings ; 
but the black of the wing is less dense, approaching more 
nearly a warm dark-brown ; the white adnervular rays on 
the disc are a little more prominent and with less yellow. 
Under surface of posterior wings exactly as on the upper 

Head, antennae and thorax velvety black ; eyes brown ; 
abdomen, except the anal valves, greenish lemon-yellow, 
with a broad longitudinal dorsal brownish - red band 
slightly suffused with violet. A subtriangulate black 
mark on the anal and penultimate segments ; the anal 
valves pearly white, and the dorsum yellow, with the 
usual row of lateral black dots ; the legs brown black ; and 
there is no lateral red patch on the thorax, as in other 

Length of costa, 79 mms. ; greatest Avidth of anterior 
wing, 51 mms.; least width, 5 mms. Greatest length of 
posterior wing, 54 mms. ; greatest width, 35 mms. Length 
of abdomen and antennae equal, or 31 millimetres each ; 
length of thorax and head, 31 mms. 

of legs : 

1st pair : femur, 8 
2nd ,, : ,, 10 
3rd „ : , 

9 ; 

tibia, g ; 

)i 11 ; 
„ 9; 

tarsi, 12 mms. 
» 14 » 

Habitat. Sarawak, Sandakan, North Borneo. 

2 . Light form. Anterior wings, warm brown — slightly 
darker at the base, and at the outer margin ; the veins 
all black and prominent ; a submarginal, or rather discal 
transverse row of short white adnervular rays, of which those 
on the 3 median nervures are short, the next above longer, 
and the others beyond to the subcosta longer and more 
or less nebulous ; two short rays are also on the sub- 
median vein ; the submedian and submarginal folds are 
fairly prominent ; the pseudoneura in the discoidal cell are 
also faintly expressed. Posterior wings black, with a 
submarginal or discal band of yellow marks — those on the 
2nd and 3rd median nervules rather large, widely separ- 
ated from each other by the black of the wing, curved at 
the sides, obtuse above, and indented below : the re- 
mainder to the anterior angle continuous, lunate above 
and below ; and 2 or 3 slight small triangulate spots at or 
towards the anal angle— one of them being whitish, the 
outer-marginal lunations are slight and ochraceous white ; 
the abdominal fold, and the space between the 3rd median 
and submedian vein with nebulous yellow white scales on 
the black; the base of the wings to nearly i-3rd of the 
cell black ; the rest of the cell and nearly i-6th of the 
disc are yellow, the discal yellow so indented by the black 
of the disc as (with the submarginal yellow marks above 
described) to give' the black the appearance of a broad 
central band of very large subovate marks or black cones 
between, curving upward between the veins, as we see in 
many of the other forms of the genus Pompeoptera ; the 
veins are all very black and prominent on the yellow ; 
and a tuft of faint dark hairs originates at the base and 
slightly encroaches on the yellow of the cell, so as to 
subdue its intensity. 

Underside of 2 . Anterior wing similar to the upper 
surface, but the white rays are all broader, a little longer, 
and slightly whiter ; with a few nebulous white atoms on 
their inner ends ; a white nebulous mark is on the disco- 
cellular nervule outside and inside the cell ; posterior 
wing as on the upper surface except that the submarginal 
or discal band is entirely continuous, and the veins as 
they pass through the black discal area are edged with 
yellow, thereby forming a distinct discal band of black 
(almost) pear-shaped marks or cones ; abdominal margin 
with yellow and whitish stripes and small spots. 

Head, antennas, and thorax velvety black ; eyes brown ; 
pronotal collar yellow ; abdomen with broad warm brown ; 
dorsum, shaded on each side by black, the margin of the 
dorsum are greenish yellow, subdued by black atoms, and 
the annulations are well defined by black. 

Abdomen slightly longer than antennae, or 34 mms. ; 
thorax and head, 21 mms. 

t ,r1 1st pair : femur, 9 ; tibia, 
L f e ^ th 2nd \, „ 12; „ 1 

g mms ; tarsi, 12 mms. 

of le § s; J 3 rd „ 


Length of costa, 100 mms. ; of outer margin, 70 mms. ; 
of inner margin, 55 mms. ; greatest length of posterior 


wing, 72 mms. ; greatest width of wing, 47 mms. 

S . Dark variety. Anterior wing as in the type form, 
except that the colour is light rufous brown, darker shaded 
at the outer margin beyond the adnervular rays ; the 
rays are regularly arranged from the anal angle to the 
subcostal vein, and are a very subdued white ; the veins 
very prominently black. 

Posterior wings as in the type form, except that the 
yellow areas are much restricted, and even then greatly 
subdued by black atoms or scaling. 

The undersurface of the anterior wing warm rufous 
brown, darker at the base and near or beyond the rays ; 
adnervular rays as above, but very white and prominent, 
subdued in the direction of the cell by dark atoms. 
Posterior wing as above, except that the yellow areas are 
slightly larger, and more vivid, but shaded by black 

Head and thorax as in the type, except that the 
pronotal collar is not yellow ; abdomen as in the type, but 
with more subdorsal back, all the yellows also subdued by 

Length of costa, 101 mms. ; outer margin, 70 mms. ; 
greatest length of posterior wing, 72 mms. ; greatest width 
of wing, 49 mms. 

Habitat : Sandakan, N. Borneo. 

In the museum of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, at 

I have seen a considerable number of examples of this 
species, and find that except in gradations of tone between 
the type form and this dark variety, very little difference is 
to be observed between them. By careful examination of 
the different examples a slight tendency may be detected 
towards a violet suffusion of the wings of the females ; but 
it requires a good pure light in order that even this may 
be faintly seen. 

This species is figured on plates 66a $ , 66b 2 , and 
66c 2 , dark form. 

As I have shewn in another place, the beautiful opales- 
cent tints of the $ P. Magellanus are sufficiently repeated 
on the wings of the 2 ; in the case of P. Miranda only a 
very slight tendency towards a repetition of the violet 
sheen of the male can be discovered ; but one need not be 
surprised if ultimately some highly coloured varieties of 
the ? may be met with, or produced by careful breeding. 
This anticipation is somewhat justified when we consider 
how prevalent ultramarine and azure blues, and violet 
tints are among the Rhopalocerous and Heterocerous 
Lepidoptera, either as wing colours, patterns, or suffusions 
on the darker or browner areas of the wings, especially 
on their upper surfaces. 

This fact applies especially to the Lepidoptera of South 
and Central America, and in a more limited degree to 

India and Borneo, the Philippines, the Malay, and 
Moluccan Archipelagos, New Guinea, and its Papuan 
Islands. So remarkably numerous are the examples on 
the two American Continents, that one is almost tempted 
to regard blue and violet as the prevailing colours of the 
lepidopterous fauna. A very large proportion of the 
Lycaenidse and the Theclas, especially of America, are 
more or less blue — often in both sexes ; many of the 
Erycinida? have violet reflections, especially in the Genera 
Ancylurus and Erycina; the S <? of the majority of the 
Morphos are of vivid blue and greenish blue tints — and 
also a considerable number of the Morphinae of the east, 
and the dark satyrida^ of nearly all countries ; indeed it 
may be safely assumed that two of every three species of 
the dark brown satyridae are more or less beautified by 
either a sheen, or by violet or blue reflections on the wings 
of one of the sexes, and the darker the insect the 
more easy are their tints to be detected. A multitude 
of the Nymphalidaa, such as Catagramma, Eunica, Cybdelis, 
Callithea, Prepona, and Agrias (in the latter combined with 
scarlet or crimson) ; and a large number of the oriental 
Euploeas are shot with blue or violet ; many of the oriental 
Papilios, (P. Ulysses and its allies for example, are grand 
blue species) ; a very few of the Pierince are delicately 
tinted ; but there are many Hesperiidse that are either 
intensely coloured, or their black or brown surfaces give off 
violet reflections when viewed in the proper positions. The 
same may be observed among many of the Noctuidas of 
India and South America, notably among the gigantic 
Erebidse, and several of the oriental allied genera. Among 
the Ornithoptera the tendency is for the black of many of 
the species to exhibit at least a faint sheen of blue, often 
shading into olive greens, as the specimens are changed 
in position. 

But it is interesting to note that the green marks and 
areas, especially of the anterior wings of the latter insects 
always appear with coppery or crimson scarlet reflections, 
when viewed obliquely against the light ; in some species 
this colour reflection is so vivid as sometimes to give the 
species the aspect of 0. Croesus $ , and to strongly suggest 
that the whole of the species of my genus Ornithoptera 
have originated from either a green or an orange ancestor. 
It must also be noted that in most of the $ forms even 
the golden greens on both surfaces appear to flow into 
blue or violet when moved about into the proper light and 
positions ; and that on the under surfaces of the posterior 
wings the greenish-white areas often exhibit a blue blush. 

This brings me therefore to offer a suggestion that has 
been on my mind for some years ; and though it may seem 
to be a little out of place in this work, I am sure I may be 
excused for bringing it forward, because of what I conceive 
to be its scientific importance. 

A very large proportion of the lepidoptera are capable 
of an almost infinite tendency to variation, as we well 
know. Indeed there are only a few species that appear to 
be quite stable — i.e., that appear to retain exactly the same 
pattern and colours from generation to generation, in 
whatever locality they may be found. These evidently 
are dominant protected species, generally brilliant and con- 
spicuous in colours and patterns, of strong or erratic flight, 
capable of living almost in every part of the globe : such 
species as Danais archippus, Pyrameis atalanta, P. Cardui, 
&c, are examples (P. Cardui is generally shot with violet 
in the examples taken in India and South Africa, pretty 
much in the same way as are some of the species of Colias 

and Meganostoma among the Pierinse.) But many 
species are so sensitive to the almost imperceptible 
changes of local climate and environment, as to be most 
unstable, as if they were constantly striving to adjust 
themselves to the ever changing conditions, with the result 
that no two specimens of the same species are quite alike 
in pattern or colours. 

Well then, seeing that a boundless variety of beautiful 
forms and colour-patterns have during the past century 
been evolved in the vegetable and animal kingdoms by 
artificial or mechanical selection and various other 
scientific methods, by which the most glorious and 
marvellous beauties have resulted, presenting to our con- 
templation what sometimes seems like a new creation, it 
has often been impressed upon my mind that if our 
collectors in exotic countries could devote a portion of 
their time to the breeding by artificial selection of the 
lepidoptera, especially the more unstable species, adopt- 
ing as much as possible the methods pursued by Florists, 
and the breeders of Fowls, Pigeons, &c, it would be 
possible, within a measurable period, to produce forms 
among the lepidoptera more wonderful and beautiful than 
anything yet dreamed of; and it would be especially 
found that the colour reflections referred to above, would 
become intensified, and textures would be so modified 
and perfected, as to bring about the most startling results 
— almost or quite equal to the creation of new and more 
wonderful species. That this is no mere unsupported 
theory, we may remind ourselves that even among British 
and European lepidoptera some most interesting and 
suggestive results have been attained by those entomo- 
logists who have experimented in this direction. 

By these methods we might safely anticipate a great 
accession of information relative to the laws by which the 
differentiated forms which we are acquainted with have 
been evolved. With regard to the Ornithoptera much 
might thereby be learned. Some species, as I have 
shewn in the first volume of this work, vary so remark- 
ably that it would be quite imprudent to assume that we 
have as yet become acquainted with all the possible or 
existent aberrations of them. 0. Richmondia and 
the series of forms belonging to the Poseidon group are 
illustrations of this ; the variations of colour between 


0. Aruana and 0. Urvilliana are other very suggestive 
facts ; the tendency among the variations of 0. Poseidon 
on the anterior wings for the green colours and marks to 
occupy an increasing area of the wing, also seems, as I have 
shown, to suggest the possibility of a form in which the 
whole of the wing would be green, except perhaps a small 
portion of the subcosta and the outer margin. Then 
again we have among the species of the genus Pompeop- 
tera the case of Dohertyi, where the 3 is entirely, or 
almost entirely, black, and some of the ? ? quite immac- 
ulate and unicolorous. 

Surely these phenomena, not to mention the numerous 
instances among the other groups of Lepidoptera, are a 
strong hint to us of what we may find possible by 
artificial selection and breeding. At any rate, even if 
there were great difficulties in carrying out my sug- 
gestions (and there would be), they would not be 
insurmountable to an intelligent, ardent, and persevering 
naturalist, and they would amply compensate all who 
engaged in the undertaking, besides adding largely to our 
knowledge of some the most deeply interesting phenomena 
of Nature. 

As will be remembered, I called attention in Vol. I. 
to the singular fact that all the examples of 0. Croesus, 
3 that were bred in confinement proved to be of a 
brighter orange than those captured by Wallace and 
others ; for many of the latter were often of a red orange, 
almost as fiery as that of the 3 of 0. Lydiiis. _ And whilst 
the colour reflections of the posterior wings in the 
captured examples are usually of a deep olive green 
tint, those of the artificially-bred examples are generally 
emerald green, often so vivid that in some positions the 
insect appears to be emerald green rather than orange ! — 
a somewhat analogous phenomenon to that of Pompeoptera 

I might suggest en passant, that the experiments in arti- 
ficial breeding and selection, if they could be applied to 
Humming Birds, Trogons, and Birds of Paradise (and 
there is no reason why this may not be done some day) 
would bring about results even more wonderful and start- 
ling than among the lepidoptera. 



Additional Bibliographical References to Page 67. 

Ornithoptera Dohertyi, W. F. Kirby, Nature, V. 51, p. 255 (1895). 
Troides Dohertyi, Rothschild, Novitates Zoologicse, V. II., p. 227. n. tz (1895). 
Papilio Yordermanni, Snellen, Tijdschr, V. Ent. xxxvii., p. 191 (June, 1895). 

Var. fasciculatus, Rothschild. 

<? . Anterior wings exactly like those of the type form. 
Posterior wings also like those of the type. Under 
surface of anterior wing, with the cell, costa and subcosta,. 
and all the area below the 3rd submedian branch black ; 
the remainder of the disc dull grey white, tinted with 
black green, shaded towards the cell with black atoms, 
and also into the very narrow outer marginal black by 
similar atoms. Posterior wings, similar to those of the 
type form, except that the yellow discal band is much 
broader, and purer, and faint spots composed of grey yellow 
atoms are on the black of the last two divisions of the sub- 
marginal border. The colours of the abdomen vary very 
little from those in the type form. Length of costa 
63 mms. 

2 . Anterior wings rufous-brown ; the distal 3rd of 
the cell, dull ochraceous grey, almost shaded into brown ; 
all the disc except i-3rd between the 2nd-3rd median 
branches, and nearly the whole of the rest of the wing 
below this, with the same subdued ochraceous rufous- 
greenish-grey tint, almost clouded into the upper part of 
the wing by rufous-brown ; the outer margin very narrow 
and brown, interrupted by the ochraceous fringe lunations. 
Posterior wing dark rufous-brown, with two small rufous- 
yellow spots close to the cell, and the greater part of the 
submedian fold and abdominal-marginal space rufous- 
yellow, the fringe lunules and submarginal cloudings of 
the same tint, produced by light atoms. Under surface 
of anterior wing, with the disc (all but a portion of the 
area below the 2nd median branch), a silky (somewhat 
luminous) rufous-yellow-white ; and with the distal 3rd 

of the cell of the same colour ; the rest of the wing rufous- 
brown. Posterior wing silky dark brown ; with distal 1-3M 
of cell and a nebulous light discal cloud from the outer side 
of the 3rd median branch to the 1st discocellular nervule 
(and occupying nearly or quite i-4th of each internervular 
space) all composed of rufous light-ochraceous atoms ; 
also with a broad clouded submarginal band of rufous 
ochraceous white ; the submedian fold and part of the 
abdominal margin streaked with the same tints. 

Head, antennae and thorax black ; eyes rufous-brown > 
abdomen with dorsal broad rufous-brown, bordered by 
dull rufous-white ; lateral portions a little more ochraceous 
— the lateral black dots larger than usual, and the sub- 
dorsum quite dark brown. The eyes in both sexes under- 
lined with red, and the lateral red spots of the thorax as 
usual also in each sex. 

Length of costa 75 mms. ; greatest length of posterior 
wing 58 mms. ; greatest width 37 mms. Length of thorax 
with head 22 mms. ; and of abdomen or antennae 28 mms. 

Habitat, Waterstradt, Talaut Islands. PI. 64A, Figs. 
1 6* , 2, 3 ? . 

The ? is almost entirely like the variety figured on pl. 
64, fig. 6, so far as the underside is concerned ; and 
appears to be a representative of my 3rd type of variety 
of the species. It is also sufficiently distinct from all the 
other varieties to constitute a sub-species of Dohertyi. 



Ornithoptera Andromache, Staudinger, Iris, Tab. viii., i and S , Band 7, Heft, 2, p. 341, (1894). 
Troides Andromache, W. Rothschild, Novit. Zool., Vol. II., p. 228, n. 24, (1895). 

<? . Primaries entirely velvety-black ; nervules obscured 
by the black ; with a transverse light shade, modifying a 
part of the discal black, caused by the marks of the under- 
surface being slightly transmitted through ; undersurface 
black, much lighter towards the posterior margin, with 
reddish nervures and branches ; at the distal end of the 
cell is a yellow mark, divided broadly by the 2nd pseudo- 
neurus ; the disc with a broad whitish transverse band, 
divided by the nervules, each internervular division 
strongly arrow-like, the points towards the discoidal cell, 
and suffused with yellow, with the bases a pinkish white ; 
fringe lunules, which are very delicate, white. Secondaries, 
above, a rich glowing warm or golden yellow, shading into 
a delicate lemon tint towards the posterior margin by any 
change of light or position ; base black ; posterior mar- 
ginal band black, and gracefully and strongly lunated (or 
rather dentated) ; abdominal margin a warm velvety- 
black, including the abdominal fold, with tolerably long 
fringe-hairs. The veins delicate and black, with the 
subcostal nervure curved from the base ; wing outline 
only moderately lunate. 

Undersurface similar in all respects to the above, 
except that the obverse side of the abdominal fold is 
rather a lighter brown-black, with an anal streak of golden 
yellow atoms, and a few of the same on the black lunation 
next above it ; the costal margin is narrowly black, and 
the yellow internervular space next to it is partly darker, 
from the upper surface black shewing through. 

Head and thorax black ; eyes castaneous ; pronotal 
red collar prominent ; abdomen reddish-black above 
with 2 yellow marks on the penultimate segment ; sub- 
dorsal yellow growing gradually broader, till at the penul- 
timate segment it is entirely of that colour ; articulations 
intensely subdued by black atoms ; anal valves pinkish- 
pearly white, and fairly pointed ; legs almost hidden in 
the thoracic black, when at rest ; thorax with no pectoral 
red spots. 

Length of thorax with head, 20 mms. ; of abdomen or 
antennae, 26 mms. 

Costa, 62 mms. ; width of wing, 37 mms. ; posterior 
margin, 43 mms. ; inner margin, 31 mms. ; width of 
posterior wings, 33 mms. ; length, 40 mms. 

Of Legs 

(including the 

1st pair: femur, g; tibia, 6; tarsi, 10 mms. 
2nd „ : „ 11; „ 10; „ 13 ,, 
3rd „ : „ 10; „ 11; „ 13 „ 

2 . Primaries. Peppered creamy white, — the atoms 
are reddish and are scattered equally, except between the 
3rd median nervure and the submedian nervule, where 
they are more dense or clouded midway from the base ; 
the veins all ruddy brown-black and very prominent — 
the discocellular nervules broadest of all ; from the costa 

to the 2nd submedian branch a ruddy brown — darkest 
towards the base ; a broad submarginal red-brown band 
is nearly equally indented strongly in the direction of the 
cell, between the nervules, becoming much larger as they 
approach the apical angle ; base of the wing dark red- 
brown. Undersurface the same as above, except that 
the large light area is a reddish creamy white, the pep- 
perings very faint, and the dentations of the marginal 
band are at their apices slightly divided with white, and 
dusted half way on the darker portions with reddish white 
atoms, except towards the apex of the wing ; fringe lunules 
prominent and white. 

Secondaries. The area from the base to a little way 
beyond the cell in every direction a greenish lemon-yellow, 
slightly speckled with black atoms and hairs ; the re- 
mainder of the wing is a deep brownish black, with a 
submarginal band of cuneiform lemon yellow marks, 
divided each by a dark nervure, and subdued by black 
atoms till at the abdominal margin they are rendered 
quite obscure ; towards the cell the discal black is concavely 
lunate, and the effect of the submarginal yellow marks is to 
suggest a discal band composed of 7 black cones united 
with the black marginal dentations : the largest of the 
yellow divisions is between the 1st and 2nd subcostal 
nervures ; posterior margin with creamy-white fringe 
lunules. Undersurface as above, except that the yellow 
submarginal band is brighter, with fewer black atoms, 
and is rather broader, the inner discal black forming a 
series of cones, with their points towards the cell, of which 
the 1st is continuous with the black of the costa and base; 
the veins stout, and distinct on the yellow parts. 

Thorax black pilose ; head black, with castaneous eyes ; 
pronotal collar red ; no pectoral red spots ; abdomen 
brown above, pale greenish yellow below, with black 
lateral dots, and a double row ot ventral black linear 
spots ; the legs black, with femora nearly concealed by 
the pectoral black ; anal tuft prominent, and slightly 
darker than the segment. 

Costa, 80 mms. ; width of wing, 47 mms. ; posterior 
margin 54, and interior margin 45 mms. Secondaries : 
width 35, length 57, length of abdominal margin, 37 

Length of thorax with head, 20 mms. ; abdomen, 33 
mms. ; antennae, 30 mms. 


1st pair 
2nd ,, 
3rd „ 

femur, 10; tibia, 7; tarsi, 11 mms. 

Ijai 12 ; ,, 11 ; „ 15 „ 
,, 11 ; 11 ; ,, 14 „ 

Hab. : Kina Balu, Borneo. 

In museum of Hon. W. Rothschild. 


5 . In Mr. H. Grose-Smith's collection. The anterior 
wings do not differ, except that the peppering is deepest 
to a short distance from the base ; and on the undersur- 
face a little more clouded with the red-brown scales, 
especially at the base. The posterior yellow area and 
yellow submarginal marks relatively to the black, occupy 
a little less space on both surfaces, than in Mr. Rothschild's 

Costa 71 ; posterior margin 52 ; interior margin 57 
mms. Secondaries, width 33 ; length 55 mms. 

I have to thank the above-named gentleman for the 

kind loan of the examples from which the plate and 
text were produced. 

The 2 of this species bears some resemblance to the 
? 2 of P. Amphrysus and Bufficollis on each surface of 
both wings ; but the light area of the Primaries is more 
extensive than in those forms. The secondaries are how- 
ever closely alike in all three forms ; but while the 
abdomen is so dark in Andromache, it is very light in 
the others. On the contrary the $ bears no resemblance 
to the 3 $ of the Amphrysus group, and is smaller in 
proportion to the size of its female than the latter are to 
their respective consorts. 


Ornithoptera Magellanus, Felder ; " Wien. Ent. Mon." VI., p. 282, n. 31 (1862). 
Papilio Magellanus; Felder, "Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien." p. 291, n. 27 (1864). 

„ „ 3 ?. Felder, " Reise Nov. Lep." I., p. 14, n. 7, t. 5, f. a. (3), b. (?). (1865). 

Ornithoptera Magellanus; Wallace, "Trans. Linn. Soc." Vol. XXV., p. 41 (1866) 
Pap. Magellanus; W. F. Kirby, " Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep." p. 519 (1871). 
Orn, Magellanus; Oberthiir, "Cat. Raisonne de Pap. de la Coll. de Ch. Oberthiir," p. 32 (1879). 
Ornithoptera Magellanus; W. F. Kirby, Cat. of Coll. Diurn. Lep., formed by the late W. C. Hewitson, p, 1 (1879). 

„ „ Fickert, " Ueber die Zeichn. der Gattung Ornith.," in Zoolog. Jahr. b. (1889) p. 740, 743 3, 744 «, 

,, „ " Semper, Phillip. Tagfalter," p. 264, n. 385 (1891). 

„ Haase, " Untersuch. iib. Mim." p. 29 (1893). 

„ „ W. F. Kirby, " Bird- Winged Butterflies of the East," in Nature, Vol. 51, p. 255 (1895). 

Troides Magellanus; Walter Rothschild, " Novitates ZoologicEe," Pt. vii., Vol. II., p. 232, n. 26 (1895) 
0. Magellanus; W. F. Kirby, "Handbook to the Order Lepidoptera," Vol. II., p. 265 (1896). 
Ornithoptera Magellanus; Dr. Fr. Walker, "Oriental Entomology," Pt. II., p. 15. (No date published.) 

This species is sui generis, the most remarkable of 
butterflies in its colour arrangement, whether in the male 
or female. The Xanthochroic species of Ornithoptera 
are represented in Magellanus by the hind wing having 
attained apparently the maximum area of undivided pure 
rich yellow,— that is to say, undivided except by the very 
black veins on the upper and under surfaces, so far 
as the 6* is concerned, while the broad submarginal band, 
and the discocellular and discal area of yellow in the S 
are equally conspicuous on the upper surface of the hind 
wings. Only this rich graduated golden yellow can be 
seen when the insect is viewed in a box, or even in a 
strong direct light ; but if we place the insect nearly on 
the level of the eye and examine it opposite the light, the 
whole of the hind wings will be transfigured : the yellow 
will have given place to the most splendid iridiscence of 
blue and emerald green, with a faint golden sheen towards 
the hind margin—the blue ranging from silvery and azure 
to ultramarine, with just a suggestion of a rosy tint. If 
the insect be viewed on the same level against the light, 
the yellow gives place to a nearly uniform area of gradua- 
ted emerald green. Some of the S. American Papilios — 
i.e., the red °and black species, which I propose to call 
Ornithopterina furnish on a smaller scale a similar iridis- 
cence over the crimson patches ; and I remember the late 
W. C. Hewitson calling my attention once to a lovely 
Erycinid in his collection which he had just described 
under the name Eurygona pmclara, in which the orange- 
red and black wings above appear shot with the most 
vivid amber and silver blue, when held with its head away 
from the light — this iridiscence being equally glorious in 
the black as on the orange surface of the wings — the 
glory surpassing even that of the Morphos [see his fig. 
in his " 111. of New Exotic Butterflies," vol. iv, pi. ix of 
Eurygona, fig, 90.] All the latter, together with the blue 
Morphos, are found on the S. American continent, where 
splendid iridiscent butterflies of many genera are very 
much in evidence ; while P. Magellanus inhabits the Phil- 
ippines, a group of islands also famous for the diversity 
and splendour of its fauna. 

So far as my knowledge of this species extends, after an 
examination of the examples in the Hewitson Collection, 
the British Museum, the Salvin and Godman collection, 
the Rothschild, and Mr. H. G. Smith's collections, the $ <? 
differ very little on either surface from the Felder type 
which I figure on PI. 67 (figs, r, 2, and ia, 2a) of this 
work, and again on PI. 68. The 2 is subject to some 

slight variation however, and the iridiscence is found to 
vary also in intensity from that of the 6* , and also in 
different examples. 

$ . Anterior wings deep velvety black, shot with a faint 
silvery sheen ; the nervules stout and intensely black, 
passing through the discal rays of pale yellow, with faint 
edgings of pale yellow within the discoidal cell along part 
of the median nervure, and the discocellular nervure ; these 
rays are slightly modified by black atoms ; the fringe 
lunules are thin and white. The posterior wings 
are rich golden yellow graduated to a slightly redder 
yellow towards the base ; the veins are stout and very 
black ; the area of the yellow, when viewed obliquely 
opposite the light is a splendid iridiscence of silvery to 
ultramarine blue, and emerald or golden green ; against 
the light entirely an apple green, emerald, or golden 
green. The submarginal border velvety black, and 
indented or lunated inwardly ; no fringe lunules ; the 
base within the precostal nervure, dark brown ; a number 
of faint, dark hairs spring from the basal portion of the 
median nervure on the side nearest the abdominal margin ; 
from the submedian nervure the whole of the abdominal 
margin is black, with a sufficient indication of the outline 
of the fold or pouch, which conceals the androconia. The 
undersurface of the anterior wings similar to the upper, 
except that the black is less intense and warmer, and the 
yellow rays are rather broader and more distinct. The 
posterior wings are nearly identical in colour and in all 
other respects with the upper surface ; but the abdominal 
margin is silvery reddish brown, with the fairly long 
abdominal fringe still lighter reddish. The scheme of 
iridiscence is the same as above. The upper wings of this 
sex have the costa long and not quite so arcuate as in the 
? ; the posterior margin is also long (within 4-5ths of the 
length of the costa) and prominently concave onward a 
short distance from the apex, the outline also being deli- 
cately lunate ; the under wings are sufficiently lunate. 

Head and thorax, velvety black ; eyes, dark brown ; 
pronotal collar, crimson scarlet ; abdomen, yellow, shot 
with the same iridiscence as that of the wings, with a 
faint orange-red dorsal longitudinal ray from the base, 
and black lateral patches accentuating the segments ; the 
anal valves pearly white, with a triangulate dorsal black 
mark. The subdorsum yellow with lateral black dots. 
The pectoral surfaces of the thorax dark brown, with 
scarlet crimson lateral spots ; legs black. 


7 6 

Length of costa, 79 mms. ; of posterior margin, 66 
mms. ; of interior margin, 39 mms. ; width of wing, 45 
mms. ; length of costa of hind wing (i.e., from the base to 
the apex), 34 mms. ; of posterior margin, 35 mms. ; of 
abdominal margin, 38 mms., greatest width of wing, 35 
mms., and length, 44 mms. 

Length of thorax and head, 11 mms. ; of abdomen or 
antennae, 31 mms. 

of legs : 

1st pair: femur 11; tibia 8; tarsi, 12 mms. 
2nd ,, ,, 11 ; ,, 12 ; ,) 15 1. 
3rd „ „ 11 ; . ., 13 ; „ 15 „ 

Habitat : Babuyanes ; Polillo ; E. Mindanao, Phil- 
ippine Islands. 

? . Anterior wings dark fuscous brown ; with a bluish 
silky sheen playing over the brown, most intense at the 
base within the cell ; all the nervures and nervules very 
dark, stout, and proceeding each midway through more 
or less broad opal-white rays and bands — the discal rays 
being somewhat fuscous in tint towards the posterior 
margin, and the discocellular bands from the base ; the 
pseudoneura are strongly marked ; there is also a very 
narrow short whitish ray near the outer margin divided by 
the submedian fold ; the fringe lunules are fairly promi- 
nent, and of the same colour as the rays. 

Posterior wings a rich gamboge yellow ; with a broad 
discal band of black strongly lunated within (or towards 
the cell) and still more strongly lunated or scalloped 
without (or towards the hind margin) ; the submarginal 
black band is broad and strongly indented ; the two 
bands therefore absolutely enclose the discal areas of 
yellow, causing them to form a series of 7 irregular lunate 
or dentate marks, divided by the nervules — the 1st apical, 
quadrate, the 2nd subquadrate and lunate, the 3rd broad 
and bidentate ; the next three more narrow and bidentate, 
and dusted with black atoms, their bases being whitish ; 
and the 7th at the anal angle almost like a broad note of 
interrogation ; the abdominal margin is brown ; all the 
yellow and brown almost from the median nervure being 
shot with an opalescent white ; the veins very black, and 
very prominent also on the black or dark bands ; the base 
of the wings with the precostal nervure brown ; a few 
white atoms on the submarginal band near the yellow ; 
the fringe lunules are white ; as in the <? the yellow of 
the wings, when viewed obliquely or on a level with the 
eye, at a point opposite the light, becomes a glorious 
opalescence of blue, green, and pink. The anterior wings 
as in the <? are somewhat concave at the posterior mar- 
gin ; and the posterior wings have the outer margin lunate. 

The underside of the anterior wings with markings 
similar to those above, except that the white area of the 
discoidal cell is rather more extensive, and together with 
the two lowest white rays of the disk is sparsely dusted 
with black atoms from the base. The posterior wings 
with their markings similar to those of the upper surface, 
except that the 7 submarginal dentate or subdentate marks 
are fuscous white instead of yellow. The yellow of the 
hind wing is also opalescent in the position mentioned 
above, but in a fainter degree. 

The thorax and head a warm brown ; eyes silky brown ; 
antennae black; pronotal collar crimson scarlet ; abdomen 
ochraceous or opal-whitish, and tuft reddish-brown ; 
subdorsum yellow, with black marks in each segment ; 
lateral black dots. Thorax beneath with broad crimson 
pectoral marks between the legs, and on the pronotum ; 
legs black ; haustellum black. 

Length of costa, 82 mms. ; of posterior margin, 61 
mms. ; of inner margin, 43 mms. ; width of wing above, 
49 mms. Length of costa of posterior wing about 45 
mms. ; of posterior margin, 39 mms. ; of abdominal or 
inner margin, 43 mms. ; width of wing, 35, and length, 
53 mms. 

Le " gth Lid 

oflegs( 3rd 

1st pair 

femur, g; tibia, 8; tarsus, 11 mms. 
II; 13; n 15 m 

„ 10; 12; ,, 15- 

The figures on Plate 67 are all drawn from Felder's 
types, for the loan of which 1 am greatly indebted to the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

A $ example in the British Museum is more brilliantly 
opalescent on both surfaces than in Felder's type, so also 
is one in Mr. Henry Grose-Smith's collection. A 3 
in the Hewitson collection is larger than Felder's type, 
and the red pronotal collar is almost concealed by the 
black, while in all the British Museum specimens (which 
include also the great Godman and Salvin collection) the 
yellow of the posterior wings beneath are shot with a rich 
emerald green when viewed obliquely against the light. 

Hab. ? Luzon ; Mindanao, Philippine Islands. 

The figs, on Plate 69 are from specimens in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Henry Grose-Smith ; and I here thank him 
for the kind loan of them. 

The $ of this species is sufficiently distinct from, and 
the 2 abundantly unlike that of any other species. 


Papilio Hephaestus, Fclder, " Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien," V. 291, p. 291, n. 29. (1864). S 9 . 

„ " Reise Novara," Lep, I., p. 16, n. 8. (1865) <f ? . 
„ Pompeus, v. Hephastus, Hopffer, •' Stett. E. Zeit." p. 18, n. 2. (1874) i f . 

Snellin, Tijdschr," v. Ent. xxi. p. 37, n. 146. (1878). <? ? . 
Ornithoptera Hephaestus, Oberth., "Et. d'Ent." IV. p. 31, n. 12. (1879) <? ? . 

„ Pompeus, v. Hephastus, Fickert, " Zool. Jahrbiichern," p. 729. (1889). 

Hephaestus, Holland, " Proc. Boston Soc. N.H." XXIV. p. 77, n. 124. (1890). i ? . 
Rothschild, " Iris V. p. 442. (1892). 3 2 . 
Troides Helena Hephaestus, Rothschild, " Novitates Zoologies," Vol. II., p. 222. (1895). 

$ . Anterior wings entirely velvety black, and immacu- 
late — the veins only slightly visible. Undersurface as above; 
but a little lighter and glossy towards the outer margin. 

Posterior wings rich golden yellow ; the base and a 
very small basal portion of the cell black ; the costa and 
part of the subcostal area obliquely black ; the wings richly 
black ; half the submedian area and the abdominal 
margin also black ; and an outer marginal lunate band of 
black. Undersurface exactly as above, except that there 
is a small black orbicle above the lunation within the 3rd 
and 4th median nervules, and the submedian area of 
black has a ruddy gloss. The abdominal fringe is delicate 
and black. 

Thorax and head black ; eyes nitid black ; abdomen 
dorsally black, with a central stripe of fawn colour, and 
laterally and subdorsally yellow, with the usual lateral 
black dots very small. Anal segment buff white. 

Length of costa of anterior wing 77, of outer margin 58, 
and interior margin (which is nearly straight) 38 mms. 
Greatest length of the posterior wing 43, and width 
31 mms. Length of abdomen or antennas 30, and of 
thorax with the head 19 mms. 

The male greatly resembles the $ of Cerberus in its 
superficial appearance, but the anterior wings are slightly 
wider in proportion to the posterior, and there are no 
adnervular light rays visible. 

Habitat : Celebes. I am indebted to the Rev. Alfred 
Fuller for the pleasure of drawing my figures from his 
lovely specimens. 

? . Anterior wings black, with buff-coloured adnervular 
rays, subdued somewhat by scaling, whereof the 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd median are perfect, but much subdued as they 
reach the outer margin, those above are only rudimentary, 
or nearly obsolete, except close to the cell, and between 
the 1st and 2nd subcostal nervules ; the cell is margined 
also at its upper part, halfway from the distal end, with 
a buff-white streak, and a very narrow distal continuation 
curves round to the median vein ; there is a very faint 
trace of a ray at the 3rd median branch, and a conspicu- 
ous ray spot, strangely divided by the submedian vein 
near the posterior angle. Undersurface as above, except 
that all the rays are a purer buff-white, more complete 
and pronounced, and the cell streak extends at its upper 
part from the distal end nearly to the base. 

Posterior wings : the description of the cotype from the 
Felder collection, printed on the next column, serves for 
the description of the example now under consideration, 
except that part of the submedian, and the inner sub- 
marginal areas are black. Undersurface almost entirely 
as above. [See plate 36.] 

Thorax and body nearly as in the Felder cotype. 

[The ? type form has the light rays of the anterior 
wings more perfect and prominent, as in the cotype on 
plate 36 of this work.] 

Length of costa 81, of outer margin 62, and of interior 
margin 43 mms. [The interior margin is nearly straight.] 
Length of posterior wing 48, and width 36 mms. 

The posterior wings strongly resemble those of Felder's 
Plato [plate 39, figs. 5, 6]. 

Hab. : N. Celebes. From the collection of the Rev. 
Alfred Fuller. 

S . Anterior wings warm brownish black — lighter to- 
wards the outer margin ; the adnervular rays white, 
and scaled towards the outer margin : these rays, or 
areas of white, extend from the subcostal vein to the 
3rd median nervule ; to the 2nd submedian the rays 
are united at near the discoidal cell, and the white area 
is continued to i-3rd of the cell at the distal end as a 
series of 3 elongate marks ; the 3rd median ray is short, 
commencing a little less than half-way from the cell ; 
a short submedian above, and a longer white stripe 
below the submedian vein completes the light marks of 
the anterior wing above, these are slightly bluish green. 
Under surface of wings as above, except that all the 
white areas are purer, less scaled, and more definite in 
outline. Posterior wings golden yellow ; the basal half of the 
cell, and all but a narrow yellow subcostal mark black ; 
the abdominal and submedian area warm brown, with 
a yellowish white lunation at the inner angle, extending 
to the base as a couple of light streaks, and enclosing an 
elongate black spot ; there is a transverse discal row of 
6 black subhastate black spots, the upper one being the 
largest ; and a submarginal lunate black band ; the fringe 
lunules of all the wings are short, thin, and white. 
Under surface as above, except that the black marks are 
slightly outlined with white scales, there is no black mark 
at the abdominal angle, and the submedian area is, with 
the exception of the abdominal angle, entirely warm 

Thorax brown-black ; eyes castaneous brown ; abdo- 
men warm brown ; laterally and subdorsally yellow white, 
with lateral black dots, and subdorsum slightly black ; 
pronotal collar red, and the usual thoracic red marks 
above the legs. 

Length of costa of anterior wing 77 and width of wing 
42 mms. ; length of posterior wing 49 and width 35 mms. 

Habitat Celebes. Lorquin. From Felder's subtype, 
in the Tring Museum. 

This is a variation from the Felder type. 





W. S. Macleay, " Horae Entomologicae," pp. 286-7 and 422-3. (1819-1821). 
Latreille and Godart, " Encyclopedie Methodique," Vol. IX (1824). 
Swainson, in Taylor's " Philosophical Magazine," March, 1827. 
Swainson, " Zoological Illustrations, p. 135. 

Boisduval, " Observasions sur un M&noire de M. Zincken-Somraer," in Annales Societe Ent. France. (1832). 
J. O. Westwood, Introduction to Modern Classification of Insects, Vol. II, pp. 319-321 ; 339-347, &c. (1840). 
Dr. Thomas Horsfield, " Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the East India Museum," Vol. I. pp. 10-13. ( l8 57)- 
* Kirby and Spence, " Introduction to Entomology," 7th Edit., pp. 31-41. (1858). 
Roland Trimen, " Rhopalocera Africa? Australis, pp. 3-6. (i86r-i866). 
Edward Newman, " British Butterflies," pp. 9-12. (1871). 

P. Martin Duncan, " Metamorphoses of the Lepidoptera," in Cassell's Nat. Hist., Vol. VI., chapter ix, pp. 21-26. (1896), 

Davidson, Bell and Aitken, " The Butterflies of the North Canara District of the Bombay Presidency." Their Larvae and Pupae, with 

coloured plates, in the Journal of the Bombay Nat. History Society. (1890-1897.) 
Dr. W. J. Holland, " Butterfly Book," pp. 5-13, plates II to VI. (1899). 


The Caterpillars of the Ornithoptera are, like those 
of the Papilios, composed of 13 fleshy segments or 
parts ; the anterior segment represents the head of the 
imago, as it does of the larva ; the 2nd, 3rd and 4th each 
bear a pair of pectoral or true legs : these segments and 
legs constitute in the imago the thorax and thoracic legs ; 
the 5th and 6th segments are plain extensions of the body, 
each with two minute fleshy spines on the subdorsum ; 
the 7th to the 10th are each furnished with a pair of prolegs 
of an apparently simple, but really more elaborate 
structure ; the next two segments are quite simple in 
character, and the last, or 13th constitutes a pair of anal 
legs similar in character to the other prolegs, thus the 
latter 7 segments go to form the abdomen or body of 
the perfect insect. 

The 1st segment or head is armed with a pair of strong 
mandibles and a moderate sized upper lip— emarginate 
on the front edge ; the maxillae and labium are small, 
fleshy, and soldered together, and the eyes and general 
parts of the head are black and horny ; the clypeus is 
triangulate or nearly so ; the eyes, which form the greater 
part of the head appear to be rather rugose, with ex- 
ceedingly minute hairs springing from every portion of 
their area, and they are not facetted as in the per- 
fect insect. Between the head and neck is a furcula or 
pair of nuchal tentacles supposed to be enclosed in a 
coral red sheath which can be excerted or withdrawn at 
pleasure. These are very long and prominent in the 
Ornithoptera, and are probably intended to keep off 
ichneumons or other foes. They may also give out a 
distinct odour at such times, but this is merely conjecture : 
the vivid colouring may also serve a warning or threatning 
purpose. The whole body of the caterpillar is furnished 
with a number of fleshy moveable spines, more or less 
long, and systematically arranged, varying in number 
and in length on each segment ; they are situated in 
linear order, longitudinally : the second anterior seg- 

ment has four, the 3rd, 4th and 5th eight, the 6th 
six, the 7th to the 12th four each, and the anal seg- 
ment two apparently. The base and apex of these are 
generally black, and the centre coral-red : there are also 
two subdorsal rudimentary spines on the 5th and 6th 
segments ; all these are verticillate, and variable in length. 
All the segments except the 1st, 3rd, 4th and anal are 
provided with a small oval stigma on each side in which 
is an opening into the body, with a chitonous margin ; 
these are the breathing organs, and they make their 
appearance again in the chrysalis. 

The three pairs of perfect legs consist of three cylin- 
drical joints, covered with a chitonous skin and terminated 
with a claw, which, relatively to the stout size of the 
joints, is very small, though probably very powerful. 
[In the perfect insect the ungues or claws are bifid, longer 
in proportion, and very powerful in their ability of cling- 
ing to anv object. In some lepidoptera their tenacity is 
really extraordinary, as is the case with many coleoptera 
and insects of other orders] . The base to which the 
joints are attached is a thick tumid protuberance from the 
segment, and appears to consist of two parts or divisions 
— the lowest quite rounded, the upper sub-cylindrical ; the 
exterior portion or front (i.e. towards the head) is 
chitonous, like the joints of the legs, the hinder part fleshy, 
like the body of the caterpillar ; the upper division is also 
fleshy and bears a verticillate and (moveable?) spine, like the 
general spines of the body, which is also black and coral- 
red. Each of the leg joints are armed with a multitude of 
minute setae or bristles — the tumid protuberance is 
furnished with these setae. The four pairs of prolegs, 
which with the rest of the larva correspond to the abdo- 
men of the imago are apparently more simple, but in 
reality are more elaborate in structure and evidently very 
muscular — indeed the muscular power of the whole 
creature is very great. As in the case of the six anterior 
legs, these prolegs are somewhat opposable in each pair. 
First there is a very tumid extension of each segment of 

* The Authors quote Swammerdam (Hills', " Swammerdam," Vol. II. p. 37, f. 2, 4), as having discovered by dissection that not only the skins of the larva and of 
the pupa are encased in each other, but within them the butterfly itself, with its organs indeed in an almost fluid state, but still perfect in all its parts ; and they 
describe the modus operandi by which anyone can prove this for himself. (P. 36, 7.) 



the body to which is attached a short fleshy spine ; a 
delicate sinus is followed by the second portion of this 
protuberance, this again by a nitid chitonous part, some- 
what rugose at the sides, probably of a muscular character 
and concluding with a soft light sienna organ, or pad, 
with 3 indentations (resembling very much a microscopic 
potato) which may serve the purpose of exhausting the 
air ; round the inner portion of this pad is a crescent of 
many very minute recurved hooks. These complex 
arrangements are intended to enable the creature to retain 
a strong hold of the object on which it is resting, while 
it can move the anterior part of its body in any direction 
with perfect security. They are probably retractile, and, 
being opposable as the human thumb and fingers are, 
serve as very efficient claspers. The prolegs attached 
to the anal or 13th segment are identical in structure 
and purpose with the 4 intermediate ones, and they 
are all furnished with a large number of minute 
sets. The general colour of the larva is rufous brown, 
with two lateral irregular-shaped bands of light sienna 
colour, and one suboval spot below each band, situated 
on the 7th segment. In some species there is a second 
pair higher up on the 8th segment ; the dorsum is 
generally striped longtitudinally, with a pair of triangulate 
stripes on each segment, and O-like dark lateral marks. 
Some of the species are without these marks, and the light 
lateral patches are different in shape and length. Though 
there are some papilios whose larva resemble those of the 
Ornithoptera, there would be no difficulty in distinguish- 
ing between them. 

These larva? belong to the Chilognathiform 
or Scolopendriform stirps of the Lepidoptera in the 
system of Macleay, adopted by Dr. Horsfield : * 
the Succincti, or 1st tribe of Section 1 in Bois- 
duval's arrangement : the first family of Westwood's 
group of Heterocera, the Nudi : the second family 
of Swainson's quinarian scheme ; the first primary 
group of Latreille (in his Revue Animale) and 
the 3rd secondary section, the Hexapoda : the first 
or Equites group of Linnaeus and the 1st division 
or Trojans : and the first family of Trimen's arrange- 
ment. But all modern plans of classification assign their 
position to the latest but one of the Diurnea in the 2nd 
sub-family of the Papilionidae, or midway between the 
Pierincs and Hesperiidce, all of which are perfect Hexapods. 

Doubleday sought the divisional element between 
Ornithoptera and Papilio in the larvae, which he said " had 
an external forked sheath for the prothoracic tentacula, 
thus differing from Papilio, but Wallace (" Trans. Linn. 
Soc," vol. xxv., page 35) declared that 0. Poseidon larva 
has no such arrangement as this. Philip Henry Gosse 
found a similar structure in some species of Papilio, 
thereby indicating that the arrangement may obtain in 
both divisions of the Papilionidae. 

Reasoning on Dr. Horsfield's observations in Java on 

* Mr. Macleay was careful to guard the student of his system from misappre- 
hension ; for he remarks in his " Borce Entomologies," p. 423, that " in terming larvae 
Chilognathiform and Chilopodiform it is not meant that they are Scolopendra- or Juli, or 
even near to them in affinity, but only that they are so constructed that certain ana- 
logical circumstances attending them strongly remind us of these Ametabola." Of 
course the Centipedes, Wireworms, or Wcodlice are structurally very different from 
the larvae of either Coleoptera or Lepidoptera; and unlike the latter are not subject 
to a progressive metamorphosis ; hence their lower position in the scale of life. 
Macleay adopted Dr. Leach's Class Ametabola, which, at the time was only allowed 
to consist of two divisions— the Thysanura and the A nophira. To these he added two 
divisions of the Myriapoda and also Vermes. In his examination of the Coleoptera 
he divides them into the following 5 groups : — 

(a) Carabus and Dytiscus, represented analogically by the Chilopodiform Ametabola ; 

the larvae of the Papilonidae, of which a considerable 
number were known to Wallace, he came to the 
conclusion that these furnished good characters for 
the primary division of the Genus Papilio (in which 
at the time he included the Ornithoptera) into natural 
groups. The manner in which the hinder wings 
are plaited or folded back at the abdominal margin, 
the size of the anal valves, the structure of the antennae, 
and the form of the wings are of much service, as well 
as the character of the flight, and the style of colour- 
ation. Using these characters he divided the Malayan 
Papilios into 4 sections and 17 groups. At the head 
of them he placed the Ornithoptera — making them a 
Genus containing 3 subsections as follows : — a. Priamus 
Group : black and green ; b. Pompeus Group : black 
and yellow ; c. Brookeanus Groups : black, blue and 

The Schoenbergia and ^Etheoptera groups had not, 
when he wrote, been discovered, or his conclusions might 
have been considerably modified. 

PART II. i. Larva described. 

O. Pronomus, Feeds on a species of Ipomaea, which 
twists itself among and over the brushwood, often to a 
considerable height, or trails itself along the ground. 
The larva feeds on this plant and on any part of it. 
"Length i\ inches ; tapers slightly towards each extremity; 
central segment thickened ; comparatively short and 
obese ; smoky black with a tinge of madder purple ; head 
black and shiny, with a narrow white V-shaped mark on 
the face ; in the crown of the 2nd segment a crescent 
shaped shining black plate, and between this and the 
head is the nuchal aperture, through which, when the 
larva is irritated, is emitted a pair of short carmine- 
coloured tentacles ; a subdorsal row of finely-pointed 
spines in each side, the spines rather long, and those on 
the posterior segments pointing backwards ; tips and 
base of the spines black, intermediate portion scarlet, 
except in the 8th segment where the base of the spine is 
white, and from thence springs a broad oblique white 
stripe, pointing forwards, and terminating at the spiracular 
region ; a row of black spines just below the spiracles ; 
upon the 3rd, 4th, and 5th segments an additional spine 
between the subdorsal and spiracular row ; a short black 
blunt tubercle on the 2nd segment upon each side of the 
face ; a short black spine above each leg and claspers, 
which are shining black." — Gervase F. Matthew, R.N., 
in the " Entomologist," vol. 19, page 84. 

Mr. Matthew informs us also that these larvae do not 
differ from those taken in the Duke of York Island and 
New Britain, and will produce Urvilliana or the usual 
golden green forms of the perfect insect. 

O. Poseiden. PI. 34, fig. 4, with 2 lateral light stripes 
on the 8th segment. Colour rich dark rufous brown. Habi- 
tat, Little Kei Island. In the same collection. 

(b) Scarabasus, by the Chilognathiform Ametabola; 

(c) Curculio and Cerambyx, by^the Vermes ; 

(d) Coccinella and Chrysomelar&c, by the Anopluriform Ametabola ; 
\e) Meloe, &c, by the Thysanuriform Ametabola. 

Dr. Horsefield made the Butterflies to consist of 5 stirpes, or divisions, which he 
arranged in accordance with Macleay's principles, from the analogies they 
exhibit to the orders of Ametabola : 

(a) Lycaenidae, by the Vermes ; 

(b) Colias, Papilio and Doritis by the Chilognathiform Ametabola ; 

(c) Euplcea, Vanessa, Argynnis, &c, by the Chilopodiform Ametabola; 

(d) Apatura, Morpho, Hipparchia by the Thysanuriform Ametabola ; and 
(*) Erycina, Hesperia, &c, by the Anopluriform Ametabola. 

The Ornithopterus larvae come into the and division. 


O. Urvilliana, " 4 inches long; thick as the little finger 
(a vague term) ; rich brown ; spines tipped with lake ; a 
saddle-like cream coloured patch across the middle ; above 
the head a bifurcated, retractile, urticating process, pink 
in colour, is protruded when the insect is alarmed." The 
writer of this paragraph (whose name I unfortunately omit- 
ted to notice when I copied it) affirms that the larva of 
JEth. Victoria does not differ from the above description, 
except in the absence of the saddle-like mark across the 

Feeds on Anstolochias, is yellowish, with a broad dorsal 
stripe, dilated to a band in the 6th segment, and 8 rows 
of fleshy spines (W. F. Kirby, "Handbook to the order 
Lepidoptera," Vol. II., p. 255). 

P. Helena " Larva elongated, thick, slightly attenuated 
at both ends, with dorsal and lateral row of rather long 
fleshy tubercles ; the 2nd segment furnished with a horny 
plate, beneath which the nuchal retractile tentacles lie con- 

P. Pompeus, Horsfield," Cat. of Lep. Ins. in the E. Ind. 
Mus." Vol. I., pi. ii., figs. 1, ia gives coloured representa- 
tions of the larva and pupa of this species. My plate 34, 
fig. 1, portrays the larva of this species also, from a blown- 
out specimen. It has 2 light patches on each side of the 
7th and 9th segments, that on the 8th being situated 
higher up and rather narrower ; they are burnt sienna 
colour. Habitat Java, the examples are in the Tring 

O. Pegasus, PI. 34, figs. 2, 3. Lateral and dorsal views. 
2 lateral light stripes on each of the 7th and 8th segments, 
reaching to a little above the dorsal spines. Larva dark 
rufous brown ; nuchal tentacle coral red. Hab. Little Kei 
Island. In the Tring Museum. 

P. Papuensis, PI. 34, figs. 5, 6. Lateral and dorsal view 
with 2 lateral light stripes on each of the 7th and 8th seg- 
ments — those on the 7th being divided at the lower 
portion near the prolegs into a second subcircular light 
spot ; colour dark brown, and velvety. Habitat, German 
New Guinea. In the Tring Museum. 

The general view of the larvae ante, will suffice without 
any further description, as the species differ very little 
from each other in form and structure. I have in my 
plate drawn the larva slavishly from the blown-out speci- 
mens, as I thought it best under the circumstances. I re- 
gret that the lithographic stone on which the plate was 
drawn had been very coarsely and badly grained, or the 
result of my work would have been much better. 

ii. PUPiE described. 

So far as I am aware the Pupa of O. Priamus has not 
been described ; but it probably does not differ much from 
those of other species. 

O. Urvilliana. " Suspended head downwards beneath 
a growing leaf, with a silken band round the middle of the 
body. The leaf protects the larva from sun and rain ; 
but lest the leaf should be accidently blown away the 
larva, before entering upon the pupa stage, spins a short 
silken web along the lower side of the leaf stalk, and se- 
curely fastens it to the stem from which it grows." The 
perfect insect emerges in from 14 to 21 days. " It is 
necessary to suspend the pupa in a vertical position, 
otherwise the meconium or liquid in the pupa-case, of 
which there is nearly a teaspoonful,would entirely ruin the 

plumage." Guillemand, " Voyage of the Marchesa" Vol. 

As a matter of experience I have no doubt that the dis- 
coloured specimens we meet with, especially of the Pom- 
pepptera, are the results of this fluid not finding its proper 
exit, and so staining the wings, as the imago emerges. It 
is significant that the posterior wings, which are higher 
up in the pupa case, are generally stained the most. A 
general supposition is that the stains are caused by 
damp. I hardly think so. 

O. Prononus. Chrysalis amber brown, slightly angulated, 
with a blunt sub-dorsal black-tipped spine on each side 
of the abdominal segments, and some small black spines 
on the back of the thorax ; a large and almost triangular 
orange - yellow blotch upon the back of the anteror 
abdominal segments, the wing sheaths dark reddish- 
brown, with the nervures well marked." Gervase F. 
Matthew. The pupa of some of the species are attached 
to the midrib of a large leaf of a forest tree, and 
sometimes at a considerable distance from the food of 
the larva. Before suspending itself, the caterpillar takes 
care to securely fasten the stem of the leaf at its base to 
the branch of the tree with strong threads of silk. The 
silk is extruded from the spinnerets near the mouth 
of the larva. 

On plate 34 I give figures (some of them drawn from 
broken or distorted specimens of the following Pupae : — 
(a) Poseidon, figs. 7. 13, prevailing colours light amber and 
brown ochre ; the veins within the wing-sheaths very 
prominent ; the middle segments with a central series of 
dark lines which also extend nearly to the nth segment ; 
also a series of 2 black lines on each side near to the 
spiracles ; the spiracles easily seen along their tract ; and 
the insect within probably obtains air, as a necessity even 
to its pupa stage, (b) Pompeus, fig 8. Smaller than the 
preceding ; extremely angulate, amber and light ochre 
coloured ; with 6 large and long intermediate segment 
spiny processes ; the veins in their wing sheaths not 
very prominent, (c) Amphrysus, figs, g, 10. Smaller than 
the preceding, but closely resembles it ; colour very pale. 
(d) Poseidon, v. pronomus figs. 11, 12, amber and brown ochre 
colours; the abdominal spines short, (e) Poseidon v. aruana, 
Pupa large ; colours ochraceous and dark sienna brown ; 
the veins showing strongly on the wing sheaths ; the 
spiracles and all the markings very prominent. This 
example and that of figs. 9 and 10 are both in the Hope 
museum at Oxford ; all the rest are in the Tring museum. 
(f)Sch. Paradisea, fig. 14 colours ochraceous, burnt sienna, 
dark rufous brown, and black ; all the markings and parts 
very conspicuous ; but no essential difference from the 
other species in structure or appearence. 

For the guidance of students new to the investigation 
of these Pupa? the following particulars may be added : 
— the small, narrow longitudinal compartments, arranged 
like mummy bands, extending from the anterior ex- 
tremity of the body to over the breast, are the cover- 
ings of the legs, spiral tongue and antennae ; the head 
covering is a piece called the cephalotheca ; the wing 
sheaths situated outside these bands are two broad 
plates or scales, the pterotheca ; the covering of the 
thorax, the cytotheca ; the abdomen case is the gastrotheca. 
The number of segments of the chrysalis is the same 
as in the larva, and so are the spiracles or breathing 
organs. The different parts of the perfect insect can 
generally be recognised in the pupal stage. 




Length of Costa a little less than 2 times and i-4th of the interior margin. T. Trojana $ . 
xa. Length of costa a little more than 2 times that of interior margin. T. Brookeana, P. Magellanus, P. Dohertyi^ 
P. Critonoides, Hippolytus, Naias, Plateni, Lis, {males) ; T. Brookeana, P. Cerberus, Darsius, Haliphron 

xb. Length of costa 2 times that of interior margin. P. Minos, Papuensis (males) ; Hippolytus, Naias (females), 
xc. Length of costa nearly 2 times that of interior margin. P. Cellularis, Sulaensis, Neomiranda (males) ; 
T. Trojana, P. Miranda, Helena, Vandepolli, Minos (females), 
id. Length of costa 1 times and less than 40 mms. that of the interior margin. P. Helena, Vandepolli (males) ; 
Cellularis, Critonoides, Papuensis, Ruficollis, Pompeus, Riedeli, ^Eacus, Magellanus, Melpomona, 
Plato, Rhadamantus (females), 
xe. Length of costa a little over 1 and 2-5ths that of the anterior margin, P. Andromache, Nereis (females), 
xf. Length of costa a little over 1 and 3-4ths that of the interior margin, P. Melpomona $ ; 
Sumatranus <? ? ; P. Hycetus, Iris, Dohertyi, Plato (female var.) 
ig. Length of costa about 1 and 3-4ths that of interior margin, P. Flavicollis, Nereis, Cerberus, 
Miranda (males) ; Amphrysus, Cuneifera, Hephaestus, Criton, Staudingeri (females), 
xh. Length of costa a little over 1 and 2-3rds that of interior margin, P. Pompeus, Cuneifera, Plato, 
Andromache (males). 

xi. Length of costa 1 and 2-3rds that of interior margin, P. Rhadamantus, Ruficollis (males.) 
xj. Length of costa a little less than that of interior margin, P. Criton, Amphrysus, Staudingeri 

Outer margin of anterior wings only slightly arched, P. Honrathiana, Criton, Papuensis, Melpomona, Ruficollis, 
Flavicollis, Amphrysus, Sumatranus, Cuneifera, Nereis, Pompeus, Cerberus, Miranda, Andromache, Magellanus, 
Rhadamantus, Darsius, Honrathiana (males); Vandepolli, Oberthuri (females); T. Brookeana, Trojana, P. Hippolytus, 
Cellularis, Sulaensis, Plato, Naias, Plateni, Dohertyi, Iris, /Eacus, Minos (both sexes.) 
2a. Outer margin more arched, Vandepolli, Neomiranda, Carolus (males) ; Honrathiana, Criton, Felderi, Melpomona, 
Papuensis, Flavicollis, Amphrysus, Sumatranus, Cuneifera, Nereis, Hycetus, Pompeus, Cerberus, Miranda, 
Andromache, Magellanus, Hephaestus, Fasciculatus, Rhadamantus, Darsius (females) ; Critonoides, Staudingeri, 
Riedeli, Helena (both sexes). 

Anterior wings long in proportion to the posterior wings, T. Brookeana, Trojana (both sexes). 
3S. Anterior wings proportionate in length to the posterior wings, all the Pompeoptera. 

36. Anterior wings rather pointed at the apical angle, T. Brookeana, v. Eleanor, P. Vandepolli, Honrathiana, Mel- 
pomona, Rhadamantus, Dohertyi (males and some examples of the females) ; P. Criton, Nereis, Fasciculatus 
(females) ; T. Trojana, P. Hippolytus (and varieties), Critonoides, Plateni, Miranda (both sexes). 
3c. All other species <? or 2 not pointed at the apical angle. 
Anterior wings rounded at the apical angle, P. Cuneifera, Honrathiana, Rhadamantus, Darsius (all females). 

Outer margin of anterior wings somewhat concave, P. Vandepolli, Criton, Critonoides, Amphrysus (andvars.), Cerberus, 
Iris, Andromache ^Eacus, Rhadamantus (males) ; Hephaestus, Helena (females) ; P. Hippolytus (and varieties), 
Cuneifera, Magellanus (both sexes). 
5<2. Outer margin rather convex, P. Vandepolli, Naias, Plateni, Dohertyi, Andromache, yEacus, Fasciculatus (females), 
Honrathiana (both sexes). 
56. Outer margin straight, or nearly straight, all species and sexes not included in 5a (ante). 

Interior margin of anterior wings straight, or nearly so, P. Criton, Pompeus, Cerberus, Plateni, Staudingeri, Neo- 
miranda, Andromache, Sumatrana, Riedeli (males) ; T. Trojana, P. Hycetus, Fasciculatus (females) ; T. Brookeana, 
P. Hippolytus (vars), Critonoides, Naias, Cuneifer, Miranda, Rhadamantus, Helena (both sexes). 

6a. All other species or sexes with the interior margin more or less curved. 



J. The 3rd subcostal nervule emitted close to the apex of the discoidal cell of the anterior wing. P. Vandepolli, 
Honrathiana, Naias, Amphrysus, Nereis, Cerberus, Andromache, Sumatrana, Rhadamantus (males) ; Critonoides- 
var., Plateni, Staudingeri, iEacus (females) ; T. Brookeana, P. Hippolytus, and vars., Dohertyi, Iris, Fasciculatus, 
Darsius, Riedeli (both sexes) ; Helena, var. Grose-Smithi, $ . 
ja. The third subcostal nervule emitted a little below the apex of the discoidal cell of anterior wing. Andromache, 
Cuneifera (females) ; Hippolytus v. cellularis (male), 
jb. The 3rd subcostal nervule emitted a little above the apex of the cell. P. Critonoides, Staudingeri, Neomiranda 
(males) ; Hippolytus v. cellularis, Vandepolli, Criton v. Felderi, Iris, Melpemona, Hycetus, Andromache, 
Hephaestus, (females) ; Plato, Criton, Naias, Papuensis, Amphrysus and its varieties, Nereis, Pompeus, 
Rhadamantus, iEacus, Helena, Minos, Haliphron (both sexes). 

8. Anterior wings of the $ S with no sexual stigma, the genera Trogonoptera and Pompeoptera. 

9. Discoidal cell rather long and narrow, the <? and ? of T. Brookeana, Trojana, P. Naias, Iris ; the $ of 

Neomiranda, Miranda, iEacus, and Rhadamantus ; and 2 of Andromache, Sumatranus, Magellanus and 

ga. Discoidal cell broad, the $ and 2 of P. Darsius, Helena (type form), Hippolytus and vars. 

gb. The cell half the length of the wing, the $ of P. Hippolytus and vars., Plato var., Criton, Ruficollis, and 
Flavicollis, Amphrysus, Nereis, Riedeli ; the <? and 2 of Papuensis, Pompeus, Plateni, Dohertyi, Cerberus, 
Minos and Darsius ; and the 2 of Cuneifera, Hycetus, Rhadamantus, Andromache, Hephaestus, and Helena. 

10. Pseudoneura, 4 in number, and only slightly visible. T. Brookeana $ 2 , Trojana $ ; The $ of Brookeana and 
vars., P. Vandepolli, Honrathiana, Criton, Critonoides, Papuensis, Melpomona, Amphrysus and vars., Nereis, 
Pompeus, Cerberus, Plateni, Dohertyi, Iris, Staudingeri, Miranda, Neomiranda, Andromache, Magellanus, iEacus, 
Rhadamantus, Darsius, Minos, Helena and vars., Riedeli, Plato, Fasciculatus, Naias, and Haliphron. 

iofl. Pseudoneura sufficiently visible, the 2 of T. Trojana, P. Plato, Critonoides, Cuneifera, Plateni, Iris, Dohertyi, 
Fasciculatus, Staudingeri, Miranda, Andromache, Amphrysus, Helena, Darsius, and Minos. 
\ob. Pseudoneura strongly emphasised, the 2 of Magellanus, Hycetus, Pompeus, Nereis, Flavicollis, Papuensis, 
Melpomona, Naias, Criton, Honrathiana, Vandepolli, Hippolytus and vars., iEacus, Rhadamantus, and 

ioc. Pseudoneura 4 in number, the 1st and 2nd starting at the base of the cell, the 3rd at the base, and the 4th 
as a branch at half way from the base. All the species of both genera ; but in the males of some species 
the 1st pseudoneurus is nearly or quite obsolete ; the distance between each is generally equal, but unequal 
in a few, and in some the two branches 3, 4 are very close together. 


1. The Costa arcuate, and the 2 incurved near the apical angle, P. Hippolytus, and Criton. 

la. More or less strongly arcuate, but not incurved near the apical angle, all the other species of the two genera, 
and in both sexes. 

2. With obscure dark abdominal fringe, or no fringes, females of Vandepolli, Ruficollis, iEacus, Rhadamantus, Nereis, 

Pompeus, Hycetus, Magellanus, Riedeli, Darsius, Minos, and Helena ; almost entirely absent of the other 

2a. With sienna red abdominal fringe, Amphrysus and varieties, and Andromache. 
2b. With rather prominent dark abdominal fringe, all the other species of both sexes. 
2c. The fringe is generally shorter than in the genus ornithoptera. 

3. Discoidal cell elongate and rather narrow, T. Brookeana and Trojana ; P. Plato, Nereis, Riedeli, and Helena. 
3#. Cell elongate and rather broad, P. Darsius, and Plateni. 

36. Cell very broad, P. Hippolytus and vars. 

3c. Cell broad but not elongate, all other species. [The form of the cell varies in the different species.] 

4. The Pseudoneura generally invisible, but 3 or 4 in number. In Hippolytus, 3 in number, the central one originating 

at the base of the cell, and the 1st and 3rd branching in each side half way of its length. 


4<z. The pseudoneura 4 in number, the 1st originates at the base, the 2nd at the base, the 3rd as a branch of the 
2nd half way, and the 4th at the base to half the length of the cell. [A good light and careful examination is 
required to detect them at all, as they are only like almost invisible folds.] Nearly all the species. 

5. Posterior wings half the width or length of the anterior wings, the genus Trogonoptera. 

5<z. Posterior wings nearly 2-3rds the length of the anterior wings, P. Hippolytus and vars., Vandepolli and var., 
and all other species. [The proportion slightly varies in some of the species.] 


1. The sexes resemble each other partially in colour, genus Trogonoptera. 

la. Wings dark brown or black, with light adnervular rays, P. Hippolytus and vars., $ 2 , Vandepolli S ; 
Honrathiana 2 , Plato $ 2 ; Criton and Critonoides 2 , Naias 3 2 , Papuensis, Pompeus and Cerberus, 
Plateni, Dohertyi, Iris, Staudingeri, Miranda, Magellanus, Haliphron, ^Eacus, Rhadamantus and Fasciculatus, 
(the females of all of these). 

ib. Wings with faint or nearly obsolete adnervular rays, Vandepolli and var., Criton and vars., Critonoides, 
Nereis, Cerberus, Plateni, Dohertyi, Iris, Darsius, Minos, iEacus, Rhadamantus, (the males of these), 
ic. Wings with the adnervular rays green and leaf-like, T. Brookeana $ , and Trojana $ , and T. Brookeana, v. 
Eleanor 2 . 

id. Wings with the rays partly green and partly white and nearly leaf-like, Brookeana and Trojana 2 . 
le. Wings with the rays yellow, Amphrysus and vars., Neomiranda, Magellanus, (all males), 
if. Wings with no rays, Criton, Helena and vars., Pompeus, Andromache, Riedeli (all males), 
ig. Wings almost entirely white, with no rays, Andromache 2 . 
ih. Wings black with a blue gloss, Miranda <? . 


2. Wings green and brown black, T. Brookeana $ 2 . 
2a. Wings black, green and blue, Trojana <? . 

2b. Wings brown, blue, green and white, Trojana 2 . 

2c. Wings black, yellow and white, P. Hippolytus and vars., $ 2 . 

2d. Wings black and yellow, Vandepolli and var., Hephaestus, and both sexes of all other species except the 
following : 
2e. Wings black, Dohertyi $ . 

2/. Wings yellow and opalescent, Magellanus, both sexes. 

3. Wings with black suborbicular discal spots, P. Hippolytus and vars., Criton and vars., Critonoides, Naias, 

Papuensis, Melpomona, Hycetus, Hephaestus (all females). 
3a. Wings with black discal cones, Cuneifera $ , Vandepolli and var., Plato 2 (Felder's type), Helena (type) ; 
Cerberus, Pompeus, Miranda, Darsius, Minos, Riedeli, iEacus, Andromache (all females). 
36. Wings with very broad black margin occupying the greater portion of the disc, and enclosing a transverse 
row of yellow or light spots, P. Plato, Critonoides, Amphrysus and vars., Andromache, Cuneifera, (all females)^ 
3c. Wings with an extensive area of discal black and no transverse row of yellow marks, P. Plateni, Iris, 
Staudingeri, Rhadamantus (all females). 
2,d. Wings nearly entirely black, Plateni $ ; Doherty 2 , Miranda 2 . 
y. Wings entirely black, Dohertyi $ . 

3/. Wings with a transverse black band, a submarginal band of yellow marks, and an outer marginal band 
of black cones, Magellanus 2 . 
3g. Wings with yellow disc, and outer marginal more or less broad black band, Vandepolli and var., 
Criton and vars., Naias, Helena and vars., Iris, Staudingeri, Neomiranda, Darsius, Minos, 
Riedeli (all males). 

3/?. Wings with the marginal band lunate and narrow, Amphrysus, Cuneifera, Nereis, Pompeus, 
Cerberus, Miranda, Andromache, Magellanus, ^Eacus, and Rhadamantus (all males) ; Hycetus 2 . 
%i. Wings with marginal black band of lunations, very small and disconnected, Ruficollis, Flavi- 
collis and Sumatrana (all males). 

8 4 


I. Species closely resembling each other in the male sex ; (a) Nereis, Pompeus, and Cerberus ; (b) somewhat alike, 
Criton, Naias and Iris ; Staudingeri and Plato ; (c) Miranda and Andromache ; (d) iEacus and Rhadamantus ; 
(e) Darsius, Minos, Neomiranda (posterior wing), and Vandepolli. 
la. Of the female sex ; (a) Dohertyi and Nereis ; {b) iEacus, 3 , Plato, Criton, Cerberus, Pompeus, and Hephaestus. 


i. Females larger than the males, P. Hippolytus and vars., Criton, Naias, Cuneifera, Nereis, Pompeus, Plato, Cerberus, 
Plateni, Iris, Staudingeri, Miranda, Andromache, iEacus, and Rhadamantus. 
la. Males and females nearly of the same size, T. Brookeana, Trojana, P. Vandepolli and var., Critonoides, Papuensis, 
Melpomona, Amphrysus, and vars., Dohertyi, Magellanus, and Helena and some of its vars. 


1. Discoidal cell of anterior wing immaculate, T. Brookeana (both surfaces) ; Trojana (both surfaces) ; P. Criton, 

Critonoides, Papuensis, Melpomona, Nereis, Pompeus, Cerberus ; Dohertyi, Miranda, Helena, Carolus, Riedeli 
(each on both surfaces) ; Andromache, Plateni, Vandepolli, Staudingeri, Plateni, Darsius, iEacus, Rhadamantus, 
Sulaensis (upper surface only of each). 
la. Cell of 2 anterior wing immaculate, T. Brookeana, and v. Eleanor, Trojana (upper surface of each) ; P. Miranda 
(both surfaces). 

lb. Under surface of anterior wings with green and white marks, Brookeana. 
ic, With green and blue marks Trojana. 

id. With white marks, Hippolytus, Critonoides, Naias, Helena and vars., Nereis, Pompeus, Cerberus and vars., 
Plateni, Iris, Staudingeri, Miranda, Riedeli, Darsius, Minos, Rhadamantus, iEacus, Hephaestus, Magellanus. 
le. Undersurface of anterior wings almost entirely or partially white, Andromache, Dohertyi (some varieties), 

if. Undersurface of anterior wings with yellow-white, yellow and white, or yellow marks, Amphrysus and 

iff. Undersurface of anterior wings of 3 yellow, Neomiranda, Andromache, Cuneifera, Sumatranus. 

2. Undersurface of the posterior wings with the marks white and blue, Brookeana, Trojana. 

2a. With the marks black, white and yellow, Hippolytus and vars., Vandepolli and var., Critonoides. 
2b. With the colours black and yellow only, all other species and varieties, except 
2c. With yellow, and opalescent, Magellanus. 


3. Posterior wings on the undersurface white, black, and blue, Brookeana. 
3a. Brown, white and blue, Trojana. 

36. Black, white and yellow, Hippolytus and vars., Plateni. 
366. With Opalescence added, Magellanus. 

3c. Black and pale yellow, Vandepolli, Amphrysus, Hycetus. 

^d. Black and yellow, Plato, Naias, Hephaestus, Andromache, Vars. of Amphrysus, Papuensis, Pompeus, 
Cerberus, Miranda, Andromache, Darsius, Minos, ^Eacus, Rhadamantus, Hephaestus. 
3^. Black and buff, Helena, Criton, Critonoides, Nereis. 
3/. Black and rufus white, Melpomona, Dohertyi, Iris. 


3. Upper and under surfaces of posterior wings alike ; Helena and vars. 3 , Criton 3 , Critonoides 3 , Nereis 3 , 
Neomiranda 3 , Haliphron 3 ; Amphrysus and vars. 2 , Hephaestus 2 , Hycetus 2 ; Plato $ 5 , Naias 3 2 , 
Pompeus 3 2 , Cerberus 3 ? , Iris 3 S , Staudingeri 3 ? , Miranda 3 2 , Andromache 3 2 , Magellanus 3 2 , 
Darsius 3 2 , Minos 3 2 , Riedeli 3 2 , iEacus 3 2 , Rhadamantus 3 2 . 



r. Black or brown. The Genus Trogonoptera ; P. Honrathiana $ 2 ; Iris $ 2 ; Riedeli $ 2. 

ia. Black and yellow or brown, yellow and red, Hippolytus and vars. of $ ; Vandepolli, Plato, Criton, Critonoides, 
Naias, Helena and vars., Amphrysus, Cuneifera, Sumatrana (red, brown, and yellow), Nereis, Hycetus 2, 
Pompeus, Cerberus, Staudingeri, Andromache, yEacus, Rhadamantus, Haliphron, Darsius and Minos (both sexes 
of each). 

lb. Grey -white and yellow, Hippolytus and vars., ? . 

ic. Rufous white and yellow, Raficollis and Flavicollis $ 2 . 
id. Brown or black, grey-white and pale yellow, Plateni $ 2 . 
le. Brown, rufous and yellow, Dohertyi, $ 2 . 
if. Yellow, Neomiranda <? ; Miranda 3 . 
ig, Buff white and yellow, Magellanus 2 . 

ih. Anal valves of <y generally buff coloured, with a triangulate black dorsal mark uniting the anal 
with the penultimate segment. 


i. Thorax black, with red pronotal collar, and pectoral red, Trogonoptera, both sexes. 
ia. Thorax black, with no red parts, Hippolytus and varieties, both sexes. 

lb. Thorax black, with thin red pronotal collar. All species except the following : — 

ic. With yellow pronotal collar, and no red pectoral spots, Flavicollis $ 2 ; Miranda 2 . 
ice. Without yellow collar, Miranda 2 var. 

id. With white pronotal collar, and no red pectoral spots, Neomiranda $ . 
le. Entirely black, Miranda $ . 

H.— HEAD. 

I. Eyes brown, dark or light brown ; sometimes nitid ; slightly underlined white, or not at all ; moderate size, all species 
of both genera. 


I. Equal in length to the abdomen, and black, all species of both genera. 

ia. Moderately stout, curved towards the apex, and graduated in thickness, all of both Genera. 


i. All black. A pair of sharp minute spines at the end of the tibia of each leg, and at the termination of each tarsus. 
(All species.) 

ia. The measurements of the parts of the legs vary in the different species as they do in the Genera included in Vol. I. 
lb. The ungues bifid and slightly bulbose at the base ; thickly clothed with minute spines, especially on the tibia 
and tarsi ; the femur with a minute groove or depression. (All species). 


[The abdominal or interior margin of the male posterior wings with a fold or pouch, which conceals the androconia. 
This fold varies in shape in the different genera, but is almost always present in the S S of the S. American 
Ornithopterina, and always in the GeneraTrogonoptera and Pompeoptera. The margin of the wing is folded back over 
a part of the submedian area to the submedian vein — sometimes a little beyond, and forms a sort of tube for the 
contents ; a small portion of its basal part is sometimes again folded back in a short curve. The colour is always 
brown or black, and as the submedian area is generally of the same colour, in a specimen newly emerged it is difficult 
to detect the outline of this fold. The undersurface is generally lighter in colour — a nitid, rufous brown, and the 
abdominal black or brown fringe of curved hairs is attached to the edge of the fold on this surface, so that when the 
insect is resting, these hairs meet from the opposite wing, and serve as a hairy channel in which the subdorsum reposes.] 



In Plates 58 and 59 of this work I give a series of figures of the scales which serve to ornament the wings of some of 
the species included in the tribe Troides. I do not profess to have drawn all the varieties that might, by careful 
examination with the microscope, be discovered ; for although the two plates contain an aggregate of 84 figures, very 
many more might be added. The forms of the Lepidopterous scales are exceedingly numerous in all the groups. 
Lyonnet, in his posthumous memoirs, filled several quarto plates with representations of the scales found on the wings 
and body of the European goat moth Cossus Ligniperda, no two of them being precisely alike. It would be impossible 
to determine the limits of species or genera by the characteristics of these scales, so far at least as the Troides are 
concerned ; for some of the forms are common to all the genera and species, though others appear to be peculiar to 
special species. But in these genera which are provided with Androconia there are at least two types: those of 
Ornithoptera and JEiheoptera in form being quite unlike their analogues in Trogonopiera and Pompeoptera. In the first two 
genera they consist of a multitude of exceedingly minute scales of 2 or 3 forms situated on the pupas-form <? stigma of 
the anterior wings (see pi. 58, figs. 36), while in the latter they consist of an immense aggregation of long silky hairs 
of almost immeasurable tenuity, contained in a fold or pouch of the abdominal margin of the wing. In Schoenbergia 
and Drurya this character of scale appears to be absent, though I have no doubt some scales or hairs may ultimately 
be found, which serve a similar purpose in the economy of the insect. 

The general scales are attached to the membranous surface of the wing by the slender stem or peduncle at their base ; 
in some cases, perhaps in all, this peduncle throws out delicate rootlets, by which the peduncle is probably rendered 
more secure in its insertion into the minute indent of the membrane. Contrary to the popular idea these scales are 
generally so firmly fixed in position, that it is by no means an easy task to denude the membrance of even a few scales. 
This, at any rate, is true of many of the diurnal lepidoptera, though it is often otherwise in some of the Heterocerous 

The scales may almost be divided into groups, for some are quite oval, or suboval, others are wedge-shape, leaf- 
like, petal-shaped, or like fish scales ; often dentate at the apex, with 2 to 7 or even more dental notches — these notches 
generally varying in length and width in the same scale. Other scales are very narrow and relatively long. They are 
formed always of two lamellae — sometimes (perhaps ?) of three. But in Troides I cannot satisfy myself of the existence of 
more than two. They are always granulated or striated on one or both surfaces — sometimes quite from their base ; but 
often the basal and lateral portions for a short distance are simply transparent, from the absence of striae. On many 
of the scales there are cross striae ; the striae are generally parallel to each other ; sometimes these are duplicated and 
run the entire length of the scale ; or they form rows of oval or rounded dots. Their colours vary greatly when micro- 
scopically examined, even those taken from the black areas of the wing : for some may be blue, violet or green ; and I 
can find no absolutely black scales— though many were very dark and almost opaque — caused by the closeness and 
immense number of their granulations and striae. Between the striae are many pigment cells ; but the way the 
sculpturing of the scales is arranged decides whether they shall give off prismatic colours or not. Some of the scales 
from golden yellow surfaces are warm green or rosy pink ; and others from green or brown areas are nearly white and 
very diaphanous. 

Dr. F. Urech, in Zool. Anzeig, vol. 15, pages 305-6 (1892), divides the scales of the Lepidoptera into 5 classes, 
according to the various phenomena that they exhibit: — -i. Scales only containing chemical colouring matters, and 
which exhibit no interference colours, found on the wings of the Vanessas and other species. 2. Scales which contain 
chemical colouring, and also interference colours, found on the wings of the Vanessas and other species. 3. Scales 
which exhibit interference colours on the wings, and possess also colouring matters which are soluble in water, as in the 
Lyr-cEnida;. 4. Scales in which the colours are due to an underlying layer, as in the blue and violet scales of some 
Vanessas. 5. Variously coloured overlying scales which exhibit mixed colours, as in Papilio (and some of the 

These 5 classes do not really include those connected with the sexual markings, which are generally found to be scent 
scales, intended either to attract the other sex or to repell undesirable visitors or foes ; for as Burmeister and E. Haase 
have shewn, there is what they call a tire-spur (Schienensporn) which is sometimes found on the antennae — a secondary 
sexual character, intended to aid attraction. In it is a gland which appears to moisten the olfactory organ in the 
antennas. In specially well developed feelers of the $ , and on the plump wingless females of some of the Geometrae, 
we are told it is absent, and only occurs in the Heterocera when both sexes are capable of flight. 


These differ materially from those found on the pupseform or other sexual marks, and unlike the latter are not 
restricted to the male sex. In the Ornithoptera a peculiar form of wing is associated with the presence of these scales ; 
and the fragrance is scattered by long mobile tufts of scale hairs, or rubbed off by the so-called rubbing spots 
(Reibeflecks) . In the Heterocerous Genus Hypsa other hard scales appear to produce a shrill sound. E. Haase speaks 
of the scent organs, and remarks that they are defensively repellant, as in other Genera. They are sometimes scattered 
on the wings, but a local arrangement is more common. The positions which they occupy among the Diurnal and 
Heterocerous Lepidoptera are very varied, as I have shewn in Vol. I of this work, thus : — 

They are situated on the upper surface of the anterior wings of the Ulysses and Paris groups of Papilios as plumiform 
stripes, parallel to some of the lower veins; also in Peranthus, and Argynnis ; on the undersurface in the beautiful 
Bizones and Celerena ; often on the posterior wings only — in Erebus and Nyctipao on the costal margin of the posterior 
wings, also in Argiva and Patula in a fold ; on the upper side of the wing in Eronia, Ideopsis, Danais, Amathusia, Ragadia, 
&c. ; on the abdominal marginal area in Morpho ; on the lower surface in Plecoptera ; in a costal fold of the anterior 
wings in some, of the Lyccznidce and Hesperiidce, and in a large aggregated mass on the femur and tibia of some of the 
Erebidtz, and sometimes near the apex of the antennae of some Pyralidce ; on the thorax of Chcerocampa ; on the abdomen 
in some of the Sphingidcs and Agaristidce, and also some Noctuse. In almost all Danaidcs, &c, they lie near the genital 
aperture ; on the palpi in Berhda and some of the lovely Pyralidas, or on the ist pair of feet, also on the appendages in 
Ismene of the Hesperid butterflies, Caprila, and Hyblcea among the noctuid moths, &c. The lines or striae on 
some of the wing scales are often one-ioo,oooth of an inch thick; and Royston-Pigott says, "they are apparantly a 
kind of flattened hairs, most of which are hollow, and similarly endowed with molecules containing an oily sap." If 
this be so, it will go far to explain why certain species of Lepidoptera fade so terribly when exposed to the light, by the 
chemical destruction of this oily material. Those species with colour-interference scales do not suffer much from this 

As I have shewn above, the scales of the Ornithoptera alone are so varied in form, that it would be difficult to 
exhaust their possibilies ; to figure and describe all their variations in the Lepidoptera would require the united 
lifetimes of several students. Dr. H. Burmeister, as the result of his study of the scales of the species of Castnia, which 
are the largest of any insect, shows that they do not enclose any third membrane, but are empty, — the two membranes 
of which they are composed do not touch each other, there being a certain space between them. The coloured ones 
contain a coloured fluid at the commencement of the scale, which dies little by little by the action of the air, and leaves 
a deposit on the inner surface of the two membranes, this fluid being finally replaced by the air entering through the 
membranes, which remain soft for a short time after the formation of the scale. 

The colouring matter seems to be principally attached to the upper membrane, rendering it opaque, while the lower 
one is more transparent from the absence or partial absence of the deposit. The longitudinal strias belong entirely to 
the upper membrane of the scales, and are wanting in the lower. In the Ornithoptera I do not find that this rule 
holds good ; for when examining broken scales, especially from the black areas of the wings, it is possible to easily 
detect the same striss on the lower membrane ; and some of them can be seen through the upper membrane. The 
breadth of the spaces between the lines is greater than that of the lines themselves. The lines are generally of equal 
breadth, but sometimes a thick and thin line will alternate ; in some of the Ornithoptera these lines are duplicated 
in both thicknesses, as are the latitudinal or transverse lines. The thick lines correspond to the teeth or indentations 
of the margin (somewhat as the curved ribs of the Pecten shells of the Mollusca do), and the thin lines to the intervals 
between them. The transverse lines which appear to divide the longitudinal into squares or trellis work are really 
produced by the striae on the lower membrane showing through the upper one. Hence have originated many errors in 
the appreciation of the structure of the scales. Dr. Royston-Pigott in investigating with a power of 3,000 the striated 
surfaces of these scales, decided that though appearing approximately, they are really covered with villi, chenille or 
velvet pile, teminating in a spherule ! the recognised object of these striae, regarded as corrugations, being to give 
strength to a most delicate tissue, which are again supported by cross striae. " Upon the latter," he said, " are villi 
erected upon them by twos and threes, and summits consisting of a refracting spherule." Later investigations however 
have quite invalidated his theory, which was based on the study only of the scales of Vanessa Atalanta, The Red 

For a fuller study of this subject, reference may be made to the following bibliography: — 

Burmeister, " Physical Description of the Argentine Republic," Vol. V. Lepidopteres, part 1, page 21 (1878). 


Royston-Pigott, " Note on the structure of Butterflies' Scales," English Mechanic, Vol. xL, p. 245 (1884). 
E. Haase, Ber. 59 Versammlg. Deutsch. Naturforscher u. Aerzte Berlin." XIX. p. 510 (1886). 
E. Haase, " Bull. Soc. Ital. xxii., pp. 138-143 (i8gi). 

Von. Reichenau, "Journal of the Royal Microscopic Society, hi., p. 938 (1880). 

K. Fiigner, " Entomol. Nachrichten," vi. pp. 166, 7 (1880). 

Dr. Royston-Pigott, " Proc. Royal Soc," Vol. xxxi., pp. 505, 506 (1881). 

Watson, " On the scales of Battledore Butterflies " in The. Monthly Microscopical Journal, Vol. ii., pp. 73, 314. 
Dr. Maddox, " On the General and Particular Construction of the scales of some of the Lepidoptera," in the same 
Journal, Vol. v. p. 247. 

Dr. Anthony " On the markings on the Battledore Scales of some of the Lepidoptera," the same work, Vol. vii. 
pp. 1, 250. 

Dr. Carpenter, " The Microscope and its Revelations," 5th Edition, pp. 692-702 (1875). 

In the microscopic study of these scales it will be advisable to examine them chiefly with eomparatively low powers. 
With good lighting a i-3rd or a 4-ioths objective will give a lot of information that is trustworthy ; while in the use of 
the higher powers, the possibility and even certainty of error, increases with every additional increase of attempted 
definition, even in the hands of the greatest experts, as they themselves will readily acknowledge. 

In the Plates illustrating this subject, I have contented myself with doing little more than drawing the outlines of the 
various scales belonging to the Ornithoptera — merely indicating in some figs, the nature of the detail. To have given 
it in full in every case would have needed that the figures should be engraved on steel, to do them justice. My object 
has been chiefly to give accurate sketches of the forms, without reference to scale. Very many more might have been 
added, for the amount of variation in form is an unknown quantity. 















Genus Pompeoptera, from near the base of the anterior wing. 
,, ,, S from the same area. 

,, ,, Minos, 3- Basal short hair scale. 

,, iEtheoptera Victorian ? , var. white scale. 

Black scales of $ Ornithopterina. 

Red scales of the same. 

Genus Pompeoptera ? , black scale. 

Genus Schoenbergia. Green scale of $ anterior wing. 

„ „ Yellow scale of $ posterior wing, the striation is very minute, and only on the upper 


Pompeoptera Helena, ? , black scale. 

Genus Pompeoptera $ , yellow scale of posterior wing. 

,, ,, $ , yellow scale of posterior wing. 

Sch. Goliath, $ , blue-green or orange-red scale. 

Ornithoptera Obiensis, $ a blue-green scale from the undersurface of the posterior wing. 

Scale of Papilio Machaon, $ . 

O. Obiensis $ , green scale of undersurface. 

Papilio Eurybates, Gray <? ; one of the Ornithopterina, anterior wing, a blue scale. 

Sch. Goliath $ , yellow and green scale. 

Papilio Eurybates $ , red scale. 

Genus Pompeus, black abdominal scale. 

Ornithoptera Aruana, S , green scale. 

,, ,, S , steel-blue scale. 

25. Ornithoptera Aruana, 2 , yellow scale. 

26. ,, ,, $ , steel-blue scale. 

27. Papilio Eurybates, $ , red scale. 

28. " ^ ?, „ 
28a. „ black scale on the $ . 

29. O. Aruana, $ , black thoracic scale. 

30. Genus Pompeoptera, <? , basal hair scale, black. 

31. O. Aruana, $ , from the thorax, black. 

32. ,, ,, from the thorax, green. 

33. ,, „ Abdominal scale. 

34. Trogonoptera Brookeana, $ . 

35. Green scale from the thorax of O. Aruana $ . 

36. Scales from the Pupseform stigma of Aruana. 

37. Trogonoptera Brookeana <? , black twisted scale. 

• 38) 39> 4°- T. Brookeana, from the base of the thorax. 

41, 42, 43. O. Aruana <? , rufous scales from the undersurface of the abdominal margin. 

44. Androconia scale-hairs from the abdominal fold or pouch of the $ of P. Minos. 

These hair-scales have a diameter many times less than that of a spider's web. Indeed as the web of 
some spiders is composed of a large number of silky threads, excerted at first in a fluid state through 
a multitude of minute tubes situated on the lower surface of the spinnerets, which unite, before their 
consolidation, to form a single thread, each strand being of extreme tenuity ; these Androconian 
hair-scales may be considered as having a diameter only equal to a very small number of the strands 
which, by their union, go to form the web of the spider. 

PLATE 59. 

1. Hair-scale from the thorax of the Genus Ornithoptera. 

2. P. Helena, 2 , brown elongate scale from the thorax. The majority of the forms differ little from this, 

but others are willow-leaf shape, and some with 2 or 3 dentations at the broad end. 
4. P. Cerberus, ? , yellow scale. Striae duplicated and alternated with lines of dots. 

3. 5, 16. P. Helena, <? , black wing-scales. 

6. P. Cerberus, $ , yellow wing-scale. 

7. Genus Papilio, blue scale of <? anterior wing. This figure is only intended for comparison with the others. 

8. Black abdominal scale of Genus Pompeoptera. 

g. P. Cerberus 2 , black. Anterior wing, undersurface. 

10. O. Obiensis <? , green-blue scale, undersurface of anterior wing. 

11. P. Cerberus, ? , black scale of posterior wing. 

12 or 13. Genus Pompeoptera $ or 2 , black wing scale ; common to both sexes. 

14. Genus Pompeoptera, $ or 2 yellow wing scales ; common to both sexes. 

15. P. Minos, 2 , anterior wing, black scale. 

17. ^Etheoptera Victorise 2 , white scale. 

18. O. Obiensis, <? , blue scale from posterior wing. 

19. 20, 21. P. Helena $ , thoracic hair scales. The forms vary, and some are 2-dentate or 3-dentate at the 

the broad end. They are striated and black. 

22. Pompeoptera Darsius, $ and 2 , long white scale. 

23, 24, 28. Schoenbergia Titan, $ , blue, black or green forms : each with the same colours. 

25. P. Minos, <? or 2 , posterior wing, yellow scale. 

26. P. Darsius, yellow scale of $ or 2 posterior wing. 

27. P. Minos $ or 2 yellow scale from the abdomen. 

29. P. Minos, 2 , black scale from undersurface of anterior wing. 

30. ^Etheoptera Victorias, 2 , white scale. 

31. Genus Pompeoptera, light scale, from the abdominal margin of the 2 . 

32. O. Obiensis, violet scale from near the base of the anterior wing. 


,, 33. P. iEacus, <? , black scale. 

,, 34. P. Darsius, 2 , yellow scale. 

,, 35. yEtheoptera Victoria? <? , a deep orange-red scale, striae obscure, but indicated in the figure. 

,, 36. P. Helena, S , black scale, anterior wing. 

,, 37. P. Darsius, $ , yellow scale, from posterior wing. 

„ 38. O. Poseidon 2 , white scale. 

,, 39. P. Helena, $ anterior wing black scale, dark double striae, with white dots between. 

,, 40. .ZEtheoptera Victorias, $ , green scale of sub-costal band. 

In the foregoing portions of this article I have only briefly, and I am sure very imperfectly, dealt with the 
scales of the Non-Acra?oid Ornithoptera ; the following list is concerned with those of the Genus Drurya, which in 
Vol. 1. of this monograph precedes the other Genera ; and it will at once be seen that there is no great difference 
between the forms of Drurya and those of the other groups, though there is probably as great a diversity of them. 
The former are all Oriental species, the latter are West African, in which the two sexes resemble each other, 
differing but little, except in size, and of which the two species known at present are quite acraeoid in appearance. 


The colours of the insect white, black, or brown, creamy-white, or yellow, Indian red, and a little blue. 

Figs, I, 2, 3, India-red scales with a blue tint, as seen under the microscope; from the upper surface of the 
anterior wing. 

Fig 4. resembles No, 2, except in Indentation. The striae not duplicated, but with transverse dots or lines. 
Figs. 5, 6, 7, red scales. 

,, 8, to 16, scales black, from near the base of the anterior wings. 
Fig. 17, hair-like scale from the same area, black. 

,, 18, blue scale from anterior wing, undersurface. 

,, 12, 20, white, from the undersurface. 

,, 21, 26, creamy-white or yellow-white from the undersurface. 

,, 22, to 25, cream-coloured abdominal scales near the base of the abdomen. 

,, 27, 28, from the abdomen, creamy-white. 



The colours of the insect green-blue, brown-red and Venetian red, and black. 

Figs. 29, 30, two dissimilar red scales from the posterior wings. 

,, 31, 32, blue green, near the base of the anterior wing ; 32 is foreshortened. 

,, 33, from the same position, blue green, 

„ 34, to 36, black. 

„ 37, 38, red. 

,, 39, a basal red hair scale ; 40, 41, from the same position, but black. 

,, 42, dentate scale, orange, from the abdomen, some of this class have 4 longer or 6 broader dentations. 

,, 43, 44, black thoracic scales ; but many are like No. 39. 

,, 45, to 47, green blue, delicately striated ; striae duplicated, with alternate dotted lines. 

,, 48, short hair-like blue scale, from near the abdominal margin. 

,, 49, to 52, red discal scales. 

, , 53, 54, orange scales from the abdomen. 

Mr. Joseph Beck, in 1879 examined a large number of the scales of Lepidoptera, and he stated that he found 
invariably that the striae (which he called corrugations) were situated only on the underside of the scale, or that nearest 
to the body of the insect. Nothwithstanding this statement, I have seen what appears to me unmistakable evidence 
that some of the darker scales of the Ornithoptera are striated on both surfaces. If so, then the longitudinal lines 
cannot be corrugations or folds of the membrane. Certainly it would be possible, but not probable. 


The earliest mention or description of a species of Troides (or Ornithoptera) was published by Vicentius, 
" Mus. p. 10," in 1719. This species was 0. Priamus, which I have taken as the type of the Genus Ornithoptera; 
the habitat was given as Amboina. Previous to this date, although the species must have been known to the Dutch 
naturalists at a much earlier period, as so large and splendid an insect would be very sure to have attracted attention, 
it does not appear to have been described or alluded to by the pre-Linnaean Entomologists. The next reference to 
Priamus was Musei, " Imp. Petr.," vol. i., p. 664, n. g, in 1742. In 1745 the $ was alluded to by Aubenton, " Planch 
Enlum." text, p. 45 ; in 1759 by Linnaeus, " Syst. Nat.," Edition x., page 458, note 1 ; and in 1765 by Seba, 
" Thesaurus" iv., p. 54, plate 44, with 2 figures of the ? (figs. 22, 23) ; in each author Amboina is again spoken of as 
the home of the species. From this date we may proceed in a systematic manner. 

1719. Papilio Eques Pompeus, Madame Merian, "Insects of Surinam," Plate 72, figured Pompeus in mistake 
of its locality. 

1753. P. E. Trojanus Panthous (the 2 of Pompeoptera Hippolytus) ; Linnaeus, " Systema Naturae," Edition ix., 
page 461, note 16. 

1758. P. E. Panthous (as the 2 of Priamus) by Linnaeus, " Systema Naturae," Edit, x., page 451, note 1. 
1758. P. E. Priamus, Linnaeus, "Amoenitates Academicae," vol. v., plate 3, fig. 203 (the $ .) 

1758. P. E. Trojanus Panthous, Linnaeus, "Systema Naturae," Edition x., page 461, note 16 (the 2 of 

Pompeoptera Hippolytus) . 
1764. P. E. Panthous Clerck, " Icones Insectorum," ii., text 19 (the 2 of Priamus). 

1764. P. E. Trojanus Panthous, Linnaeus, " Musei Ludovicis Ulricis," p. 195, n. 14 (the 2 of P. Hippolytus). 
1764. P. E. T. Helena, Clerck, "Icones Insectorum," vol. ii., plate 22, fig. 1 (the 3). 

1764. P. E. T. Helena, Linnaeus, "Musei Ludovicis Ulricis," page 199, note 18 (the S of Hippolytus). 

1765. P. Remus Seba, Mas. 4, plate 46, pages 56, 57, figs. 11, 12, 19, 20 (the ? of Hippolytus). 
1765. P. Hippolytus, Seba, " Thesaurus " vol. iv., p. 55, plate 45, figs. 17-20. 

1767. P. Eques Priamus, Linnaeus, " Systema Naturae," Edit, xii., p. 744, n. 1 (the <? of Priamus). 
1767. P. E. Priamus, Beckmann, " Anfangsgrund," p. 105, n. 1 (the $ of Priamus). 

1767. P. E. Trojanus Helena, Houttuyn, " Naturl. Hist." vol. i., (ii.), page 20, note 18 (the $ of Priamus). 
1767. P. E. Panthous, Houttuyn, " Naturl. Hist." vol. 1., (ii.), p. 199, n. 16 (the 2 of Priamus). 
1767. P. E. T. Helena, Linnaeus, "Systema Naturae," Edition xii., page 748, note 19 (the <? of Hippolytus). 
1767. P. E. T. Helena, Miiller, " Natursgeschichte," vol. L, page 571, note 18 (the $ of Hippolytus). 

1774. P. E. T. Panthous, Miiller, Natursgeschichte., vol. i., p. 571, n. 17 (a 2 of Priamus.) 

1775. P. E. Panthous, Fabricius, "Systema Entomologiae," p. 448, n. 25 (the 2 of Priamus). 
1775. P. E. Priamus, Cramer, " Papillons Exotique," vol. i, plate 23, figs. A.B. (the <?). 

1775. P. E. Trojanus Helena, Fabricius "Systema Entomologiae," page 449, note 28 (the $ of Hippolytus). 

1775. P. Pompeus, Cramer, "Papillons Exotique," vol. i., plate 25, fig. A. (the <?). 

1775. P. Hippolytus, Cramer, " Papillons Exotique," vol. i, plate 10, figs. A.B., pi. 11, A.B. 

1777. P. Remus, Fabricius, " Genera Insectorum," p. 250 (the 2 of Hippolytus). 

1777. P. Eques Panthous, Cramer, " Papillons Exotique," vol. ii., p. 39, plate 123, fig. A; pi. 124, fig. A. (the 2 of 

1779. P. E. Trojanus Helena, Helena, J.A.E. Goeze, " Beitrage zur Entomologiae," vol. iii. (i.), page 38, note 

19 (the $ of Hippolytus.) 
1779. P. E. T. Minos, Cramer, "Papillons Exotique," vol. iii., page 4, plate 195, fig. A. (the 2). 
1779. P. Remus, Cramer, " Papillons Exotique," vol. ii., plates 135a, 136a (the 2 of Hippolytus). 
1779. P. Eques Trojanus Panthous, J.A.E., Goeze, " Beitrage zur Entomologie," vol. iii. (1), p. 37, n. 17 (the 2 

of Priamus) . 

1 78 1. P. E. T. Astenous, J. C. Fabricius, " Species Insectorum," vol. ii., page 10, note 38 (the 2 of Minos). 
1781. P. E. Panthous, J. C. Fabricius, "Species Insectorum," vol. ii., p. 9, n. 36 (the 2 of Priamus). 



1 78 1. P. E. Trojanus Helena, J. C. Fabricius, "Species Insectorum," vol. ii., p. 10, n. 39 (the 2 of Priamns). 

1782. P. E. Panthous, Cramer, " Papillons Exotique," vol. iv., plate 386, A.B. (is Priamus 2.) 
1782. P. Antimachus, Drury, " Illustrations of Exotic Entomology," vol. iii., plate 1. 

1782. P. Eqties Trojanus Amphrysus, Cramer, " Papillons Exotique," vol. iii., p. 43, plate 219, fig. A. (the 3). 
1782. P. E. T. Minos, Jablonsky and Herbst, " Natursgeschichte Schmetterlinge," vol. i., page 206, note 7, plate 
4, fig. 2 (the 2 ). 

1782. P. E. Hippolytus, Cramer, " Papillons Exotique," vol. iv., pi. 386, figs. A.B. (the true Hippolytus). 

1782. P. E. Priamus, Blumenbach, " Handbiich " (is Priamus). 

1783. P. E. Panthous, Jablonsky, " Natursgeschichte Schmetterlinge," vol. i., p. 207, n. 8, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2 (the 2 

of Priamus). 

1783. P. E. Trojanus Helena, Jablonsky, " Natursgeschichte Schmetterlinge," (Natural History of Butterflies), 

vol. i., p. 203, n. 5, pi. 3, f. 2 (the 3 of Helena.) 

1784. P. E. Trojanus Amphrysus, Jablonsky," " Natursgeschichte Schmetterlinge " vol. i., page 197, note 2, 

plate 1, fig. 3 (the 3). 

1784. ? P. Remus, J. F. W. Herbst, " Archives des Insects Geschichte," (Records of Insect History), Papilio, plate 3, 
fig. 1 (is Hippolytus ? ) . 

1784. P. Eques Priamus, Esper, " Auslandisch Schmetterlinge" (Exotic Butterflies) vol. 11, pi. 1, f. 1 (is Priamus). 

1785. P. Antimachus, Esper, " Auslandisch Schmetterlinge," plate 22, fig. 2. 

1785-1798. P. Eques Trojanus Pompeus, Esper, "Auslandisch Schmetterlinge," plate 24, fig. 2 (the 2). 

1786. P. Eques T. Helena, Esper, "Auslandisch Schmetterlinge," p. 43, pi. g, fig. 2 (the 3 of Helena). 

1786. P. E. Priamus, Esper, "Auslandisch Schmetterlinge," page 45, note 17, plate 10 (the 2 of Priamus). 

1787. P. E. Trojanus Amphrysus, J. C. Fabricius, "Mantissa Insectorum," vol. ii., page 3, note 23 (the 3). 
1787. P. E. T. Helena, J. C. Fabricius, " Mantissa Insectorum" vol. ii, p. 5, n. 42 (the 3 of Helena). 

1790. P. E. T. Astenous, Gmelin, " Systema Naturae," vol. i. (5), page 2234, note 297 (the 2 of Minos). 
1790. P. E. T. Helena, Gmelin, " Systema Naturae," vol. i. (5), p. 2234, n - I 9 (the 3 of Amphrysus). 
1790. P. E. T. Amphrysus, Gmelin, "Systema Naturae," vol. i. (5), page 2230, note 287 (the S). 

1792. P. E. T. Amphrysus, Esper, "Auslandisch Schmetterlinge," page 133, note 59, plate 34, fig. 1 (the 3). 
I 793- P« Antimachus, Fabricius, " Systema Entomologiae," vol. iii., part 1, page 11, note 31. 

I 793- P* Eques Trojanus Helena, J. C. Fabricius, "Systema Entomologiae," vol. iii. (1), p. 19, n. 59 (the $ of 
Pompeus). Ibid, p. 18, n. 56 (the 2 of Priamus). 

1793. P. E. T. Amphrysus, J. C. Fabricius " Systema Entomologise," vol. iii. (1), page 11, note 33 (the <?). 
1793. P. E. T. Astenous, J. C. Fabricius, " Systema Entomologiae," vol. iii. (1), page 19, note 58 (the 2 of Pompeus, 

also Ibid to Pompeus). 
1800. P. Priamus, Donovan, "Insects of India," page 16 (the 3). 

1800. P. Heliacon, Donovan, " Insects of India," plate 18, fig. 1 (probably refers to Cerberus, not Pompeus). 
1804. P. Priamus, C. P. Thunberg, " Musei Naturae Upsala," (the Upsala Museum of Nature), vol. xxiii., page 9. 
1806. P. Priamus, Turton, " System of Nature," vol. iii., page 10 (2), plate 65. 
1806. P. Priamus, Shaw, " General Zoology," vol. vi., page 207, plate 65. 

1815. P. Priamus, var. Quoy et Gaimard, " Voyage de' 1 Uran," page 557, plate 83, fig. 3 (the 3 of 0. Poseidon). 

1816. TROIDES, Genus, Hubner, " Verzeichniss bekannt Schmetterlinge" (List of Known Butterflies) page 87. 

1816. T. Priamus, Hubner, "Verzeichniss bekannt Schmetterlinge," page 88, note 919 (the 3 of Priamus). 

1816. T. Priamus, Hubner, " Sammlung Exotische Schmetterlinge " (Collection of Exotic Butterflies), vol. ii., plate 

1 1 6-1 17 (the 3 and 2 of Priamus). 
1816. T. Astenous, Hubner, " Verzeichniss bekannt Schmetterlinge," page 88, note 933 (the 3 of Pompeus). 
1816. Papilio Amphimedon, Cramer, or Troides Amphimedon, Hubner, " Verzeichniss bekannt Schmetterlinge," 

page 88, note 920 (the 2 of Helena). 
1816. Troides Helena, Hubner, ibid, page 88, note g20 (the 3). 

1816. T. Amphrysus, Hubner, " Verzeichniss bekannt Schmetterlinge," page 88, note 923 (the 3 of Amphrysus). 
1819. P. Amphrysus, var., Godart, "Encyclopedie Methodique," vol. ix., page 27, note 7 {Pompeus form of 3). 
1819. P. Remus, Godart, " Encyclopedie Methodique," vol. ix., page 26, note 3 (the Hippolytus form). 
1819. P. Panthous, Godart, " Encyclopedie Methodique, vol. ix., page 25, note 2 (the 2 of Priamus). 
1819. P. Hellen, Godart, page 27, note 6 (1 c.) (refers to Helena). 

1819. P. Antimachus, Godart, " Encyclopedie Methodique," vol. ix., page 28, note 8. 

1821. P. Astenous, Kotzebue, " Reise," vol. iii., page 205, plate 4, figs. 6a, 6b, 6c (the 3 and 2 of Rhadamantus, 


1825. P. Antimachus, Donovan, " Natural History Repository," vol. iii., plates 100-101. 

1828. P. Priam us, Thon, " Entomologie Archipel," page 124 (the <?). 

1828. P. Priamus, var, Thon, "Archives de Entomologie," page 125 (the <? of Poseidon). 

1829. P. Urvilliana, Guerin, " Voyage de la Coquille," plate 13, figs. 1-2. 

1832. P. Priamus, Boisduval, " Voyage de 1' Astrolabe," plate 4, figs. 1-2 (a 2 of the var. Archideus). 

1832. ORN1THOPTERA, (Genus), Boisduval, " Faune de 1' oceanie," (deals with the animal life of the Eastern 
Archipelagos), plate 4, fig. 1. 

1832. ORNITHOPTERA [Genus), Boisduval " Voyage de V Astrolabe," Lepidopteres, page 33. 

1832. O. Priamus, Boisduval, " Voyage de V Astrolabe, Lepidopteres," page 33, note 1 (the <?). 
1835. O. Rhadamantus, Lucas, "Lepidopteres Exotique," page 5 (S- and 2 of the species). 

1835. O. Amphrysius, Lucas, " Lepidopteres Exotique," plate 2, fig. 1, " lisez rhadamantus au lieu d' Amphrisius" 

Lucas (the 2 and var. a of Rhadamantus). 

1833. AMPHRISIUS, Genus, Swainson, " Zoological Illustrations of Insects," 2nd series, plate 98. 

1833. A. Nymphalides, Swainson, " Zoological Illustrations of Insects," vol. ii., plate 98 (is the species Pompeus). 

1836. P. Priamus, Boisduval, " Species General des Lepidopteres," vol. i., page 174 (a 2 of the variety Archideus). 
1836. Ornithoptera Urvilliana, Boisduval, " Species General," vol. i., page 175, note 2, plate 17, fig. 1 (in " Suites 

a Buffon, Lepidopteres.") 

1836. 0. Pompeus Heliacon, Boisduval, "Species General Lepidopteres," page 18 (is Pompeus or Cerberus ?), 
Boisduval regarded Pompeus as a Synonym of Heliacon. 

1836. 0. Remus, Boisduval, " Species General Lepidopteres," page 176, note 3 (is Hippolytus). 

1836. O. Heliacon, Boisduval, "Species General Lepidopteres," vol. i,, page 178, note 7 ( 2 of Minos). 

1836. O. Rhadamanthus, Boisduval, " Species General Lepidopteres," vol. i., page 180, note 8 (not the <? , and 2 
var. a of Rhadamantus, Lucas, but of 0. JEacus of Felder), Rothschild, in his " Revision of the Eastern 
Papilionidse, Novitates Zoologicse," vol. ii., remarks Boisduval's Rhadamanthus is a composite species of 
a Philippine Island $ , and the 2 of the Indo-Chinese representative species ; and var. a is the proper 2 of 
the Philippine $ ; so the name of Rhadamanthus, Boisduval, was used for the Indo-Chinese, and not for the 
Philippine one. Gray first made the mistake, and others have followed." 

1836. Papilio Antimachus, Boisduval, " Species General Lepidopteres," page 188, note 1. 

1836. ORNITHOPTERUS, J. O. Westwood, "Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects," vol. ii., page 
348 (not characterised as a Genus). 

1836. ORNITHOPTERA (Genus), Boisduval, " Species General Lepidopteres," vol. i., page 173. 

1836. O. Amphrysius, Boisduval, " Species General Lepidopteres," vol. i., page 178, note 6, plate ib, fig 1, the 
$ , (but the two sexes are described). 

1836. O. Haliphron, Boisduval, " Species General Lepidopteres," vol. i., page 181, note 9 (the $). 

1837. Papilio Priamus, Thon, " Natursgeschichte Schmetterlinge," (Natural History of Butterflies), page 16. 
1837. P. Remus, Duncan, " Foreign Butterflies," page 92, plate 1, fig. 2 (is Hippolytus). 

1837. P. Remus, Westwood, Edit, of Drury's " Illustrations of Exotic Entomology," vol. iii. page 1, plate 1. 

1841. Ornithoptera Tithonus, De Haan, " Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche 
overzeeche Bezeltingen," page 18, plate 1, fig. 1 (the $). This work treats of the Natural History of the 
Netherland Transmarine Colonies, or Netherland Indies as they are called now. 

1841. O. Priamus, Blanchard, " Histoire Naturelle des Insects," p. 420, note 1 (the <? of Priamus.) 

1845. O. Amphimedon, Doubleday, " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 4, note 6, plate 1, fig. 2 (the $ 

of Darsius). 

1846. O. Tithonus, E. Doubleday, " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," page 4, note 4 (the $ ). 

1846. ORNITHOPTERA, (Genus), Doubleday and Hewitson, " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 5. 

1846. O. Urvilliana, Doubleday and Hewitson, " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 42. 
1846. O. Panthous, Doubleday, Westwood and Hewitson, " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 4, note 

5 (is Hippolytus of both sexes). 
1846. 0. Poseidon, Doubleday Westwood and Hewitson," Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. i.,page 43. 

9 6 

1846. Ornithoptera Rhadamanthus, Doubleday, Westwood and Hewitson, " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," 

vol. i., page 4, note 10 (the two sexes of JEacus of Felder). 
1846. O. Amphrysius, Doubleday, Westwood, and Hewitson, " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 4, 

note 8 (is Amphrysus). 

1846. O. Priamus, Doubleday, Westwood and Hewitson," Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 4, note I 

(the S and 2 .) 

1847. O. Poseidon, Doubleday, " Annals and Magazine of Natural History," vol. xix., page 173. 

1848. O. Poseidon, Westwood, " Cabinet of Oriental Entomology," plate 11 (the $), plate 14 (the 2). 

1849. O. Urvilliana, D'Orbigny, " Dictionaire d'Histoire Naturelle, Atlas Zoologique," vol. ii., plate 1. 

1852. O. Darsius, Gray, " Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 5, note 11 (the 

two sexes) . 

1852. O. Pronomus, Gray, "Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 2, note 3, 

plate 1, figs. 1, 2 (var. of Poseidon). 
1852. O. Archideus, G. R. Gray, " Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 3, note 

4 (variety of Poseidon). 

1852. O. Poseidon, Gray, " Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 3, note 5 
(the $ of Poseidon). 

1852. O. Urvilliana, Gray, " Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 4, note 7. 
1852. O. Panthous, Doubleday; G. R. Gray, "Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum" 

(the 2 of Hippolytus). 

1852. O. Pompeus, G. R. Gray, " Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 

5, note 13 (the $ and 2 of Cerberus). 
1852. O. Euphorion, Gray, " Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 4, note 6, 

plate 2, fig. 3 (is Poseidon var). 

1852. PAP1LIO (ORNITHOPTERA, Subgenus), G. R. Gray, "Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British 


1852. P. Tithonus, Gray, " Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 5, note 8 
(the cT). 

1852. Papilio Richmondia, Gray, "Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 2, 
note 2, figs. 1, 2. 

1852. Papilio Priamus, Gray, " Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 2, note 
1 (the two sexes). 

1855. Ornithoptera Brookeana, Wallace, " Proceedings of the London Entomological Society," series 2, vol. iii, 

page 104 (the <? only known). 
1855. O. Brookeana, W. C. Hewitson, " Exotic Butterflies, new or insufficiently figured," vol. i., plate 1, fig. 1 (the 

$ only known). 

1855. Papilio Antimachus, Chenu, " Encyclopedie d'Histoire Naturelle, Papillons Diurnes," vol. i., page 38, 

plate 15, (the $). 

1856. P. Tithonus, Gray, " List of Lepidopterous Insects in British Museum," vol. i., page 3, note 8 (the <?). 

1856. ORNITHOPTERA (Gennsj, Chenu, " Encyclopedie d'Histoire Naturelle," Papillons Diurnes, vol. i., page 33. 

1856. O. Priamus, Gray, "List of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 3, note 5 (the <? of 
Poseidon) . 

1856. O. Victorise, Gray, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London," page 7, plate 39 (the 2 ). 
1856. Papilio Amphrysus, Gray, " List of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 6, note 18 
(the <?). 

1856. Ornithoptera Pompeus, G. R. Gray, " List of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum " (the $ and 
2 of Cerberus) . 

1856. O. Boisduvali, Montrouzier, " Annales Societe Physiologie Naturelle de Lyon," page 393 (a var. of Poseidon 
$ and 2). 

1856. O. Darsius, Gray, " List of Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 4, note 13 (Both sexes). 
1856. O. Priamus, Chenu, "Encyclopedie d'Histoire Naturelle, Papillons Diurnes," vol. i., page 3, fig. 108, by 
Lucas (the <?). 


1856. Ornithoptera Urvilliana, Gray, " List of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 3, note 
7 (the 3) ; also Papilio Poseidon, vol. i., page 3, note 5 (the 3 ) ; also P. Nephereus, vol. i , page 6, note 
17 (the two sexes of Rliadtvnantus) ; also P. Amphrysus, vol. i., page 6, note 18 (the 3). 

1856. O. Rhadamanthus, Gray, Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum," vol. i., page 5, note 

16 (the 3 and ? of Macus). 

1857. O. Richmondia, Horsfield and Moore, " Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the East India Company's 

Museum," vol. i., page 86, note 175. 
1857. O. Amphrysius, the same work, vol. L, page 87, note 177 (the two sexes of Amphrysus). 

1857. O. /Eacus, Felder, " Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zoologischen Theil " (voyage of the 

Austrian Frigate Novara ; Zoological part), vol. i. 
1857. O. Boisduvali, Montrouzier, " Essai Faune l'Isle Woodlark" the Animal Life of Woodlark Island), page 116 

(the two sexes). 

1857. O. d' Urvilliana, Chenu, " Encyclopedie d Histoire Naturelle, vol. L, page 34. 

1857. O. Pompeus, Horsfield and Moore, " Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of the East India 

Company," vol. i., page 87, note 177 (both sexes). 
1857. O. Darsius, Horsfield and Mooie,'' Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum of the East 

India Company, vol. L, page 87, note 176, plate 2, figs. 2, 2a (the larva and pupa, also 3 and 2 ). 
1857. O. Rhadamanthus, Horsfield and Moore, " Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the East India 

Museum," vol. i., page 88, note 178 (the two sexes of ^Eacus). 
1859. O. Croesus, Wallace, " Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London," series ii., vol. v., page 70 

(the 3 of the species). 

1859. O. Croesus, Gray, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," for 1859, page 424, plates 68, 69. 
1859. O. Croesus, Felder, " Wien Entcmologische Monatschrift," Vienna Entomological Monthly Journal, vol. iii, 

page 390, note 31, plate 6, fig. 1. 
1859. O. Archideus, Felder, " Wien Entomologische Monatschrift," vol. iii., page 264, note 12 (the 3 of Poseidon, 

var. Archideus). 

1859. O. Aruana, Felder, "Wien Entomologische Monatschrift," page 391, note 32, (the species Aruana). 
1859. O. Haliphron, Felder, " Lepidopterologische Fragmente," page 37, plate 2, figs. 2, 3 (the two sexes). 

1859. O. Aruana, Felder, " Lepidopterologische Fragmente," page 24 (the species Aruana). 

1860. O. Poseidon, Vollenhoven, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," (the Journal for Entomology), vol. iii., page 70, 

note 2, and page 8g (the two sexes). 
i860. O. Tithonus, Vollenhoven, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. iii., p. 71, note 3. (the 3). 
i860. O. Amphrysius, Vollenhoven, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. iii., page 71, note 8 (the two sexes of 


i860. Papilla Trogon, Vollenhoven, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. iii., page 69, plate 6 (the 3). 
i860. Ornithoptera Haliphron, Felder, " Wien Entomologische Monatschrift," vol. iv., page 98, note 52, plate 2, 
figs. 2a, 2b (the two sexes). 

i860. O. Helena, Wallace and Felder, " Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London," vol. 5, page 23 (the 
two sexes). 

i860. O. Darsius, Felder, "Wien Entomologische Monatschrift," vol. iv., page 97 (the two sexes). 
1862. Papilio Zalmoxis, Hewitson, "Illustrations of New species of Exotic Butterflies," vol. hi., page 6, plate 1, 
fig. 18 (the 3). 

1864. ATROPHANEURA, Reakirt, " Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia," a Genus proposed 
for a species of Papilio intermediate between Papilio and Ornithoptera, possessing the large anal valves 
of the latter; vol. iii., pages 446-7. 

1864. PACHLIOPTERA (part) Genus, Reakirt, " Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia," vol. iii., 
page 504. 

1864. Papilio Euphorion, Felder," Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschiche Wien, page 290, note 10 (is the ? of 

the species called Cassandra. 
1864. P. Richmondia, Felder, the same work, page 290, note g, and page 332, note 8. 

1864. P. Amphrysus, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wein," page 291, note 34 (the 3 and ? ). 


1864. Papilio Pompeus, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 291, note 28 (the 2 

sexes of Cerberus). 

1864. P. Pronomus, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 290, note 11 (the two sexes 
of Poseidon). 

1864. P. Tithonus, Felder, "Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 290, note 6, and page 331, note 
4 (the <?). 

1864. P. Hephaestus, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 291, note 29. 
1864. Ornithoptera Darsius, Felder, Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien, page 291, note 24 (the two 

1864. Ornithoptera Rhadamanthus, Reakirt, " Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, page 

444, note 1 (the sexes of JEacus). 
1864. Papilio Triton, Felder, "Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 290, note 16; also page 332, 

note 12 (a 3 var. of Poseidon). 

1864. P. Haliphron, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 291, note 25, and page 334, 
note 20 (the two sexes). 

1864. Papilio Cerberus, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 291, note 31. 

1864. P. Magellanus, Felder, "Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte," page 291, page 27. 

1864. Ornithoptera Priamus, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische-Botanisch Geschichte Wien, vol. xiv., page 290, 

note 8 ; also page 332, plate 7. (This is the $ of the var. Oceanns). 
1864. Papilio Poseidon, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 290, note 17 (the two sexes), 

and page 333, note 13 (the 3). 
1864. P. Oceanus, Felder, "Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 290, note 13; and page 332, 

note 10. (=Boisduvali,= Poseidon variety). 

1864. P. Helena, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 291, note 22 (the two sexes). 

1865. Ornithoptera Croesus ("local form a") Wallace, " Transactions Linnsean Society," vol. xxv., page 37, 

note 3. 

1865. Papilio Lydius, Felder, " Reise Novara, Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 9, note 5 (plate 3, figs, a, b, date 1865). 
1865. Ornithoptera Croesus, Koch, " Indo-Australian Lepidopterous Fauna," page 38 (the two sexes). 
1865. O. Pompeus, F. Moore, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," page 756 (the two sexes of 
Cerberus) . 

1865. Papilio Aruanus, Felder, " Reise Novara, Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 3, note 1, plate 1. 
1865. Ornithoptera Rhadamanthus, F. Moore, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," page 755 (the 
two sexes of JEacus) . 

1865. 0. Pompeus, Moore, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, ' List of the Lepidoptera of Bengal,' " 

page 756. (This is Cerberus). 
1865. O. Priamus, Koch, " Indo-Australian Lepidopterous Fauna," page 35 ( 3 and $ of the species). 
1865. O. Pompeus, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnsean Society, vol. xxv., page 9, note 9 (the two sexes). 
1765. O. Pegasus, Felder, " Reise Novara," Lepidoptera, vol. i., page 6, note 4, plate 2, a, b (the two sexes of 


1865. O. Priamus, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnsean Society," vol. xxv., page 35 (the 3). 
1865. O. Aruana, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnsean Society," vol. xxv., page 36. 

1865. O. Leda, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnsean Society," vol. xxv., page 39, note 8 (is Hephcestus, 3 2). 

1865. O. Pronomus, Koch, Indo-Australian Lepidopterous Fauna, page 37 (the sexes of Poseidon). 

1895. 0. Helena, var. Papuensis, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnsean Society," vol. xxv., page 38, 39 (the 2). 

1865. 0. Amphrysus, Wallace, "Transactions of the Linnsean Society," vol. xxv., page 38 (the two sexes). 

1865. Papilio Hephaestus, Felder, Reise Fregatte Novara" (voyage of the Frigate Novara), Lepidoptera, vol. i., 

page 16, note 8 (the two sexes). 
1865. P. Cerberus, Felder, " Reise Novara, Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 19, note 10 (the two sexes). 
1865. P. Magellanus, Felder, " Reise Novara, Lepidoptera," vol. i., page 14, note 7, plate 5, fig. a ( 3 ), b ( 2 ). 
1865. Ornithoptera Richmondia, Koch, " Indo-Australian Lepidopterous Fauna, page 36, note 2. 
1865. O. Priamus, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnsean Society," vol. xxv., page 35 (the 3). 
1865. Papilio Lydius, Felder, " Reise Novara, Lepidoptera," vol. L, page 9, note 5, plate 3, figs, a, b. (Date of the 

two figs, is 1864). 

1865. O. JEacus, Moore, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," page 755 (the two sexes). 


1866. Ornithoptera Archideus, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnaean Society," vol. xxv., page 32 (a var. of 
Poseidon) . 

1866. O. Pronomus, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnaean Society," vol. xxv., page 32 (var of Poseidon); also 
0. Poseidon in the same vol., page 35, is the type form of Poseidon. 

1866. ORNITHOPTERA {Genus), A. R. Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnaean Society, vol. xxv., page 32. 

1866. 0. Euphorion, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnaean Society," vol. xxv., page 32 (Euphorion is the proper 
specific name of Cassandra, but the variety Euphorion of 0. Poseidon is meant here). 

1866. O. Cassandra, Scott, "Transactions of the Entomological Society of New South Wales," vol. i., page 131, 
plate 10. 

1866. O. Brookeana, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnaean Society," vol. xxv., page 40 (the $ only). 

1866. O. Haliphron, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnaean Society," vol. xxv., page 40, note 14. 

1866. O. Pompeus, Vollenhoven, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. iii., page 71, note 7 (the two sexes). (The 
Java examples are Pompeus, but the others Cerberus). The type form of Pompeus only occurs in Java ; the 
Indian species is rightly named Cerberus ; and examples from the Andamans and other localities are only 
local varieties of Cerberus. 

1866. O. Pompeus, de Niceville, " Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," page 373, note 171 (the two sexes of 
Cerberus) . 

1866. O. Magellanus, Wallace, " Transactions of the Linnaean Society," vol. xxv., page 41. 

1869. Papilio Helena, Butler, " Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera described by Fabricius," page 234, note 3 (the 

two sexes). 

1869. P. Amphrysus, Butler, " Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera described by Fabricius, page 235. note 5 (the two 

sexes of the species). 

1869. Ornithoptera Priam us, Butler, " Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera described by Fabricius," page 234, note 
1 (the sexes of the species). 

1869. O. Cassandra, Scott, " Transactions of the Entomological Society, New South Wales," vol. ii., page 49, also 

page 517. (Euphorion should be the true specific name). 
1869. Papilio Miranda, Butler, " Lepidoptera Exotica," vol. L, page 3, plate 1 (the <?). 

1869. P. Amphrysus, Felder, " Verhandeling Zoologische bei Geschichte Wien," page 291, note 34 (the two sexes). 
1869. P. Pompeus, Butler, Catalogue of Insects described by Fabricius, page 235, note 4 (the two sexes of Cerberus). 

1869. Ornithoptera Brookeana, Cutter, " Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London," page 21 (the 2 ). 

1870. O. Priamus, W. F. Kirby, "Notes on the Butterflies described by Linnaeus, in the Proceedings of the Ento- 

mological Society of London," page 134. 
1873. Papilio Cassandra, Butler, in Brenchley's u Cruise of the Curacoa," page 474, plate 50 (is the Australian 

Euphorion, but not the var. of Poseidon. 
1873. Ornithoptera Miranda, Druce, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," page 356, note 1. 

1873. O. Amphrysus, Druce, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, page 356, note 2 (the two sexes. 

1874. O. Tithonus, Butler, "Lepidoptera of the South Sea Islands ; in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society," 

page 289 (the $ .) 

1874. O. Rhadamanthus, Druce, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," page 108, note 1 (the and 
? of CEacus) . 

1874. O. Boisduvali, Butler, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," page 288, note 85 (var. of Poseidon 
$ 5 ). 

1874. O. Urvilliana, Orbigny, " Dictionaire d'histoire Naturelle," Atlas Zoologique, vol. ii., Lepidopteres, plate 1 
(the $). 

1874. O. Victorias, Butler, " Lepidoptera of the South Sea Islands, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society," 
page 284. 

1874. Papilio Pompeus, var. Hephcestus, Hopffer, " Stett in Entomologische Zeitschrift," page 18, note 2 (the two 

sexes of Hephcestus). 

1875. Ornithoptera Ruficollis, var. a, Butler, "Transactions of the Linnaean Society," Series II., Zoology," vol. i., 

page 552, note 1 (the £). 

1875. O. Rhadamanthus, var. Thomsoni Bates ; Thomson's " Straits of Malacca," page 546 (the $ of CEacus ; 
the true locality, however, is Siam). 


1876. Papilio Zalmoxis, A. R. Wallace. "Address delivered to the Biological Section of the British Association, 

Glasgow," page 3. 

1877. Qrnithoptera Rhadamantbus, Distant, " Rhopalocera Malayana,' pages 326-7, two figs, of 2 in the text; 

and plate 27a, fig. 5, the 3 . 
1877. O. Hephaestus, Distant, " Rhopalocera Malayana, page 328, plate 27, figs. 3 <? , 4 ? . 

1877. O. Heiiconoides, Moore, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," page 592 (is Cerberus) 3 and 2. 
1877. O. Priam us, Kirsch, " Mittheilungen Museum, Dresden" (Information concerning the Dresden Museum), 

vol. i., page no, sub-note 1 (the two sexes). 
1877. O. Pegasus, vars. Th. Kirsch " Beitrag nur Kenntniss der Lepidopteren-Fauna von Neu Guinea," in 

" Mittheilungen aus dem K. Zoologischen Museum zu Dresden," contribution to the knowledge of the 

Lepidopterous Fauna of New Guinea, in ' Information concerning the K. Zoological Museum of Dresden,' 

part 2, page 108, plate 5, fig. 1 ? , fig. 2 2 (possibly vars. of Aruana). 
1877. O. Urvilliana, Salvin and Godman, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, page 147 (the 

two sexes). 

1877. O. Uruana, Salvin and Godman, the same work, page 147. 

1878. Papilio Haliphron, Piepers and Snellen, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. xxi., page 37, note 147 (the 

two sexes). 

1878. O. Priamus, v. Richmondia, Semper, " Journaal Museum Godeffroy " (Journal of the Godeffroy Museum) 

Euphorion, Heft (or number) 14, page 41, subnote 128. 
1S78. O. Pronomus, Semper, the same work, Heft 14, page 41, subnote 128 (the S and ? of Richmondia^ Euphorion). 
1878. O. Pompeus, var. Hepkcestus, Snellen, " Tijdschrift voor Entomology," vol. xxi., page 37, note 146 (is Hephtzstus). 

1878. O. Priamus, var. Pronomus, Semper, "Journaal Museum Godeffroy, Heft 14, subnote 128 (the two sexes of 

Poseidon ). 

1879. O. Amphrysius, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 30, note 9 (is Ruficollis 3 2 ). 

1879. O. Amphrysius, var. Cuneifera, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page no, subnote 9 (the 3), 

1879. O. Miranda, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page no, note 9 bis. 

1879. O. Criton, Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 31, note 10 (the two sexes). 

1879. O. Helena, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 30, note 6 (the two sexes). 

1879. O. Jupiter, var., Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 31, note 11, plate 1, fig. 1 (is Helena 2 var. 

with the posterior wings devoid of subdiscal black spots). 
1879. O. Heliacon, aberration rulilans, Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv. page 32, subnote 13 (the two 

sexes of a var. of Helena). 

1879. O. Phadamantus, Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 32, note 16 (the two sexes of 
Rhadamanthus) . 

iSyg. O. Papuanus, Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 31, subnote 10 (a ? var. of Helena). 

1879. 0. Jupiter, var., Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 31, note 11, plate 1, fig. 1 (a 2 var. of 

Helena) . 

1879. O. Heliacon, ab. rutilans, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 32, subnote 13 (the two sexes of 
Helena var.) 

1879. O. Helena, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie,"' vol. iv., page 30, note 6 (the two sexes). 

1879. O. Darsius, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 30, note 8 (the two sexes). 

1879. O. Haliphron, Oberthiir, the same work, vol. iv., page 30, note 7, and page no, note 7 (the two sexes). 

1879. O. Haliphron, var. pallens, Oberthiir, the same work, vol. iv., page no, subnote 7 (the 2 of a light form of 

the species — baermanni also). 
1879. O. Amphrisius, var. flavicollis, Oberthiir, the same work, vol. iv., page 30, subnote 9. 
1879. O. Priamus, var. Richmondia, Oberthiir, the same work, vol. iv. page 29, subnote 1 (equals Euphorion). 
1879. O. Hephaestus, Oberthiir, the same work, vol. iv., page 31, note 12 (the two sexes). 
1879. 0. Minos, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 32, note 14 (the two sexes). 

1879. O. Priamus, var. Arruanus, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 27, subnote 1 (the two sexes of 


1879. O. Pompeus, Oberthiir, the same work, vol. iv., page 32. 
1879. O. Magellanus, Oberthiir, the same work, vol. iv. page 32. 


1879. Ornithoptera Priamus, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 27, note 1 (the two sexes). 

1880. DRURYA, Genus (described as a section of Papilio), Aurivillius, " Fjarilar fran Gaboon " butterflies from the 

Gaboon, in the " Ent. Tidskrift, page 44, Stockholm. (Entomological Tidings). 

1880. O. Priamtis, var. Aruana, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie," vol. iv., page 27, subnote 1 (the two sexes 
of Poseidon) , also O. Priamus,, Arruanus, Oberthiir, " Annales Musee Civique Genova ; vol. xv, page 46, 
fig., note 1. 

1880. O. Criton, "Annales Musee Civique Genova," vol. xv., page 468, note 3 (the two sexes). 

1880. O. Heliconoides, Wood Mason and Niceville, "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," page 237, note 65 
(the Andaman forms of Cerberus <? 5 ). 

1880. Ornithoptera Brookeana, Snellen, "Lep. v. Midden-Sumatra," the Lepidoptera of Central Sumatra, page 24, 

note 1. 

1881. O. Brookeana, Distant, " Entomological Monthly Magazine," page 237. 

1881. 0. Pompeus, Wood Mason, "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," page 252, note 94 (the two sexes of 
Cerberus) . 

1881. O. Pompeus, var. Minos, Wood Mason, the same work, page 86 (the two sexes of Minos). 

1881. O, Darsius, Moore, " Lepidoptera of Ceylon," vol. i., page 155, plate 55, figs. 1, ia, ib (the $ and ? ), also 

the larva and pupa. 
1881. O. Brookeana, P. H. Gosse, "Entomologist," vol. vii., page 156. 

1881. O. Heliconoides, Wood Mason, "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," page 252, note 94 (the $ 2 of the 

Andaman Island form of Cerberus). 

1882. Papilio Helena, Aurivillius, " Kongl. sv. vet. ak. Handl." vol. xix. (5) page 22, note 18 (the $). 

1882. Ornithoptera Rhadamanthus, Dewitz, " Nov. Act Kais Leop. ac Nat. vol. xiv., L., page 262, note 2, plate 
2, figs. 7, 7a, 7b (the two sexes of Rhadamantus). 

1882. 0. Priamus, Aurivillius, " Kongl sv. vet. ak. Handl. vol. xix (5), page 8, note 1 ( <? ) ; also page 19, note 14 ( 2 ). 

(Recensio Mus. Ulr.) 

1883. 0. Aruana, P. H. Gosse, "Clasping organs in certain Lepidoptera," Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. ii., 2nd series, 

page 282, plate 26, figs. 1-3. 

1884. Scent Glands of Ornithoptera (Duftapparate Indo-Australischer Schmetterlinge) Erich Haase, " Correspondenz- 

blatt des Entomologishen Vereins " in the " Iris." The species treated of are Priamus, page 93, plate 3, 

fig. 1 ; Pompeus, page 93 ; Brookeana, plate 3, fig. 2 and Tithonus, page 94 ; also Ornithoptera, page 281 ; 

Helena, page 282 ; Archideus, page 282 ; Brookeana, page 283. 
1884. Ornithoptera Haliphron, var. Bauermanni, Robur, " Iris," Correspondenzbatt, page 19 (the species and larva). 
1884. O. Priamus, Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiich Nassauischen Verhandeling Naturgeschichte," page 201 (the two 


1884. O. Priamus, var. Urvilliana, " Staudinger, " Staudinger und Schatz, Exotische Schmetterlinge," vol. i., 
page 5, plate 2 (the <?). 

1884. 0. Hippolytus, Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiich Nassauischen Verhandeling Naturgeschichte," page 201 (the two 

1884. O. Cerberus, Staudinger and Schatz, " Exotische Schmetterlinge, vol. i., page 4, plate 2 (the $ 2 of Cerberus). 
1884. O. Minos, Staudinger and Schatz, the same work, vol. i., page 5 (the two sexes). 

1884. O. Rhadamanthus, var. Amphrisius, Staudinger and Schatz, the same work, vol. i., page 4 (the $ of Abacus). 
1884. O. Amphrysus, Staudinger and Schatz, the same work, vol. i., page 5 (the two sexes of Amphrysus). 
1884. O. Criton, Staudinger and Schatz, the same work, vol. i., page 5 (the two sexes). 

1884. O. Criton, Butler, "Annals and Magazine of Natural History" (5), vol. xiii., page 196, note 42 (the two sexes). 
1884. 0. Haliphron, Staudinger and Schatz, " Exotische Schmetterlinge," vol. L, page 5, plate 2 (the 3 ). 
1884. O. Rhadamanthus, Staudinger and Schatz, the same work, vol. i., page 4, plate 1 (the two sexes of Rhadamantus. 
1884. O. Amphrysus, Kheil, " Rhopalocera of Nias," page 34, note 136 (the <? of Ruficollis). 

1884. O. Priamus var. Richmondia, Staudinger and Schatz, " Exotische Schmetterlinge," vol. i., page 3, plate 1 
(the two sexes of Euphoriou). 

1884. O. Heliconoides, Staudinger and Schatz, the same work, vol. i., page 5 (the <? of Cerberus). 

1885. O. Tithonus, Oberthiir, " Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France," Bulletin, page exxii (the 2 ). 


1885. Ornithoptera Ruficollis, Distant, " Rhopalocera Malayana," page 328, note 3, plate 27, fig. 1 (the <? ) ; also 
page 329, fig. 107 in text (the 2 ), plate 27a, fig. 1 ( 2 var). 
5. O. Riedeli, Kirsch, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society," page 275, plate ig, fig, 12. 
5. O. Amphrysus, Kheil, " Rhopalocera of Nias," pp. 36, 37. 
5. O. Helena, v. leda, Staudinger, " Deutsch Zeitschrift, Lep." page 74, plate A. 
5. O. Olympia, Honrath, " Ent. Nachrichten," vol. xvii., page 241 (or 291 ?). 

5. O. Haliphron v. bauermanni, O. Aruana, and O. Croesus, Ribbe, Deutsche, z. Lep. vol. iii., Larva and Pupa 

of these ; pp. 37, 38, 40, plate 1, figs. 1-3. 
5. 0. Andromache, Staudinger, " Deutsch Ent. Zeitschrift," vol. v., page 393. 
885. O. Ruficollis, Distant, " Rhopalocera Malayana," page 328, note 3, plate 27, fig. 1 ( $ ) ; also page 329, fig. 107 

2 ; and plate 27a, fig. 1 ( 5 var). 
885. O. Riedeli. " Proceedings of the Zoological Society," page 275, note 1, plate 1 ( <? ), 2 ( 2 ). 
885. O. Hephaestus, Distant, "Rhopalocera Malayana," page 328, note 2, plate 27, fig. 2(2); abenation 3 (<?) 

4(2); (the two sexes of Cerberus) . 
885. O. Hephaestus, Weymer, "Stettin Entomologische Zeitschrift, page 270 (the two sexes of Cerberus). 
885. O. Tithonus, " Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, Bulletin, Oberthiir," page 122 (the 2). 

885. O. Brookeana, Distant, " Rhopalocera Malayana, vol. i., page 330, plate 27a, fig. 4 ( 2 ) ; and plate 27b., fig. 

1, £ in vol. ii. 

886. O. Minos, Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Entomologie," part xi., page 14 (the two sexes of JEacus), 
886. O. Priam us, Ribbe, " Iris," page 77, note 1 (the two sexes). 

886. O. Pompeus, var. Heliaconoides " De Niceville," Journal of the Asiatic Society,'' page 373, note 171 (the two 
sexes of JEacus). 

886. O. Trojana, Honrath, " Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift," vol. xxxiii., page 3 (the <? ). 
886. O. Priamus, Honrath, " Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, page 11 (the two sexes). 

817. ORNITHOPTERA Sub genus, Distant, "Rhopalocera Malayana," vol. i. (text), page 32. 

7. O. Minos, Aitken, "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, page 35, note 73 (the two sexes). 
7. O. Miranda, Distant and Pryer, "Annals and Magazine of Natural History vol. xix., page 272, 5th series, 
note 165 (the two sexes). 

7. O. Victoria?, var. Regince, Grose-Smith, "Annals and Magazine of Natural History " (5th Ser.), vol. xix., 
page 445, the $ oiRegince). 
888 Papilio Zalmoxis, Staudinger and Schatz," " Exotische Schmetterlinge," vol. ii., plate 7 (the <?). 
888. Ornithoptera Helena, Staudinger and Schatz, " Exotische Schmetterlinge," vol. i., plate 5 (the two sexes). 
888. O. Priamus, Fickert, " Ueber die Zeichnungsverhaltnisse der gattung Ornithoptera, page 702. 
888. Drurya Antimachus, Staudinger and Schatz, "Exotische Schmetterlinge," plate xiii. 

888. Ornithoptera Tithonus, Oberthiir, "Etudes de Entomologie," 12th livr., page 1, note 1, plate 8, fig. 10 
(the 2). 

888. O. Aruana, var. Goliath, Oberthiir, " Etudes d'Entomologie." Livraison xiii, page 2 (the 2 of Schoenbergia 

888. O. Pfateni, Staudinger, " Correspondenz-Blatt des Entomologischen Vereins, 'Iris' zu Dresden," page 274 
(the two sexes). 

888. O. Pronomus, Mathew, "Transactions of the Entomological Society," page 168 ; its life history (is Poseidon). 
888. O. Urvilliana, Mathew, the same work, page 169, plate 6, fig. 1 (the two sexes). 

888. O. Durvilliana, Woodford, " Proceedings of the Zoological Society," page (the two sexes). Durvilliana or 

D'Urvilliana are incorrect, the latter the least so. 
888. O. Priamus, var. Lydius, Staudinger and Schatz, Exotische Schmetterlinge, vol. i., page 4, plate 4. 
888. O. Pompeus, Watson, "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society," page 26 (the two sexes of Cerberus. 
888. O. Pompeus, Elwes, " Transactions of the Entomological Society of London," page 422, note 394 (the two 
sexes of Cerberus). 

3. O. Rhadamanthus, Elwes, the same work, page 422, note 343 (the S 2 of Macus). 

3. Papilio (O.) Minos, Hampson, " Journal of The Asiatic Society of Bengal," page 363, note 193 (the two sexes). 


1888. Ornithoptera Helena, Staudinger and Schatz, " Exotische Schmetterlinge," vol. i., page 5 (the two sexes). 
1880. Staudingeri, Rober, " Entomologische Nachrichten," Entomological Information, page 369 (the two 
sexes) . 

1888. O. Iris, Rober, the same work, page 369 (the two sexes). 

1888. O. Pronomus, Mathew, " Transactions of the Entomological Society of London," page 168 ; deals with the 

life history of the speciss (is Poseidon). 
1888. O. Hippolytus, Staudinger and Schatz, " Exotische Schmetterlinge." vol. ii., plate 2 (the S). 

1888. O. Ruficollis, Fickert, " Ueber die Zeichnungsverhaltnisse der Gattung Ornithoptera," in the " Zoologischen 

Jahrbiichen." Concerning the proportionate delineation of the species of Ornithoptera, from the Zoological 
Yearbook of Geography and Biology (deals also with the classification), page 739. Fickert also treats of the 
following species, Priamus, page 698, plate 20, figs. 1 S , 2 2 ; Cassandra, Scott, page 701 ; Richmondia, 
Gray, page 702 ; Priamus, var. Euphorion, Gray, page 703 ; Priamus, var. Aruana, Felder, page 704, plate 20, 
fig. 3 <J . 4 ? ; Priamus, var. Pronomus, page 706 ; Priamus, var. Cronius, Felder, page 706 ; Priamus, var. 
Pegasus, Felder, page 707 ; Priamus, var. Poseidon, Doubleday, page 709 ; Priamus, var. Archideus, Gray, 
page 709 ; Priamus, var. Crcesus, "Wallace, page 711 ; Priamus, var. Urvilleana, page 712; 0. Tithonus, page 
720, plate 20, fig. 6 S , fig. plate 21, fig. 1, ? ; Victoria, page 722, plate 21, fig. 2 <? , fig. 3 ? ; Regince, page 
723, plate 21, fig. 4, ? ; Pompeus, page 7 27, plate 21, fig. 5 S , fig. 6? ; Pompeus var. Hephcestus, Felder, 
page 729; Pompeus var. Pluto, Felder, page 730; Pompeus, var. Minos, Cramer, page 730; Cerberus, page 
732 ; Rhadamanthus, page 733 . Haliphron, page 734 ; Helena, page 735 ; Darsius, page 736 ; Criton, page 737, 
plate 21, fig. IS ; Amphrysus, page 739; Magellanus, page 740; Jupiter, page 741; Hppolytus, page 741; 
Bauermanni, page 743 ; Brookeana, page 749, plate 21, fig. 8 ; Zalmoxis, page 754 ; Plateni, page 762. 

1889. ORNITHOPTERA, Genus, Fickert, characters noticed in the same work. 

1889. DRURYA Genus, Fickert (characters noticed), "Zoologischen Jahrbiich, Abtheilen fur Systematise!),'' vol. iv., 
page 692 (the same work). 

1889. O. Brookeana, var. Trojana, Staudinger, " Lepidoptera der Insel Palawan," in the " Deutsch Entomologische 

Zeitschrift, vol. ii., page 7, and page 163. 
1889. O. Trojanus, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. ii., page 4 (the S). 

1889. O. Priamus, var. Poseidon, Caprinnier, " Annale Entomologie Belgique," vol. xxx., page 1. 
1889. 0. Plateni, Staudinger, " Deutsch Zeitschrift Lepidoptera" page 3, descriptive note. 

1889. O. Brookeana, var. Trojana, Staudinger, " Lepidopteren der Insel Palawan, Deutsch Entomologische 
Zeitschrift," Lepidoptera of the Island of Palawan, in the Entomological Journal, vol. 2, page 7 (the S), 
also page 163. 

1889. Papilio (Ornithoptera) Ritsemae, Snellen, " Notes on the Leyden Museum," vol. xi., page 153 (is Cuneifera, 

of Oberthiir, the two sexes). 
1889. Ornithoptera Nephereus, Staudinger, the 11 Iris," vol. ii., page 4 (the sexes of Rhadamantus) 
1889. O. Brookeana, ? var. Eleanor, Dr. F. A. Walker, " Transactions of the Entomogical Society," page 75. 
1889. O. Priamus, Sidney Olliff, " Australian Butterflies," page 38. 2 figs, (one is the S ; the other is probably the 

2 of Cassandra (Euphorion). He also mentions Cassandra, page 39. 
i88g. O. Aruana, Dr. F. A. Walker, " Paper on Oriental Entomology," part ii., page n. 
1889. O. Richmondia, Rippon, the present work, vol. i., page 9, plate 4, 
1889. O. (Priamoptera) Crcesus, Rippon, the present work, page 33, plate 12. 

1889. TROGONOPTERA, Genus, Rippon, the present work and vol., page 1. 

1889. Trogonoptera Bookeana, Rippon, see page 2 of this vol. and plate 26 (the 2 sexes, and var. Eleanor, Walker). 
1889. POMPEOPTERA, Genus, see page 7 of the present work and vol. 

1889. Pompeoptera Hippolytus, ibid, see page g, plate 29. 

1890. Ornithoptera Pompeus, var. Holzi, Pagenstacher, " Jahrbiich Nassauischen Verhandeln Naturgechichte,' 

page 103, note 3 (a var. of Helena). 


1885. Papilio Antimachus, W. F. Kirby, "Text Book of Entomology," page 160, plate 53 (from Chenu), 1st 
edition (the $ ) . 

1890. Ornithoptera Helena, Ribbe, " Iris," vol. ii., page 207, note 3 (aberration of the 5 ) ; ibid, I.e., vol. iii.> 

page 41 (Larva and Pupa). 
1890. Pompeoptera Plateni, in the present work and vol., pages 65, 66, plate 62 (both sexes). 
1890. Ornithoptera Hephaestus, Holland, " Proceedings of the Boston Natural History Society," vol. xxiv., page 

77, note 124 (the two sexes). 
1890. O. Helena, Ribbe, " Iris" vol. iii., page 41 (the $ 2 the two sexes). 
1890. O. Haliphron, Ribbe, the. same work, vol. iii., page 39 the larva and pupa). 

1890. O. Minos, Davidson and Aitken, "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society,'' page 361, note 64 

(deals with the life history of the species). 
1890. O. Pompeus, Niceville, " Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society," page 387, note 86, is Cerberus). 
1890. O. Croesus, Ribbe, " Iris," page 42, plate 1., figs. 1-3 (its life history). 

1890. O. Hippolytus, sub-species Cellularis, Rothschild, Holland, "Proceedings of the Boston Natural History 

Society," vol. xxv., page 125. 
1890. O. Hippolytus, Ribbe, " Iris," vol. ii., page 207, note 2 (the two sexes of the type form). 

1890. Papilio van de Polli (should be Vandepolli), Snellen, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. xxxiii., page 22. 

1890. Ornithoptera Nereis, Doherty, " Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," vol. lx., page 30. 

1890. O. Pompeus, Watson, "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society," page 387, note 86 (is Cerberus S 2 ). 

1890. O. Priamus, Ribbe, " Iris," page 207, note 1 (the two sexes). 

1890. O. Poseidon, Ribbe, " Iris," iii., page 41 (the two sexes). 

1890. O. Priamus, Rippon, the present work, vol. i., page 4, plate ia (the <? , ib, the 2 ). 

1890. ORNITHOPTERA, Genus, with Priamus as the type, Rippon, the present work, page 1 of vol. i. 

1890. O. Cassandra, Rippon, the present work, vol. i., page 8, plates 2a <? , 2b 2 (should be ? 5 Euphorion). 

1890. Pompeoptera Plateni, Rippon, the present work and vol., page 65, plate 62. 

1 89 1. Ornithoptera Helena, Rober, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. xxxiv., page 268 (the S and 2). 
1891. O. Criton, Ribbe, " Iris," vol. iii., page 43 (the larva and pupa). 

1891. O. Riedeli, Rober, "Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. xxxiv., page 269 (the $ and 2). 

1891. O. Olympia, Honrath, " Entomologischen Nachrichten," vol. xvii., page 241 (a local variety of Flavicollis from 

S. E. Borneo) (the 2 ) ; also O. Flavicollis, var. Olympia, Honrath, " Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift," 

vol. xxxvi., page 429, plate 15, fig. 1 (the 2 ). 
1891. O. Poseidon, var. hecuba, Rober, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologischen," vol. xxxiv., page 263 (the c?). 
1891. O. Trojana, W. Watkins, " The Entomologist," No. 339, vol. xxiv., with coloured plate. 
1891. O. Magellanus, Semper, " Philippiner Tagfalter," page 264, note 385. 
1891. O. Trojan us, Semper, Philippiner, Tagfalter, page 263, note 384. 

1 89 1. O. Helena, Rober, "Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. xxxiv., page 268 ( S and 2 , also larva and pupa). 
1891. O. Pompeus, Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiich Nassauischen Verhandeling Naturgeschichte," var. Holzi = rutilans of 
0\>qx&\VlX,= Helena var. 

1891. O. Naias, Doherty, " Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," vol. lx., page 193, note 116 (the two sexes). 
1891. O. Socrates, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. iv., page 71 (the two sexes). 

1891. O. Rhadamanthus, Watson, " Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," page 53, note 205 (the two sexes of 
/Eacus) . 

1891. Papilio O. Minos, Fergusson, " Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society," page 445, note 167 (the 
two sexes). 

1891. Ornithoptera Staudingeri, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. iv., page 74 (the two sexes). 
1891. O. Plato, Wallace, translated by Staudinger, " Isis," vol. iv., page 74 (the <?). 
1891. O. Plato, Rober, ' Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. xxxiv., page 269 (the $ and 2). 
1 89 1. O. Staudingeri, the same author and work, vol. xxxiv., page 263 (the two sexes). 

1891. O. Naias, var. Sambawama, Doherty, "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," page 194, sub-note 116 (the 

two sexes) ; also page 193, note 116. 
1891. O. Iris, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. iv., page 74 (the two sexes). 


i8go. Ornithoptera GBacus, Manders, " Transactions of the Entomological Society of London," page 535. 
1891. O. Iris, Rober, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," page 279 (the $ and 2). 

1891. O. Nephereus, Semper, " Philippiner Tagfalter," or Philippine Day Butterflies," page 264, note 386 (the $ 

and 2 of Rhadamantus) . 

1892. Papilio Antimachus, Rutherford, " Entomological Monthly Magazine," vol. xv., page 5 ; and " Entomo- 

logical Monthly Magazine," vol. 3 (new series), page 162. 
1892. P. Antimachus, W. F. Kirby, '* Text Book of Entomology," page 160, plate 53 (copied from Chenu), 2nd 

edition (the $ ). 

1892. Drurya Antimachus, Schatz, " Die Familie und Gattung der Tagfalter," pages 22 and 40, plate ii., figs. 1 a.b. 

(the <?). 

1892. Papilio (Ornithoptera), Cerberus, Ribbe, " Annales Societe Entomologique Belgse," page 123, note 1 (the 

two sexes). 

1892. Ornithoptera Andromache, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. v. page 393 (the two sexes). 

1892. O. Riedeli, Grose-Smith and Kirby, " Rhopalocera Exotica," vol. ii., Ornithoptera, page 3, plate 2, fig. 1 (<?)> 

1892. O. Poseidon, Tryon, " Report on the British Administration in New Guinea," appendix, v. page 112 (the $ 
and 2). 

1862. O. Arruana, var. Valentino., Vuillot, " Bulletin Societe Entomologique d'France," page 124 (dwarfed examples 

of Poseidon $ 2 ) . 

1892. Papilio Brookeana, Snellen, " Midden-Sumatra," vol. ii., page 24, note 1. 
1892. Ornithoptera Hippolytus, Schatz, "Die Familie und Gattungen," page 42. 
1892. 0. Hippolytus, Rothschild, " Iris," vol v., page 442. 

1892. O. Honrathiana, Martin, " Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift," vol. xxxvii., page 492 (the 2 var. of 

Vandepolli) . 

1892. DRURYA, Genus, " Staudinger und Schatz," Exotische Schmetterlinge ; die Familie und Gattung der 
Tagfalter," vol. ii., page 22, plate 40. 

1892. Drurya Antimachus, Watkins, " Entomological Monthly Magazine" (a brief description of the ?), vol. iii., 
New Series, page 162 ; and plate 5, with neuration of the anterior wing (internal nervure omitted), and 
figs, of $ and 2 anal terminals. 

1892. Ornithoptera Zalmoxis, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. v., page 268 (the 2). 

1892. 0, Eumaeus, Rippon, " Annals and Magazine of Natural History," page 193 (the 2 sexes), a var. of Aruana. 

which, together with a new and blue form from the Island of Oby, connects Aruana with Urvilliana. 

1893. ORNITHOPTERA {Genus), Pagenstecher, " Beitrage zur Lepidopteren : Fauna des Malayischen Archipels ; 

Jahrbiichen der Nassauischen Vereins fur Naturkunde," page 83 ; in the same paper Pagenstecher suggests 
Schoenbergia as a subgenus. 

1893. O. Paradisea, Staudinger, " Entomologische Nachrichten," s. 177. 

1893. O. Schoenbergi, Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiichen der Nassauischen Vereins fur Naturkunde," s. 29 pp., plate ii, 
note iii, the $ ; s. 83 pp., plate iv, the 2 ; described on page 30, plates 2, 3, <? ; 4, 2 . 

1893. O. Socrates, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. vi., page 83, plate 1, fig. 1 (as a local form of Haliphron. This is 
identical with Pompeoptera Naias. 

1893. Pompeoptera Dohertyi, Rippon, "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," vol. ii., N. Series, page 295 
(the two sexes). 

1893. P. Dohertyi, Rippon, the present work and vol., pages 67-8, plates 63, 64 (both sexes). 
1893. Ornithoptera Honrathiana, Martin, " Natuurkund Tijdschrift, voor Nederlandsch Indie," vol. liii., page 1 
note 1. 

1893 0. Cerberus, Swinhoe, "Transactions of the Entomological Society, London," page 311, note 372 (the two 
sexes) . 

1893. O. Magellanus, Haase, " Untersuch iib Mimisch," page 29 (the two sexes). 

1893. SCHOENBERGIA, sub-genus, Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiichen der Nassauischen Vereins fur Naturkunde," page 83. 


1893. Ornithoptera Paradisea, Staudinger, " Entomogische Nachrichten, page 177. 

1893. 0. Paradisea, Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiichen der Nassauischen Vereins fur Naturkunde," page 29, plate 2 and 

3 (<?), page 83, plate 4 (the ?). 
1893. 0. Pegasus, Rippon, in vol. i. of the present work, plate 5, figs. 1, 2 ( <?) ; 3 ( $ ) ; 4, 5, ( ? ). 
1893. O. /Eacus, Swinhoe, " Transactions of the Entomological Society of London," page 311. 

1893. O. /42acus, Leech, " Butterflies of China," vol. ii., page 513. 

1894. O. >Eacus, de Niceville, " Sikkim Gazeteer," page 170. 
1894. 0. Honrathiana, Hagen, " Iris," vol. vii., page 19, note 4. 

1894. O. Vandepolli, Friihstorfer, " Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, page 241, plate 17, fig. 1. 

1894. O. Helena, var. Thestius, Staudinger, " Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift," Lepidoptera, vol. viii., page 283. 

1894. O. Pegasus, var. Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiich Nassauischen Verhandelung Nature," page 63, note 1, plate 2 and 

3, fig. 1 (the $ of Poseidon). 
1894. O. Pegasus, Grose-Smith, " Novitates Zoologicae," vol. i., page 331, note 1 (the two sexes). 
1894. Troides Vandepolli Iionrathianus, Hagen, " Iris," vol. vii., page 19, note 4. 
1894. Ornithoptera Amphrysus, Hagen, " Iris," vol. vii., page 18, note 2 (the two sexes). 

1894. Pompeus, var. holzi (= rutilans of Oberthiir), Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiich Nassauischen Verhandelung 

Nature," page 29 (a var. of Helena). 
1894. O. Amphrysus, var. Palabuana, Friihstorfer, " Entomologische Nachrichten," page 44. 
1894. O, Pompeus, Niceville, " Gazeteer of Sikkim," page 170, note 459 (the $ 2 of Cerberus). 
1894. O. Hephaestus, Hagen, " Iris," vol. vii., page 18, note 3 (the $ and 2 of Cerberus). 

1894. O. Ritsemae, var. Sumatranus, Hagen, " Iris," vol. vii, page 19, note 5 (a $ var. of Cuneiferce of Oberthiir). 
1894. O. Brookeana, Hagen, " Iris," vol. vii., page 18, note 1 (the 2). 

1894. 0. Urvilliana, Pagenstecher, " Jahrbiich Nassauischen Verhandelung Natursgeschichte," page 67, note 3 (on 
variation ; $ ? ). 

1894. O. Tithonus, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. vi,, page 355 (the two sexes). 

1894. Troides Priamus Urvilliana, ab. loc. bornemanni, Pagenstecher, "Jahrbiich Nassauischen, Verhandelung 

Naturgeschichte, page 65, plate §, fig. 2 (the J 1 of a green variety). 
1894. Ornithoptera Andromache, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. vii., page 341, plate 8. 

1894. SCHOENBERGIA, Genus, Rippon, the present work, vol. i., page g. 

1894. Sch. Paradisea, Rippon, the present work, vol. i., page 10, plate 4 (the two sexes). 
1894. Ornithoptera Goliath, Oberthiir, "Etudes d'Entomologie," Livraison ig, plate 4. 

1894* /EiTHEOPTERA, Genus, Rippon, the present work, vol. i., page 47. 

1894. JEth. Victoria?, Rippon, the present work, vol. L, page 48, plates 21a, 21b, figs. 1 2 , plate 22a, (the 5 ). 
1894. JEth. Reginae, Rippon, the present work, vol. i., page 52, plate 21b, figs. 3, 4 (the <?) ; plate 23a, the 2 ; plate 
23b, figs. I, 2, the $ ; 3, 4, the 2 . 

1894. Ornithoptera Pegasus, Rippon, the present work, page 15, plate 6 (the two sexes), fig. 5, var. $ 2 . 

1895. TROIDES, Genus, Rothschild and Jordan, " Novitates Zoological, " vol. ii. ; in the article on the Revision of 

Papilionidse of the Eastern Hemisphere, exclusive of Africa, Rothschild and Jordan treat of the Ornithoptera 
under the generic name TROIDES, and give their synonomy. The following species, varieties, sub-species 
and aberrations are included in their list, together with localities, largely aided by Mr. Rothschild's wonderful 
series of the group, in the Tring Museum : 

1895. Troides Priamus, page 185, note 1. 

,, ,, type a., page 185. 

,, ,, b. Euphorion, page 186. 

,, ,, c. Richmondius, page 187, n.c. 

,, ,, d. Poseidon, page 188, n. d. (a2) no name (var.) 

(b2) $ , aberration Cronius, Felder. 

(02) $ , ab. Eumceus, Rippon, page i8g. 

1895. Troides Priamus, d. Poseidon, page 188, n. d. (d2) ? , ab. brunneus, page 189. 

(g2) Archideus, page 190. 

(h2) Kirschi, Oberthiir, 2 ab. page 190. 

(12) Goliath,* page igo. 

(k) ? ab. Hecuba, Rober, page igi. 

1895. Troides Priamus (e) boisduvali, Montrouzier, p. 191. 

,, ,, (f) Urvillianus, p. 191. (I2) ab. loc. bomemanni, Pagenstecher, p. 191. 

,, CrcEsus, p. 192, n. 2. 
,, Lydius, p. 194, n. 3. 
,, Tithonus, p. 195, n. 4. 
,, Paradisea, p. 196, n. 5. 

Victoria?, p. 196, n. 6, p. 197 (b) T. Victorise reginse, page 197. 

(c) T. „ regis, p. 197. 
,, Brookeanus, p. 198, n. 7. (a2) Eleanor, p. 199. 
,, ,, Albescens, type p. 199, n. 9. 

,, Trojanus, p. 199, note 8. 
,, ,, type form, p. 202. 

,, Hippolytus, p. 200, n. 9 

(b) T. Hippolytus Sulcensis, p. 202. 

(c) T. Hippolytus Celhdaris, p. 202. 

,, Darsius, p. 203, n. 10. 
,, Minos, p. 203, n. 11. 

Vandepolli (a) type, p. 205, n. 12. 
,, ,, (b) honrathiana, p. 205. 

,, Haliphron, p. 206, no. 13, type (a), p. 206. 

(b) T. haliphron naias, p. 207. 

(c) T. haliphron iris, p. 208. 

,, Staudingeri, p. 108, n. 14. 
,, Plato, p. 209, n. 15. 
Criton, p. 210, n. 16. 

(a2) typical ? , similar to $ . 
(b2) oberthiiri, ? . 
(02) felderi, ? . 

1895. T. Riedeli, p. 211, no. 17. 

1895. T. Oblongomaculatus, p. 211, n. 18; type form p. 213. 

(b) bouruensis, page 214. 

(c) celebensis, p. 214. 

(d) papuensis, p. 214; (a2) S ab. papuanus, Oberth., p. 215. 

1895. T. helena, p. 216, n. 19 (a) type form, p. 217. 

(a2) 5 ab., Jupiter, Oberthiir. 

(b2) p. 217, ab. Pluto, Felder, p. 217. 

(b) Troides helena nereis, page 218. 

(c) T. nereis propinquus, Rothschild, p. 218. 

(d) T. helena cerberus, p. 219. 

(e) T. helena hephcestus, p. 222, 
1895. T. JEacus, p. 223, n. 20. 

1895. T. Rhadamantus, p. 227, n. 22. (a) type form, p. 225. 

(b) Troides Rhadamantus plateni, p. 226. 

1895. T. Dohertyi p. 223, n. 20. 
1895. T. Mirandus p. 227, n. 23. 

*I have shown in vol. ii. of this work that Goliath is not a Priamus form, but a species of Schoenbergia. 


1895. T. Andromache, p. 228, n. 25. (a) type form, p. 229. 

(b) Troides Amphrysus Cuneifer, p. 229. 

(c) Troides Amphrysus flavicollis, p. 231. 
(a2) ab. Olympia, p. 231. 

(b2) ab. ruficollis, p. 232. 

(d) Troides Amphrysus Sumatranus, p. 232. 

1895. T. Magellanus, p. 232, n. 26. 

1895. T. Victoria?, Rothschild, " Entomologist," vol. xxviii., page 78. 

1895. Ornithoptera Hippolytus, var. Sulaensis, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. vii., page 343 (the two sexes). 
1895. 0« Hippolytus, var. Celebensis, Staudinger, " Iris," vol. vii., page 342 (the two sexes). 

1895. Troides Victoria? regina?, Rothschild, " Entomologist," vol. xxviii., page 78 ; also Tr. Victoria? regis 

Rothschild, " Entomologist," vol. xxviii., page 78. 
1895. Ornithptra Richmondii, Schneider, " Entomologist," vol. xxviii., page 93 ; (deals with the metamorphoses 

of the species), with a cut. 
1895. Troides Trojana, W. F. Kirby, " Nature," vol. li., page 258, column 1. 
1895. Ornithoptera Hippolytus, W. F. Kirby, " Nature," vol. li., page 255. 

1895. Papilio Vordermani, Snellen, " Tijdschrift voor Entomologische," vol. xxxvii., page igi (is Dohertyi). 
1895. O. Pompeus, W. F. Kirby, " Nature," vol. li., page 254, column 2 ; also treats of the larva and pupa, page 
255, column 1. 

1895. O. Dohertyi, W. F. Kirby, "Nature," vol. li., page 255, column 2. 

1895. O. Paradisea, Its Metamorphoses, Kubary, " Entomologist," vol. ix., page 103, plate 1, figs. 1, 2. 

1895. O. Urvilliana, Its Metamorphoses, Ribbe, " Entomologist," vol. ix., pages 105-107, plate 1, figs. 3-6. 

1895. Troides Oblongomaculatus, Rothschild, " Notes on Varieties," Nov. Zool,, vol. 3, page 63. 

1895. T. Haliphron, var. pistor, vol. iii., page 91. 

1895. T. Schoenbergi, Rober, Ent. Nachr., vol. xxii., page 289. 

1895. Ornithoptera Magellanus, W. F. Kirby, " Nature," vol. li., page 255. 

1895. Drurya Zalmoxis, W. F. Kirby, the same work, vol. li., page 258, col. 1. 

1895. /Etheoptera? Tithonus, W. F. Kirby, " Nature," vol. li., page 256. 

1895. /Etheoptera Tithonus, Rippon, " Nature," vol. li., page 343. 

1895. Ornithoptera Priamus, W. F. Kirby, " Nature," vol. li., pp. 244-5, also °- Eumceus, page 256, col. 1 ; O. 
Croesus, page 256, col. 2 ; O. Lydius, page 256, col. 2 , O. Urvilliana, page 255, col. 1. 

1895. O. Urvilliana, C. Ribbe, figures and description in the " Iris," July 15. 

1896. Papilio Zalmoxis, W. F. Kirby, " Handbook to the order Lepidoptera," vol. ii., page 268. 

1896. Troides Croesus, W. F. Kirby, the same work, vol. ii., page 255 ; also T. Lydius, the same work, page 256 ; 

T. Urvillianus, page 255; 0, Amphrysus, page 265; 0. Helena Cerberus, page 264, larva and pupa, pages 
264-6 ; 0. Magellanus, page 265. 

1896. Ornithoptera Amphrysus, E. Martin Duncan, in " Cassell's Natural History," vol. vi., page 51. 

1897. O. Urvilliana, vars. miokensis and flavomaculata, Ribbe, " Entomologist," vol. xii., page 153. 
1897. O. Papuensis, var. Carolus, Fruhstorfer, Berliner Ent. Zeitschrift, vol. xliii, page 306. 
1897 O. (Pompeoptera), Irregularis, W. Dannatt, "Entomologist," page 312. 

1897. O. Victoria? Regis, Ribbe, " Deutsche Ent. Zeitschrift," Lepidoptera, vol. page 245, plate 8, fig. 1 (the pupa 


1897. O. Croesus, var. Fruhstorfer, " Illustrated Zeitschriff, Ent. v. page 197. 

1897. O. Goliath Titan, var. Grose-Smith, "Rhopalocera Exotica," Ornithoptera, vol. iii. plate4,page 7 (the <? of Goliath) 
1899. Drurya Antimachus, v. Gigantia, Walker, " Ent. Magazine," page 1899. 

1899. D. Zalmoxis, Rippon, the present work, vol. L, page viii., plate iii. b (the ?) ; also Schoenbergia Paradisea, 
vars. Meridionalis, flavescens, and punctata, pages xix. to xxi. (Meridionalis), ( <? ) as a species, not a var. of 
Paradisea, page xxi., plate iv. b, plate iv. a ; also 0. Tithonus, vol. L, page xx., plate vi. ; 0. Poseidon, var. 
Archideus, page 21, plate 7a ; 0. Urvilliana, green var., pages 46, 56, plate 18 ; the var. Ccelestis, page 56, 
plate 19 ; JEtheoptera Regis, page 57, plate 20. 

1899. Papilio Antimachus, and Ornithoptera Victoria?, W. J. Holland, "The Butterfly Book," N. America, 
page 162 ; also O. Paradisea, page 162 ; and Genus Ornithoptera, page 272. The author on the latter page 
speaks of the Osmateria, or protrusive scent organs (i.e., the $ sexual brand), as serving for purposes-of 
defence ! A different theory from the earlier one, that they served to attract the ? . Probably neither theory 
is correct. 


1900. Pompeoptera Miranda, Rippon, the present work, vol. ii., pps. 70-712, plates 66a, 66b, 66c (the 2 sexes and 

Melanistic var). 
1900. P. Iris, Rippon, the present work, vii., plate 64b. 

1902. The following Genera are characterised in Wytsman's " Genera Insectorum," Lepidoptera Rhopalocera, Fam, 
Papilionidtz, Subfam Papilionince, Section TROIDES by Rippon : — 

Section TROIDES, Hubner, page 2 ; Genus Drurya, Aurivillius, type Antimachus, page 4; Genus Schoen- 
bergia, Pagenstecher, type Paradisea, page 5 ; Genus Ornithoptera, type Priamus, Drurya, Boisduval, 
page 6, restricted by Rippon to the green group ; Genus /Etheoptera, Rippon, page g, type Victoriae ; 
Genus Trogonoptera, type Brookeana, Rippon, page 10 ; Genus Pompeoptera, Rippon, type Helena, 
page 11. A list of all the species and their geographical distribution is also given, with 2 plates. 
igoi-igo3. Ornithoptera Darsius, Moore, " Lepidoptera Indica," vol. vi, page 140, plate 418, f. 1 ; larva and pupa 
1 a, ib (the two sexes). 

igoi-igo3. O. Minos, Moore, the same work, vol. v., page 142, plate 4ig, figs 1, larva and pupa, ia $ , ib ? . 
igoi-1903. O. Cerberus, Moore, the same work, vol. v., page 145, plate 420, fig. 1, a Sikkim $ ; ia, a Karen Hill.?; 

ib, a Bhutan 2 ; ic. a Karen Hill 2 . 
1901-1903. O. Heliconoides, Moore, the same work, vol. v., page 147; pi. 421, fig. 1, ia<? ; ib, ic 2 ; from Little 

Brother Island (Andamans). 
igoi-1903. O. ^Eacus, Moore, the same work, vol. v., page 148, plate 422, figs. 1, ia (the two sexes). 
1902. Troides Amphrysus, var. Gardineri=T. Ruficollis of Rothschild, nec ruficollis of Butler, Friihstorfer, " Osthalfte 

Sumatra " (Eastern part of Sumatra) page 57. 
1902. Troides Ruficollis, var. ab. nigricollis, Friihstorfer, the same work, the aberration birmeicollis 6* 2 =flavicollis, 
Druce, from N. Borneo ; and Amphrysus niasicus from Nias $ 2 the aberration Olympia of Honrath. 

1902. Ornithoptera Cassandra, and O. Richmondia, Dodd, " Entomologist," page 17, the distinction between the 

two forms. 

igo3. O. Miranda, v. neomiranda, Friihstorfer, " Osthalfte Sumatra," page igo3 ; (gives the differences between the 
var. and the type form. 

1903. 0. Paradisea, ab. auriflua, Friihstorfer, " Societas Entomologica " (the organ of the Zurich-Hottingen Inter- 

national Entomological Society), page 51, from Kaiser Wilhelmsland. 
1903. O. Criton Critonoides, sub-species, Friihstorfer, the same work, page 51, from Oby Island. 


1764. P. E. T. Panthous, Linnaeus, full title of the work " Lepidopterorum Musei Ludovicae Ulricas. " 

1842. ^rnauta (part) for Ornithoptera, proposed as a generic name), Berge, " Schmetterlinge," page 19. 

1864. Papilio, Section 2, proposed by Felder for the Ornithoptera, " Verh. zu bei Ges. Wien," p. 290. 

1874. O. Hippolytus, Hopffer, " Entomologische Zeitung," Stettin, page 17. 

1876. O. Croesus, J. Gibson," " Encyclopaedia Britannica," gth edition, vol. iv., page 595. 

1879. O. Priamus, Oberthiir, "Annali del Museo di Storia Naturale di Genova " (annals of the Natural History 

Museum of Genoa), page 466, var. Aruana. 

1879. The same work: Beccari " on the difficulty of capturing the Ornithoptera, &c," page 468. 

1879 P. Criton, Oberthiir, the same work, page 468. 

i83i. Ornithoptera Priamus, Konliga, " Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens Hardlinger, page 8. 

1895. ^Bth. Victorias, v. Regis $ 2 , Rothschild, " Entomologist," vol. xxviii., page 78. 

1895. Ornithoptera Urvilliana, var. Ccelestis, $ 2 , Rothschild, " Novit. Zoologies," vol. v., page 216, n. r. 


On page 95, transfer the lines with dates 1833 to follow those of 1832 ; also 1836 to follow 1835. On page 98 for 
" 1765 O. Pegasus," read " 1865 " ; also on the same page for " 1895 O. Helena," read " 1865 " ; on page 100 for "1877 
O. Uruana," read " O. Aruana; on the same page, 9th line from the bottom, for baermanni read bauermanni ; on page 
102 for " 1817 Ornithoptera " read " 1887 " ; on page 103 for " 1880 O. Staudingeri " read " 1888 " ; on page 104, the 
first line from the top, for " 1885 " read " 1896," and transfer the line to its proper position on page 108 ; on page 105 
for " 1862 O. Arruana," read " 1892 " ; on page 108, 13th line from the top for " Ornithptra " read " Ornithoptera." 

On page 93, line 4 from below, for " Entomologie" read Entomologice , 

On page 94, nth line from below, for " Sammlung " read Sammhmgen. Also on the same page, for " Aiislandisch " always read Ailslandisclie ; and on the same page, 
for " Verzeichniss '' bekannt always read V erzeichniss bchannier. 
On page 97, for " Monatschrift " always read Monatsschrift. 
On pages 98, 99, for " Verhandeling " always read Verhandlung. 

On page 99, for "Entomologische " read Entomologie; on page 99, 6th line from below, for " Stett in Entomologische Zeitschrift '' read Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung. 
On page 100, lines 16 and 21 from above read Entomologie for what is printed ; Page 100, line 9 from above, for " Beittrag nur Kenntniss " read Beitrdge zur Kenntniss. 
On page 101, for " Jahrbuch Nassauischen Verhandeling" always read Jahrbikk'er Nassanischen vereins fir Naturkunde; also the same on pages 104, 105 and 106. 
On page 102, line 15 from above for " Stettin" and " Zeitschrift " read Stettiner and Zeitung. 

On page 103, line 23 from above read Zoologischen Jahrbiichern Abtheilung fiir Systematik for what printed; also for " Jahrbiichen " read Jahrbiichem. 
On page 104 and page 108, for "Entomologische" always read Entomologie. 
On page 108, line 12 from below for " Zeitschriff " read Zeitschrift. 


The following summary will show the order in time when 
premising that their discovery may have preceeded 

1719. Pompeoptera Pompeus. 

1719. Ornithoptera Priamus. 

1753. Pompeoptera Hippolytus. 

1758. Ornithoptera Priamus, 2 . 

1764. Pompeoptera Helena, 3 . 

1764. P. Hippolytus, 3. 

1779. P. Minos, 2 . 

1782. Drurya Antimachus, 3 . 

1782. Pompeoptera Amphrysus, 3 . 

1800. P. Cerberus. 

1815. Ornithoptera Poseidon, 3 . 

1816. Pompeoptera Helena, 2 . 
1821. P. Rhadamantus, 3 2 . 
1829. Ornithoptera Urvilliana, 3 . 
1832. O. Poseidon, var. Archideus, 2 . 
1836. P. Rhadamanthus, ■? . 
1836. P. Haliphron, 3 . 
1841. Schoenbergia Tithonus, 3 . 

1845. Pompeoptera Darsius, 3 . 

1846. P. ,Eacus, 3 2 . 
1852. P. Darsius, S . 
1852. P. Poseidon, v. pronomus. 
1852. P. Poseidon, v. euphorion. 
1852. O. Richmondia, 3 . 

1855. Trogonoptera Brookeana, 3 . 

1856. i-Etheoptera Victorias, 2 . 
1856. Pompeoptera Cerberus, 2 . 
1856. Ornithoptera Poseidon, v. Boisduvali, 3 2 . 
1859. O. Crcesus, 3 . 
1859. O. Aruana, 3 . 
1859. Pompeoptera Haliphron, 2 . 
1862. D. Zalmoxis, 3 . 

1864. Ornithoptera Euphorion (Cassandra), 2 . 

1864. O. Richmondia. 

1864. Pompeoptera Hephaestus. 

1864. Poseidon, v. Triton, 3 . 

1864. Pompeoptera Magellanus, 2 3 . 

1864. Ornithoptera Poseidon, v. Oceanus, 3 . 

1865. O. Lydius, 3 2 . 
1865. O. Crcesus, 2 . 
1865. O. Pegasus, 3 2 . 
1865. Pompeoptera Helena, v. Papuensis, 2 . 
1869. P. Miranda, $ . 
1875. P. Ruficollis, 3 . 
1877. P. Cerberus, v. Heliconoides, 3 2. 
1877. Ornithoptera Pegasus, vars. of Hirsch. 
1879. Pompeoptera Criton, 3 2 . 
1879. P. Helena, v. Jupiter, 2 . 

the different species and varieties have been described — 
by 6 or 12 months their description or iconography : — 

1879. P. Helena, v. Heliacon, ab. rutilans, 3 2 . 

1879. P. Haliphron, v. p aliens, 2 . 

1884. P. Haliphron, v. Baiiermanni. 

1885. Sch. Tithonus, 2 . 
1885. Pompeoptera Riedeli, 3. 
1885. P. Helena, v. leda. 
1885. P. Andromache, 3 2 . 

1885. T. Brookeana, 2 

1886. T. Trojana, 3 . 

1887. Pompeoptera Miranda, 3 . 

1887. iEtheoptera Victoria?, v. Reginx. 

1888. Sch. Goliath, 2 . 

1888. Pompeoptera Plateni, 3 2 . 

1888. P. Iris. 3 2. 

1889. T. Brookeana, v. Eleanor. 

1890. Pompeoptera Nereis, 3 2 . 

1890. Pompeoptera Vandepolli, 3 j . 

1891. P. Naias, 3 2 . 

1892. P. Riedeli, 2 . 

1892. Ornithoptera Poseidon, v. Valentine, 3 2 . 

1892. P. Vandepolli, v. Honrathiana 3 2 . 

1892. Drurya Antimachus, 2 . 

1892. D. Zalmoxis, 2 . 

1892. Ornithoptera Eumseus, $ 2 . 

1893. Pompeoptera Socrates = Naias, 3 . 

1893. P. Dohertyi, 3 2 , and vars. 

1894. P. Helena, v. Thestius. 
1894. P- Amphrysus, v. Palabuana. 

1894. P. Cuneiferas, v. Sumatranus = Ritsem3i. 

1894. Ornithoptera Urvilliana, v. Bomemanni. 

1894. Pompeoptera Oblongomaculatus, v. Bonruensis. 

1895. P. Oblongomaculatus, v. Celebensis. 

1895. P. Oblongomaculatus, v. Papuensis, and aber- 
ration Papuanus. 

1895. P. Nereis, v. Propinquus. 

1895. P. Hippolytus, v. Sulaensis. 

1895. P- Hippolytus, v. Cellularis. 

1897. Ornithoptera Urvilliana, vars. miokensis, and 

1897. Pompeoptera Oblongomaculatus, v. Papuensis, 

ab. Carolus. 

1897. P. Irregularis. 

1897. Sch. Titan, 3 . 

i8gg. Sch. Meridionalis 3 2 . 

1899. Sch. Paradisea, v. punctata. 

igo2. Pompeoptera Ruficollis, v. Nigricollis. 

igo3. P. Miranda, v. Neomiranda. 

1903. P. Criton, v. Critonoides. 


Supplementary Species or varieties discovered too late for inclusion in vol. i, of this work. 


Orntthoptera Titan var. of O. Goliath, 3 , H. Grose-Smith, " Rhopalocera Exotica." Ornithoptera, vol. iii., plate iv., page 7. (1897). 

In all the annals of Entomological discovery there have 
been no more wonderful revelations of extraordinary 
beauty and magnitude than among the two sections of 
the order Lepidoptera inhabiting the different latitudes of 
New Guineaand its adjacent islands, especially those of the 
south-eastern and eastern islands. There are multitudes of 
diurnal and crepuscular moths which outrival in variety of 
lovliness and in number of species, the productions of any 
other part of the world, not excepting even those of South 
America ; and this applies to all the different families of 
Heterocera almost without exception. With respect to 
the Diurnea there has been a continual revelation of 
new species unsurpassed in beauty, and of rare species 
which were hitherto almost unique in European collec- 
tions — the Lycsenidae for example. But among the most 
royal of all are the species of Papilionidag, especially 
those of the group of Troides, which contains the 
Genus Schoenbergia, with its Butterflies of Paradise, as I 
consider they merit being called, of which the discoveries of 
the last ten years have filled the hearts of all enthusiastic 
students with astonishment and delight. There are no 
adjectives in any European language which can sufficiently 
express our admiration of these ! As I have said in another 
place, they merit, as butterflies, a sentiment in our re- 
gards quite equal to that we feel when contempla- 
ting the perfections and attractions of the Paradise Birds, 
while in magnitude some of them at least, are the rivals 
of the American Morphos. 

The insect from which the following species is described 
and re-figured by me, is the only example at present 
existing in Europe, so far as I am aware, and is the type 
of Mr. Grose-Smith's plate and description, published in 
his splendid work quoted above. It is one of the most 
magnificent additions he has had the good fortune to place 
in his extensive collection ; and I am indebted to his 
courtesy and kindness for the pleasure of again recording 
it in my own way in this work. 

Schoenbergia Titan was taken in 1901, about 30 or 40 
miles inland from Kapa Kapa, in British New Guinea. 
Sch. Goliath, the 5 of which is figured in the 1st volume 
of this work, would almost appear to be the consort of 
Titan : — probably this is the case ; but as Goliath inhabits 
Kapaur, in Dutch territory, and hundreds of miles from 
the locality of Titan, we cannot feel justified in definitively 
assuming that the two forms belong to the same species 
until we obtain more material for study — especially when 
we consider the exuberance of variety of insect life in New 

$ . Anterior wings sub-scalene-triangulate ; somewhat 
acute at the apex ; the costa gracefully arcuate ; the outer 
margin nearly straight, with only the slightest indications 
of the usual marginal fringe curvatures ; with no marginal 
white lunations, as are in most of the species of the Troides ; 
the inner margin is also nearly a straight line from the 
posterior angle to the base ; colour of the wings rich 
golden green — ranging in tint from golden-emerald and 
apple-green, through every degree of shade to a coppery 
or golden-yellow, according to the position in which it is 
held, as the light falls upon it ; thus, if held exactly opposite 

the light the wings are entirely green except below the 
submedian nervures, where they become coppery yellow : 
viewed obliquely against the light, we obtain the coppery- 
yellow tone, according as the insect is turned about. The 
green of the upper portion of the wing is divided by a 
broad belt of velvety-black from the outer margin to the 
base, occupying about two-thirds of the discoidal cell 
at its distal end, and broadening till at the basal end no 
green remains — this area of black also extends outside the 
cell on the disc to the apical angle, and below the median 
nervure is continued so as to form three dentate patches 
of black between the 3rd discocellular and 1st median, 
and the 1st and 2nd, and 2nd and 3rd median branches ; 
it also is prolonged from the apical to the posterior angles 
as a broad but gradually narrowing submarginal black 
band ; the costa is narrowly black, and with the sub- 
costal nervure encloses a subcostal green stripe ; the veins 
are all very stout, and sufficiently expressed, even in the 
green — the submedian and internal nervures being black. 

Posterior wings rounded in outline, with graceful but 
slight marginal incurvatures between the vein terminals, 
and distinctly excurved at the anal angle in a manner quite 
unlike the outline of the posterior wing of any other 

Colours : silky golden yellow, except for a very broad 
abdominal area of velvety-black, which also occupies 
nearly all the space from the median vein and its 2nd 
branch from the base to the anal angle of the wing, 
curving farthest from the median between its 2nd and 3rd 
branches. A narrow curved streak of golden yellow is at 
the edge of the abdominal margin, from the base ; a 
narrow submarginal band of black extends round the wing 
from the apex into the inner marginal area of black, and is 
narrowly scalloped above with a delicate olive-green, which 
also borders the nervures ; there are three rather large 
sub-orbicular discal green spots between the nervules of 
the upper half of the wings, each one pupilled in its 
inner end by a black spot ; the veins of the wing are brown 
greenish-black, and quite distinctly expressed. 

Under surface of anterior wings silky greenish-golden 
yellow, varying in amount of colour according to the 
position in which the light falls upon it ; the apex and 
upper part of the cell is more richly green ; the costa 
black ; a moderately broad posterior marginal band of 

black, curves towards the veins in this way_,_. 

the distal end of each vein disappearing in the apex of each 
curve ; the interior black margin of the wing is a continu- 
ation to the base of the outer marginal band ; there are 4 
small sub-lunate discal black marks between the 1st and 
2nd discocellular, the 2nd discocellular and first median 
and downward to the 3rd median veins ; below, on the 
submedian fold is also a minute black spot ; between the 
4th and 5th subcostal ner/ules is a patch of black atoms 
or scaling; the veins are all strongly expressed in black, 
especially the median branches ; the pseudoneura of the 
cell are only very faintly shown at their distal ends, and 
appear to be arranged differently from those of other 
species, as will be seen by reference to my plate. Under 
surfaces of the posterior wings as on the upper, ex- 


cept that the yellow of the wings is even a richer gold, and 
still more silky in texture ; the three discal black orbicles 
are slightly edged with green, and the entire area of ab- 
dominal-marginal and submedian black of the upper 
surface of the wings is replaced on the under surface by 
golden green, with a clouding of yellow ; the black veins 
are very thinly and delicately shown, except the basal 
section of the median vein which is stoutly black ; the costa 
narrowly black ; the outer margin only very thinly out- 
lined in black; the abdominal marginal-fringe of hairs 
light burnt-sienna colour, and not very prominent. 

Head black ; eyes, deep brown, underlined with ochra- 
ceous whitish-yellow ; thorax, velvety black ; antennae, 
• black ; abdomen, golden orange yellow, with a triangulate 
dorsal black mark on the anal segment. Thorax beneath, 
black, with a small red pectoral patch only ; legs, black 
and with the tibia shaped like that of Sch. Meridionalis 3- , 
(resembling the tibia of some of the Hymenoptera), as will 
be seen by reference to the plate ; this applies only to the 
2nd and 3rd pairs of legs, especially the latter ; abdomen, 
yellow, black at its junction with the thorax — the first three 
or four articulations are black, with a row of a small lateral 
black dots. The wings are without the marginal light 
fringe-lunules found in most of the Ornithoptera ; but it 
may be pointed out that this is the case with all the <7 $ 
of the Genus Schoenbergia, 0. Priamus, and the upper 
sides of some other species of the Genus Ornithoptera, 
but not on the undersides. In Schoenbergia the lunules 
are not found on either surface, but are always present in 
the females. 

Anterior wing : length of costa g4 mms. ; of posterior 
margin 61 mms. ; of interior margin 55 mms. 

Posterior wing : greatest length 60, and greatest width 
48 mms. 

Length of thorax with head, 22 ; of abdomen, 45 ; and 
of antennae 36 mms. The antennae are delicately grace- 
ful in form and thin — as in all the species of the genus 
the apex being very little thicker than it is at its base. 

Length 1st pair; femur, 14; tibia, 10; tarsi, 15 mms. 

of -2nd „ ; „ 15; ,, 16; ,, 17 ,, 

Legs. 3rd ,, ; ,, 16; ,, 15; ,, 19 ,, 
Habitat : Kapa Kapa, British New Guinea. 

In comparing Titan with some of the species of the 
other genera of the Troides we notice that in all 
the S $ of the Schoenbergice golden or apple green, and a 
richly glowing silky golden-yellow occupies a larger space 
on each surface of the wings than does the black. This 
yellow is not found in any of the <? <? of the Genus 
Ornithoptera, except sparingly. In 0. Priamus only one 
small patch is found on the under surface of the posterior 
wing, with one or two minute yellow dots, and a longi- 
tudinal dorsal stripe in the lemon yellow of the abdomen. 
In 0. Cassandra there are sometimes as many as six or 
seven submarginal spots, in 0. Richmondia there is a 
similar arrangement ; in O. Poseidon five or six in similar 
positions; in 0. Crcesus there are several of different shapes 
above in the golden scarlet, and below in the green of 
the posterior wings ; fewer in number but larger in area 
in 0. LyJius; very small djts on the undersides of 
the posterior wings of 0. Urviliiana. In they£theopterons 
only two, three, or four small spots on either surface of the 
posterior wings, set in the midst of a bright -lemon 
yellow. In the Pompeoptera species we do not meet 
with quite the same quality of yellow. 

The anterior wings of Sch. Paradisea <? have the 
brighter areas of colour arranged nearly the same as in 
Titan, so also do those of Sch. Meridionalis and Tithonns 
but this is never the case with the species of the other 
genera. In all the species of Schoenbergia, the arrange- 
ment of colours of the posterior upper surfaces is similar in 
plan — the black always occupying the same position, the 
ye 1 low becoming more and more dominant till we reach 
Titan, where it almost entirely fills the wing area : the 
same may be said of the under surfaces. In general ap- 
pearance the form of Titan, though larger somewhat, 
suggests that of 0. Priamus or 0. Crcesus: the abdomen 
also bears a resemblance to the bodies of those species. 

A more detailed description of the legs of this species 
studied microscopically will, by the aid of detail figures in 
my plate, give a faint idea of their character. Of course, 
the following is only a very slight contribution to an 
examination of the anatomical structure of the legs. We 
take the posterior or 3rd pair of legs first for obvious 

The tibia at midway of its length on its outer side, 
nearly three times the width of the tarsus ; quite smooth 
and nitid, or without scales or setae ; also slightly de- 
pressed midway, and tumid at the junction (or torulus) 
with the tarsus ; on the side that presses close to the 
thorax, the tibia is convexed, or raised down the middle, 
so as to allow the femur to be pressed close to the outer 
side when in a state of rest ; on the side opposite, which is 
also smooth, where the femur is pressed, is a shallow groove 
4 or 5 mms. long, within five or six mms. of the junction 
with the femur. What purpose this serves it is difficult 
to say. The inner edge of the tibia, i.e., nearest to 
the femur is furnished with two or three rows of very 
minute setae ; there are the usual two short spines at the 
torulus in which the tarsus is inserted ; the femur is about 
half the width of the tibia, with delicate setaeoid scales ; 
concavely depressed along its entire length on both sides, 
so that its outer edge is distinctly carinated ; nearly close 
below the point of union with the apex of the tibia the 
femur widens out a little on either side, with a distinct 
transverse indentation, and a slightly irregularly-shaped 
depression above it. The tarsus is furnished along its 
entire length with a multitude of setae of varying length ; 
the first joint is twice the length ot the second ; the second 
i£ times that of the third, fourth or fifth, and the ungues 
of the 5th joint are only normal in length. The median 
or second pair of legs, are fashioned nearly like the 3rd 
pair, but the femur and tibia are about half the width or 
thickness of the 3rd— the tibia being the widest ; the 
ungues longer than in the third. The anterior pair of legs 
are grooved, moulded, and carinated much like the 3rd 
pair— the scale-like spur nearly half-way of the length of 
the tibia, and gracefully formed ; the 1st joint of the 
tarsus nearly three times as long as either the 2nd, 3rd, or 
5th, the penultimate or 4th joint shorter than either ; the 
ungues equal in length to those of the median pair of legs. 
Close to the junction of the tibia and femur, where they 
press together in a state of rest is a small, nearly U-shaped 
yellow patch, which, viewed microscopically, appears to be 
a bladder-like group of muscles, somewhat like a similar 
organ to be found on the legs of many Lamellicorne 
and Longicorne Coleoptera except that the latter are gener- 
ally covered superficially by pulvilli : these may, in the 
butterfly, act as a pad for the prevention of friction, or may 
be slightly elastic in their function, or serve both purposes. 
Only careful dissection could decide the question. 



Troides Goliath, S. Rothschild, "Novitates Zoologies," Vol. xi, page 311. (1904)- 

Since writing the preceding pages, and drawing the 
plate of Sch. Titan, I have had the opportunity of study- 
ing and figuring the true <? of Sch. Goliath, and the true 
? of Sch. Titan ; by which it will be seen that though 
there is a significant similarity between the two nominal 
species, there are yet some important differences between 
them, especially in the females ; and it will be evident that 
Titan can only take rank as a local variety, or at most as 
a subspecies of the former. 

$ Anterior wings : above intense velvety black and rich 
golden green — the areas of each being arranged almost in 
the same design as is Grose-Smith's Titan, with the follow- 
ing small differences : — The base of the wings in Titan is 
not entirely black, as two subcostal green lines from the 
base enclose the subcostal nervure, while in Goliath this 
is not the case, in the example before me — the base being 
black. In Goliath the space between the 3rd median 
nervule and the submedian nervure is plentifully sprinkled 
with the black scales, which on the nervure become a grad- 
uated black patch reaching nearly to the outer marginal 
band of the wing : in Titan this space is almost free from 
the black scaling : the black scaling is also more extensive 
in Goliath than in Titan ; and the general green of the 
wing, though in some lights more golden, has not in any 
light the vivid tint of yellow as in Titan ; when viewed 
obliquely against the light the anterior wings are as golden 
as is O. Crcesus. The most vivid green is on the costa of 
the wing. 

Posterior wings : vivid silky golden yellow as in Titan — 
all the veins showing conspicuously in black or intensely 
rich green — much more so than in Titan ; the 3 discal 
orbicular spots are of the same prominent green, the low- 
est of the three being the largest, and enclosing a small 
black spot or pupil ; the black marginal border and the black 
submedian areas are edged with the same green : and from 

the band of the wing the inner or abdominal margin has 
also a short curved green line. 

Under surface of anterior wings : similar to that of Titan, 
with the following exceptions : the upper margin of the 
discoidal cell along its entire length is rather broadly 
black. The space between the 4th and 5th subcostal ner- 
vules is nearly entirely black, with a green latitudinal 
stripe nearest the outer margin, and the submedian black 
is rather more extensive than in Titan. The wings very 
golden green — almost yellow, but the upper and outer 
parts of the wings are a deep green. 

Posterior wings as in Titan, except that the discal 
black spots are smaller in proportion, and the lowest nearly 
square, and slightly edged with green, the inner golden 
yellow is silky brownish-golden. 

Thorax, head and antennae as in Titan ; eyes black ; 
abdomen not quite so ruddy yellow as in that variety. 

Length of Costa 82 mms.; of outer margin about 45 
mms.; greatest length of posterior wing 50 mms. ; greatest 
width of wing 36 mms. ; length of abdomen or antennas 
34 mms. ; of thorax with head, 22 mms. 

of Legs 

1st pair : femur, 12 ; tibia, 9 ; tarsi, 14 mms. 
2nd „ ; ,, 13 ; „ 14 ; „ 18 ,, 
3rd „ ; ,,13: 14; „ 18 „ 

Habitat : Geelvink Bay, Dutch New Guinea. 

The great similarity of this form to Mr. Grose-Smith's 
Titan indicates that Oberthiir's Goliath is entitled to stand 
as a representative species, and Titan as a local variety of 

ii 4 


Troides Goliath, v. Titan, Rothschild, "Novitates Zoologicse," Vol. xi., page 312 (1904). 

5 . Anterior wings : warm dark brown of a uniform 
tint ; the veins all sufficiently visible ; between the 3rd and 
4th, and the 4th and 5th subcostal nervules are two almost 
obsolete small groups of white atoms ; a row of 3 minute 
submarginal gray-white spots, situated from below to the 
space between the 2nd and 1st median nervules ; also a 
discal gray white cuneiform spot between the 2nd and 3rd 
median nervules. 

Posterior wings : the same dark brown as on the anterior 
wings ; the discal light area, about equal relatively to that 
of the type of Goliath ; this area is very creamy-white 
above the discal band of black orbicles, and very rufous 
beneath them ; the band of black orbicles is 6 in number, 
the penultimate upper one being the largest, and 
coalescing almost with the uniform dark area of the wing ; 
a black spot is situated also in the upper part of the 
abdominal light space; the abdominal margin is nearly 
orange yellow ; the dark outer marginal band is lunate in 
the same manner as in Goliath. 

Under surface of anterior wings as above, except that 
the light spots are more numerous, and rather larger. 
The submarginal band consists of small spots, sub- 
cuneiform, the upper ones being mere specks of grey ; 
there is also a spot corresponding to that on the upper 

Under surface of posterior wings as above : the light 
area a pure buff white above the orbicles, and orange 
buff below them, becoming very rich buff orange at the 
anal angle ; the black orbicles are ovoid in form ; and the 
light area is not subdued by brown scales, as on the 

upper surface of the wing ; but the dark area nearest the 
submedian black spot is modified by buff white scales. 

The thorax, head and antennae as in Goliath ; the 
abdomen above, grey, the sides and subdorsum rich buff 
orange — the articulations being broadly black. Length of 
costa ng, of outer margin 75, and inner margin 60 mms. 
Greatest length of posterior wings 74 mms. ; greatest 
width 60 mms. 

Length of abdomen or antennae 39, and of thorax with 
the head 23 mms. 

Len°th f Ist P a ' r: f emur > 12 ! tibia, 9; tarsi, 9 mms. 
of Legs H » » 16 5 » *5i » * 8 » 

l 3 r d » 14; >> 15; 20 ,, 

When viewed obliquely opposite a strong light the dark 
parts of the wings exhibit distinct cupreus reflections. 

Hab. Aroa River, British New Guinea. 

In the Tring Museum. 

It will he seen that the differences between the 2 2 of 
Goliath and Titan are comparatively slight, except that 
Goliath contains a moderately large white indented 
mark in the cell of the anterior wings, and that in- 
stead of the numerous white spots of Goliath on the 
anterior wings, the same wings of Titan are nearly 
immaculate. Both forms appear to occur in Dutch and 
British New Guinea, and probably all over this great 

The following table of the $ $ will enable us to readily separate the species of this genus :— 

A. Anterior Wings. 

1. Costa nearly 5'3rds the length of the interior margin, Titan; nearly 2 and i^th times, Paradisea ; 2 times the 
length, Meridionalis ; about 1 and 3-4ths, Tithonus ; nearly two times, Goliath. 

2. Inner margin of wings straight, Titan, Goliath, Paradisea, Tithonus ; nearly straight, Meridionalis. 

3. Wings larger and wider than the posterior wings, Titan, Paradisea. 
3a. Much larger, Meridionalis. 

3b. Very little larger, Tithonus. 

3c. Wings larger, but the same width as the posterior wings, Goliath. 

4. The 3rd subcostal nervure emitted close to the apex of the discoidal cell, Titan, Paradisea, Meridionalis. 
43.. The 3rd subcostal nervure emitted at 3 millimetres below the apex of the cell, Tithonus 

4b. The 3rd subcostal nervure emitted at 2 mms. below the distal end of the cell, Goliath. 
4c. The 4th and 5th subcostal nervures emitted at 8, 9 or 10 mms above, or beyond the apex of the cell, all 
4 species. 

B. Posterior Wings, $ . 

1. Wings rounded, Titan. 

ia. Irregular in form or outline, Tithonus. 

ib. With a caudal prolongation of the 3rd median nervure, or tailed, Paradisea, Meridionalis. 
ibb. The terminal of the tail leaf-like, Meridionalis 

ibbb. Costa nearly straight; the rest of the wing outline somewhat rounded, but terminated almost to a 
point at the anal angle, Goliath. 

2. Upper surface of wings yellow, green and black, Paradisea, Goliath, Titan, and Meridionalis ; the black of the 
latter broken up into lines. 

2a. Wings of the 3 colours, with 3 orbicular black discal spots, Tithonus. 
2aa. With three orbicular green discal spots, black pupilled, Titan. 

2aaa. With 3 orbicular green spots, the lowest with a black pupil, Goliath. 
2b. Under surface of wings without black orbicles, Paradisea, Meridionalis. 

2bb. With black orbicles, and marks, Titan, Tithonus ; in the former there are only three. 
2bbb. With 3 black orbicles only, Goliath. 

3. With white abdominal marginal fringe of long hairs, Meridionalis. 
3a. The fringe creamy white, Paradisea. 

3b. The fringe sienna colour, Tithonus. 

3bb. The fringe very short and light sienna colour, Titan and Goliath. 

C. Head. 

1. Antennae of Titan and Goliath slim like those of Goliath 2 . 

2. Eyes lighter than in the other species of the genus. 
2a. Eyes darker, Goliath. 

D. Thorax. 

1. Thorax entirely black, Titan, Tithonus, Goliath. 

ia. Not entirely black, but with a longitudinal leaf-like yellow mark, Paradisea. 

ib. With four greenish-yellow marks, Meridionalis. 

E. Abdomen. 

1. Golden yellow, Paradisea, Tithonus, Titan, Goliath. 

ia. Lemon-yellow, Meridionalis. 

2. With a long dark striped longitudinal mark, Paradisea. 
2a. With a simple grey longitudinal stripe, Meridionalis. 

2aa. With no longitudinal, or only a faintly greenish, stripe, Tithonus. 
2aaa. With no longitudinal stripe, Titan. 

F. Legs. 

1. Legs black, Titan, Tithonus, Goliath. 
1 a. Femora light yellow, Paradisea. 

ib. Femora White, Meridionalis. 

The Localities of the different species of this Genus may again be given here, for reference : — 
Schoenbergia Paradisea, Finisterre Mountains, German Coast of New Guinea, in south latitude (about) 5°3o' to 

7°o', and East longitude i46°o' to 147°:! 5'. 
Sch. Paradisia, var. Flavescens, Etna Bay, Dutch S.W. Coast of New Guinea, in east longitude (about) i34°45', and 
south latitude 3°3o'. 

Sch. Paradisea, var. Punctata, Erima, Astrolabe Bay, German Coast, in east longitude (about) i46°o' : and south 
latitude 5°5o' to 6°o'. 

Sch. Meridionalis, Mailu, British Territory and other parts of the same territory, extending probably from east 

longitude i43°o' to 149 ; and south latitude 8°3o' to io°I5'. 
Sch. Tithonus, in Waigiu Island, Dutch Territory, east longitude (about) i30°io' to i3i°35' ; and at Kapaur, the 

Western Province of Onan, along the coast probably from east longitude I32°i5' to i34°o', and south latitude 

2°i5' to 4°o'. 

Sch, Goliath ? , also at Kapaur, Dutch Coast, and at Mailu, British S.W. Territory, in east longitude, i46°4o' and 

nearly the same latitude as that of Kapa Kapa. 
Sch. Titan, $ , at Kapa Kapa, British (south coast) Territory, in east longitude (about) i47°2o', and south latitude 
(about) 9°45'. 

Sch. Goliath, $ Geelvink Bay, Dutch New Guinea, in east longitude, about 135 , and south latitude, about 3°3o'. 
Sch. Titan, 2 Aroa River, British New Guinea, in east longitude, about i46°4o' and south latitude from 8°o' to 8°5o'. 



Troides Yictoriffl, Rubianus, Rothschild, " Novitates Zoologies," Vol. XI., page 654 (1904). 

6* . Anterior wings differ from those of the type form 
(figured on Plate 2IA of Vol. I. of this work) in the following 
particulars : — the green of the wings is of a deeper and 
bluer colour, especially towards the costa. This colour 
is more graduated into a rather warmer tint towards the 
lower part of the wing ; the subapical patch is much 
smaller than in Regincs and blue green shaded into 
yellow green on the outer side ; also strongly intersected 
by the black veins. 

Posterior wings : bluish green graduated into a lighter 
golden green ; not modified by scaling as in the type, or 
at least very sparingly ; the lemon yellow submarginal 
band (with its three golden orange enclosed spots seen in 
the type) is entirely absent in this form ; the black outer 
marginal band is considerably broader than in the type. 
The left hind wing and right fore wing have fiery orange 
and violet reflections when viewed against the light, and 
around the sexual brand the black is shot with an 
opalescent blue and violet silky sheen. 

Under surface with all the green marks of the fore 
wings nearly as darkly green as above, and more blue 
towards the costa. 

Under surface of the posterior wings golden green, 
somewhat darker than in the type form, much warmer 
golden towards the abdominal margin ; with no golden 
internervular submarginal spots as in the type, and the 
submarginal black spots at the terminals of" the veins 
much larger than in the type, and of fullest width united 
to the fringe ; the costal marginal black also wider than 
in the type. 

Thorax, head, and antennae intensely black ; abdomen 
rich buff, with a central longtitudinal faintly pink stripe, 
lateral rows of 4 black marks, and beneath 2 lateral and 
a central subdorsal black stripe extending from the base 
to the end of the anal valves. 

Length of costa, 71 mms. ; greatest length of the 
posterior wing, 54 mms. ; greatest width, 37 mms. ; length 
of antennae or abdomen, 32 mms. ; of thorax with head, 
21 mms. 

of Legs 

1st pair: femur, 12; tibia, 10; tarsi, 14 mms. 
2nd „ 10; ,, 14; 17 

3 r d >> >> x 3'» »> !2; ,, 17 

Habitat: Rendova, Solomon Islands (Meek). 

When viewed from a distance againt the light the upper 
green surface of this form- appears a deep olive blue 
green ; if seen obliquely in the same position it appears, 
like all the ornithoptera, a rich cupreus red, with a silky, 
almost metallic chitonous sheen around the sexual brand. 
This variety is remarkable as being a distinct departure 
from the patterns of the others forms of Victoria?, and 
especially from the absence of the yellow submarginal 
band of the hind wing — facts that would almost warrant 
its being given full specific rank, that is as species are made. 

I am indebted to the liberality of the Hon. W. Roths- 
child for the loan of his unique specimen, and type. 

S . Anterior wings very dark smoky brown, darkest 
towards the base; with an outer submarginal band 

of 8 large warm gray internervular spots of diverse 
shapes, the largest being between the 3rd median and 
sub-median veins ; an inner transverse band of discal 
large gray marks and spots, sub-lunate without, — the 
lowest, between the median and sub-median veins, 
becoming very narrow at its lower part, then widening 
and re-uniting with the gray area that fills 2-3rds of the 
inner marginal space from the base. Within the cell is 
a basal patch of gray, scaled with greenish yellow on the 
black to 1 -3rd, and a large creamy gray patch from 
midway of the cell to near its distal end, broadly indented 
from the distal end by a wedge of black ; the base of the 
interior or inner margin is also scaled like the base of the 

Posterior wings black or fumous brown ; base of cell 
and above it scaled with golden gray ; the disc creamy 
gray, with an extra band of internervular conical large 
black marks, two of them separated from the black veins, 
and lunate towards the outer margin by the gray 
sub-marginal marks that follow ; the gray extends also to 
the inner, or abdominal margin ; the first 4 veins are 
broadly black, and the outer margin very broadly black, 
as it is entirely a continuation of the discal black of the 

Under surface of anterior wings : with all the markings 
as above, except that the discocellular mark is edged with 
chrome yellow at its basal end. The basal patch is 
yellow and faintly scaled, and there are 2 internervular 
yellow stripes between the first 3 subcostal branches. 

Under surface of posterior wings : all markings nearly 
the same as above, except that the basal patch is rather 
more extensive and chrome yellow, and the upper and 
lower divisions of the discal light area are of the same 
yellow, graduated into the gray ; a small black dot is 
found also in the subcostal yellow division, and the yellow 
suffuses the gray submarginal mark between the 1st and 
2nd subcostal nervules. 

The thorax, head, atennse and base of the abdomen 
are black ; the abdomen above creamy buff white, 
becoming yellow at the sides and subdorsum, and the 
usual lateral black dots replaced by a continuous broad 
black line united with the subdorsal black ; the lower 
yellow articulations strongly divided with black, and a 
subanal black mark. 

Length of costa, 101 mms. ; of outer or hind margin, 
70 mms. ; and of anterior or inner margin, 55 mms. 
Greatest length of posterior wing, 75 mms. ; greatest 
width 46 mms. Length of abdomen or antennas, 37 
mms. ; and of thorax with head, 24 mms. 

Habitat : Rendova, Solomon Islands (Meek). 

In the Tring Museum. 

The pattern of Rubianus is sufficiently distinct from 
that of the females of the type form ; but the greatest dis- 
tinctness from the type of Victorias is in the S , as I 
have shewn above. Even the outer margin of the anterior 
wings of Rubianus is more equally curved from the 
apical angle to the base of the interior margin than in the 
type Victories. 


^THEOPTERA VICTORIA, var. Isabella. 

Troides, Victoria, Isabella, Rothschild, "Novitates Zoologicae" Vol. II., p. 655 (1904), 

6* . Anterior wings : most closely resemble the ex- 
ample of M. Regince figured in Vol. I. plate 23b of this 
work. The differences are comparatively few, and are as 
follows : — The large subapical green patch is golden green 
all over, with green atoms along the 2nd and 3rd sub- 
median branch, extending inward a little beyond the 
apical patch as a narrow line ; the inner outline of 
the patch is more irregular than in Regince, and the lower 
end is not pointed as in Regince. The colour of this green 
patch is subject to variation of intensity, according to the 
position of the insect, but is not so golden-shot as in 
Regince, at least on the right wing, whatever light it may 
be viewed in — but on the other wing it becomes a very 
vivid greenish golden yellow as in Regince ; the lower 
3rd of the patch has on the inner side a small black 
spot encroaching on it, the size of the patch is 
relatively to the size of the insect, the same as in Regince. 
The basal area of colour is a slightly warm Veronese 
green, more golden near the precostal nervure,as in the types 
of Victoria and Regince. This basal green area does not be- 
come very much more golden even when viewed opposite the 
light. The discal black invades the green with a large 
indentation between the median and sub-median ner- 
vures, and the whole of the dark cell area, and that 
above and around the sexual brand is, in the proper 
light, beautifully opalescent. 

Posterior wings : closely resemble those of Regince 
(see Vol. I., plate 23b, figure 1), except in the green being 
a richer and more uniform colour, though still tending to 
become rather golden towards the base, as in Regince ; the 
black scaling in the cell is intense, extending from the 
distal end nearly to the base as a black jewelled cone, 
with its apex at the base of the wing as a fine point, all 
the veins being margined on both sides with green scales 
which extend on to the disc, as in all the other forms ; 
indeed the ground plan of the wing is a uniform velvety- 
black surface, on which the green pattern with all its 
minute details is produced by more or less green scaling, 
until the golden-green submarginal band is reached, where 
the colour is a continuous band of four rich golden-green 
curved macula?, extending from the anal to near the 
apical angles — the three lower ones enclosing vivid golden 
orange spots— all of which by contact with the deep 
black of the disc and margins, causes the colours to 
appear inexpressibly vivid and beautiful. 

[There are several ways of viewing this insect, if we 
wish to understand its beauties : — (1) Seen very ob- 
liquely opposite the light, the black of the lower wing is 
shot with rich purple and violet. (2) Opposite the 

light in a natural position, the green of all the wings is 
nearly golden and the yellows all become inexpressibly 
silky golden, especially on the left wings ; and the black 
of the cell, and below it are a subdued opalescence. (3) 
Viewed very obliquely against the light, the greens become 
cupreus, and the yellow saffron coloured, the black of the 
cell like polished metal with intense ultramarine blue, 
while the opposite wing may be opalescent with blue and 
gold and along the edges of some of the veins and the sub- 
median fold we have flaming ridges of fiery brilliance. 
(4) Viewed against the light at a moderate distance, all 
the green becomes deep and dark, and if the distance is 
a little increased, the green of the cell and disc appear 
quite violet black, and the anterior wing apical patch and 
posterior green and golden band are very greatly subdued. 
It is evident that, as is the case of Humming Birds and 
Birds of Paradise, in a state of nature, when flying or 
even resting, these insects must often be nearly invisible, 
or so modified in appearance as to appear anything but 
what they are.] 

Under surface of anterior wings : as in Regince, except 
that the cell and subdiscal areas of black are rather more 
extensive, the median nervure and its branches more 
broadly black bordered, the whole appearance of the 
wing pattern is bolder, and the green areas not quite so 
golden ; there is also a black spot between the 3rd and 
4th submedian veins. Under surface of posterior wings 
as in Regince, but more uniform in its golden tint, and the 
three submarginal orange spots are rather larger and more 
elongate than in Regince. [Viewed very obliquely against 
the light the green of the wings appears vivid saffron 
yellow ; opposite the light intense golden green.] 

Length of costa 30 rams. ; greatest width of primary 
wing 35 mms. Greatest length of posterior wing 60 mms. ; 
greatest width 34 mms. Length of abdomen 36, of an- 
tennas 34, and of thorax with head 34 mms. The colour 
and markings of the abdomen do not differ from that of 

j fist pair: femur, 12; tibia, 8; tarsi, 15 mms. 

11 ; 


Habitat: Isabella Island, Solomon Archipelago. (Meek). 
In the Tring Museum. 

This variety is most closely allied to Regince, Salvin. 



As I have been quite unable to ascertain in what pub- 
lication this insect has been described, and by whom, and 
also its name, though I have been assured that it has 
been described by a Dutch Entomologist, I have thought 
it best to provisionally propose the above name, v. Obiensis, 
so as to prevent further delay. Later on, if I obtain the 
required information, I will acknowledge it, when the above 
name may or may not, become a synonym. 

S . Anterior wings : deep velvety black, with a discal 
warm brown pupseform sexual mark ; the subcostal colour 
band is silvery greenish azurine blue, rather broad uniform- 
ly, extending from the base to the apex of the wing ; the 
interior submarginal band of the same green extends from 
the base till half way up the outer margin of the wings, 
when it becomes divided into three twin spots to within a 
little distance from the apex, the highest spot small and 
composed of bluish-green atoms ; the median nervure 
slighty indicated by a line of bluish atoms, otherwise the 
neuration is only obscurely to be seen. 

Posterior wings of the same greenish blue, the veins, 
other than the subcostal and median, only faintly seen ; a 
few delicate black hairs flow from the base into the cell 
a little below it, and a few black atoms are equally scater- 
ed over the wing, but can only be seen by examining the 
wing closely ; there are 8 lemon-orange internervular spots 
(nearly obsolete) near the outer margin ; and a narrow 
black submarginal border ; the abdominal marginal fold 
is dark brown. [Viewed obliquely opposite the light, 
the left lower wing becomes a brilliant silvery azure blue, 
with salmon coloured reflections, and the colour band of 
the anterior wing silvery green ; opposite the light, in the 
ordinary way, the wings are warm bluish silvery green ; 
viewed against the light the wings become lilac, and slight- 
ly saffron green; obliquely they are entirely suffused "with 
silvery salmon tints.] The longitudinal thoracic mark 
the same colour as in the wing. 

Undersurface of anterior wing, with the transverse discal 
colour marks silvery azure-blue on the lower three, 
and all the others to the sub-costa silvery olive green ; the 
distal end of the cell on its lower half with a moderately 
large green spot, extending nearly half way towards the 
base, and there is a short elongate and green congeries of 
atoms close to the submedian nervure, midway of the cell. 

Under surface of the posterior wings golden green, but 
with the lower half of the cell, and part of the area 
beneath the median nervure silvery azure blue ; an elon- 

gate spot of golden yellow between the costal and sub- 
costal veins ; a transverse band of suborbicular black 
discal spots, 5 in number, followed by an outer row of 
golden yellow spots ; the submedian area half-way from 
the anal angle rich yellow, shading into the blue above ; 
the abdominal fold vivid brown, and fringe of hairs chest- 
nut tint. 

[Viewed opposite the light the appearance is nearly 
normal, or very slightly warmer ; obliquely against the 
light the colours are subdued, and shot with a saffron 
yellow sheen, except on the blue ; when the sky is clouded 
the greens appear olive toned.] 

The abdomen is golden orange yellow as in Eumceus. 
Length of costa 76, of hind margin 53, and of inner margin 
35 mms. Greatest length of posterior wing 44, and width 
35 mms. Length of abdomen or antennae 34, and of the 
thorax with head 21 mms. 

Habitat: Obi or Oby Major. (Waterstradt). 

Obi is a small island S. of Batjan, or slightly S.W. of 
Djillolo, in about E. longitude I27°22' to I23°i2' and 
about S. latitude i° 18' to i° 14'. 

This form, probably a local variety of Aruana, appears 
to be closely allied to Eumceus, and is another of those 
transitional links between Aruana and Urvilliana, of which 
more will probably come to hand in the future. 

The most important difference between Obiensis and 
EumcBUS is the character of the different blue colours. In 
Obiensis also the blue extends uniformly over the coloured 
portions of the wings ; in Eumceus there is a decided patch 
of green on the posterior wings to below the first subcostal 
nervule ; there are discal black orbicles towards the outer 
margin, in Obiensis there are none, but there are two small 
yellow spots and traces of a third ; and while on the 
anterior wings the median vein and its branches are well 
marked with green atoms, only a few blue atomic scales 
indicate the direction of the median vein in Obiensis. On 
the under-surface of Eumceus the cell is nearly occupied 
by the green area, while in Obiensis less than i-4th of the 
cell is coloured. On the posterior wing of Eumceus there 
are no submarginal golden spots, but in Obiensis they are 
fully present. 

In the Tring Museum and other collections. 


P0MPE0PTERA MIRANDA, var. Neomiranda. 

Friihstorfer, Ornithoptera Neomiranda, " Societas Entomologica, Zurich," t.c. p. 57 (1903) ; "Osthalfte Sumatra," p. 1903 (1903). 

This splendid insect may be worthy of full specific rank. 
It is a much larger form than the $ of Miranda, and though 
the anterior wings closely resemble those of the latter, 
their great size, more rounded apex, and the adnervular 
yellow rays, with the distal yellow mark of the cell differ- 
entiate Neomiranda from Miranda. But in the posterior 
wings we observe greater differences. The wings have a 
stronger, bolder appearance, the submarginal (or admar- 
ginal) border of black is wider and more strongly denticu- 
lated than in Miranda, and altogether there is a strong 
suggestion of its specific difference. 

$ . Anterior wings deep velvet black, with an appear- 
ance or suggestion of a bluish tint : but this is so faint and 
fugitive as to completely elude any definition of it. In 
Miranda the violet tint is easily seen in a proper light, but 
here we have a strong black which we know must have a 
violet blue mingling, though the eye is unable to find that 

The veins, except the median, are almost invisible, being 
hidden by the velvety black, except where they pass 
through the yellow rays ; the adnervular rays extend from 
the inner angle to the 2nd subcostal nervule, and are 
longer than in Miranda : these are all yellow and graduated 
into a dull grey towards the outer margin, and uniformly 
subdued by brown scales ; a small area of the same colour 
is at the distal end of the discoidal cell, and the terminal 
of the central pseudoneurus. 

Posterior wings : very rich golden yellow, with prominent 
black veins ; base of wings black ; the submarginal (or 
admarginal) dark border broad, especially towards the 
anal angle, with long dentations or lunations interiorly, 
and with the outline of the wing also deeply dentate or 
lunate : this border is violet black, like the black of the 

anterior wing ; the interior marginal fold is also purple 
black. A delicate hairy fringe flows from the base over 
the yellow of the cell and submedian area. 

Undersurface of anterior wings as above, except that 
undefinable sheen of the black, is rather more seen, and 
the yellow ravs and yellow end of the cell are not subdued 
by the brown scaling. 

Undersurface of posterior wings as above, except that 
the yellow is slightly richer, and the admarginal dentate 
black border is slightly narrower than above — the apices 
of the dentations of the upper surface appearing through 
as green apices above the black of the undersurface ; the 
costal, sub costal and basal areas of the wings black ; the 
interior or abdominal margin black, light sienna, and with 
a burnt umber fringe. 

The hind or outer margin is nearly straight, with white 
fringe lunules : the interior margin is also nearly straight. 
Length of abdomen or antennae 35 mms. [In the example 
before me the antennae are too short, having been broken 
and glued on again.] Length of thorax with head 23 mms. 

Head, antennae and thorax black ; eyes nitid brown ; 
abdomen golden yellow, with a dorsal burnt sienna stripe ; 
anal valves buff white. 

Length of costa 90, of outer margin 63, and of inner 
margin about 45 mms ; greatest length of posterior wing 
63, and width about 40 mms. 

Habitat, W. Sumatra, (Friihstorfer). 

In the Tring Museum. 


Genus SCHOENBERGIA, Pagenstecher. 

Section Phal^nosoma, Rippon. 

The characteristics of Mr. Rothschild's well-named 
Sch. Chimsera are so clearly differentiated from all other 
known species of Troides, that it seemed justifiable to 
me to assign it a position in a new section of the genus 
Schoenbergia. And though, prima facie, a casual examina- 
tion of the <? would not suggest any particular departure 
from the general appearance of other species of the 
genus, a more careful study would prove its very unusual 
or remarkable character. No one would be likely to 
overlook this fact in the 2 , any more than they would in 
the case of the 2 of Ornithoptera Lydius. 

The following is the diagnosis of the sectional 
characters of Sch. Chimsera. 

$ Anterior wings. Costa not so gracefully arcuate as 
in Titan or Paradisia ; the anterior angle more rounded ; 
the wing rather larger in proportion to the posterior wing 
than in the general species of the genus ; broader in pro- 
portion also ; the exterior margin somewhat incurved 
along its length [in Titan, Goliath, &c. (except Paradisia 
and Meridionalis) it is nearly straight] ; the interior mar- 
gin deviates irregularly from the nearly straight line of 
all the other species except Meridionalis ; the green areas 
of the upper surface are three in number. In all the 
other species they are only two, though these species 
differ very much from each other in other respects. From 
the base of the wing long hairs may be seen by an oblique 
examination. Posterior wing near the anal angle very 
concave ; all other species are without this incurvature 
except slightly in Goliath. The entire area of black from 

the abdominal margin inward is covered with long black 
hairs standing above the velvety black, and curved for- 
ward in one direction ; the abdominal-marginal fringe is 
also moderately long. The thorax is not only of the 
usual densely black appearance, but is also furnished with 
a multitude of long fine black hairs, which proceed from 
every part of it, as on the wing. The abdomen on its 
subdorsum is furnished with yellow fringe-like scales from 
every articulation, quite unlike what obtains in any other 
species. The abdominal marginal fringe is long, but 

2 Posterior wings larger in proportion than the an- 
terior. Both wings in some undefined way unlike those 
of other Ornithoptera ; undersurface of the anterior wings 
with the row of submarginal marks all fringed with long 
white scales. The fringe lunules on both wings and sur- 
faces are moth-like. The posterior wing on the upper 
surface at half way from base to end of the cell clothed 
with long hairs, and when viewed obliquely, are seen to 
be raised high above the dark brown surface of the wing; 
the abdominal-marginal fringe fairly long and dense. The 
thorax is broad and moth-like, with a multitude of long 
black hairs starting from all parts of it ; abdomen very 
moth-like, each joint widely banded with fringed-black 
scales, which rise above and below the body, as do also 
the yellow ones. 

The whole aspect of the 2 is that of a moth — the body 
suggesting a Sphinge, and the thorax a Bombyx. 

J 22 


Troides Chimara, Rothschild, "Novitates Zoologicae," Vol. XI, p. 311 (1902). 

$ Anterior wings deep velvety black, with 3 extensive 
areas of golden emerald green. The first commences at 
i-4th of the wing length from the base as a thin line run- 
ning parallel with the subcostal vein to the apical angle, 
but broadens out in its course to the 5th subcostal 
nervule, being intersected by the 4th s-c nervule and 
divided into two parts at the outer margin, the inner 
edges and one small posterior portion of the green 
above being rather heavily shaded, and the area mid- 
way richly golden ; the 2nd area commences on the 
median nervure at the base as a narrow curved band at 
halfway of which it unites with the large irregular striped 
discal area which transversly occupies a position of the 
spaces between the median branches and a little below 
its 4th ; this area entends to within a little of the 
posterior margin, and is graduated into black at all points 
by green atoms, and within the green by black scaling : 
there is also a small patch of black scaling between the 
3rd and 4th median branches ; the 3rd is a narrow band 
extending parallel with the interior margin, nearly to the 
posterior angle. 

Under surface rich golden green beautifully shaded ; 
the costa and upper part of the discoidal cell, and a small 
patch intersected by the discocellular vein, deep black ; 
a transverse discal band of black costal veins ; a marginal 
black border commences at the base of anterior angle, 
being curiously indented by green along its course, be- 
coming very broad as it reaches the apical or anterior 
angles— and exclusively at this part a rather long thin 
green line. 

Posterior wings : The central area of wings (including the 
cell, the subcostal, and the greater part of the disc) silky 
golden yellow, enclosing between the 2nd discoidal and 
1st median nervules a small black spot contained with- 
in a green circle ; the remainder of the wing (with the 
exception of a narrow outer marginal band and the 
broad submedian area of black) is golden emerald 
green — graduated into the black by green atoms ; a trans- 
verse row of three subtriangulate black spots parallel 
to the outer margin ; the base is black ; there is also an 
interior marginal short green stripe near to the base ; the 
abdominal fringe is sienna colour. 

Undersurface as above in general arrangement of 
pattern and colour, but the yellow area is indescribably 
golden, changing with light and position into dark silky 
ochraceous shades ; the costal and outer margins with 
only a black outline; the abdominal marginal and part 
of the submedian area is pearly rufous grey ; ah the rest 
of the wings golden green, except a black triangulate 
submedian spot, a few costal black scales, and a trans- 

verse row of three subdiscal black orbicles. A green 
round spot, edged with black, is situated between the 2nd 
discoidal and 1st median nervules in the yellow area. 

Head : Antennse black ; eyes nitid rufescent ; thorax 
velvety black, with a multitude of long black hairs ; the 
small red pectoral patch concealing the breathing organs 
is of this shape ; the legs black and strong; abdomen 

yellow with broad lateral black marks on each segment, 
and on the underside each segment is outlined also with 
black ; the usual triangulate black mark on the upper 
side of the anal segment ; the subdorsum with yellow 
fringe scales, as described in the diagnosis of the Section 
on page 121. 

Length of antennse or abdomen 76 mms. ; of exterior 
margin 55 mms. ; of inner margin 40 mms. Greatest length 
of posterior wing 49 mms. ; greatest width 36 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair: femur, 9; tibia, 10; tarsi, 13 mms. 
2nd „ „ 11; ,, 14; „ 15 ». 
3rd „ „ 11; „ 13; J 6 „ 

Length of abdomen or antennse 35 mms. ; of thorax 
with head 21 mms. 

2 Anterior wings dark velvety brown ; discoidal cell 
with a subdiscal nearly transverse, irregularly shaped 
white patch, subdued by dark grey atoms ; a transverse 
row of eight ochraceous white marks more or less uniform, 
and varying in size from a small spot below to the largest 
between the 2nd and 3rd median branches — one spot is 
stained brown. A second subdiscal transverse row starts 
from near the interior angle, and curves irregularly up in 
an inward direction to near the subcostal vein, almost 
close to the 1st spot of the first row, and furthest from 
the apical and outer margin — these are grey-white, 
tinged with blue, and subdued by scaling, and are im- 
perfectly sub-hastate or cuneiform, and of varying size ; 
a slight congeries of white scales on the interior margin 
at the end of the interno-median nervule ; the marginal 
lunations are prominently white and fringe-like, like those 
of a moth. 

Undersurface very much as above, except that the 
light marks are larger and creamy white, more determin- 
ate in shape. The 2nd discal transverse row has all its 
marks edged most prominently with white fringe-like 
scales, giving a moth-like appearance to the wings ; and 
there are three streaks of similar scales in the spaces en- 
closed by the 3rd, 4th and 5th subcostal nervules. The 
fringe lunules as above. 

I2 3 

Posterior wings : From the base to the distal end of 
cell with 3-/|.th of the submedian, and one half of the 
costal and subcostal areas, very dark brown ; the disc is 
ochraceous white, shaded towards the outer margin more 
and more deeply with bluish grey ; midway of this large 
area is a transverse curved band of large orbicular black 
spots, 7 in number — the 7th or submedian united with 
the general dark area, and distorted in shape. Below the 
orbicles are internervular lunate shades of yellow beneath 
the blue grey — the whole subdued by a clouding of grey 
atoms ; a moderately broad marginal band of black 
lunations ; a small white spot at the distal end of the 
cell ; the fringe lunules white and scaled, moth-like. The 
abdominal fringe fairly long and dark. 

Undersurface as above, except that the white and 
yellow parts are pure — the yellow being aureolin in colour 
and the precostal cell white. All the discal veins are 
very delicate. 

Head : Antennae black, moderately stout ; eyes rufous 
brown, underlined with white ; thorax above densely 
black with a multitude of long, mothlike hairs (viewed 
obliquely) ; with the usual pectoral red marks ; the legs 
stout and prominent ; abdomen yellow, broadly banded 
with black at each articulation — occupying more space 
than the yellow ; the black and yellow consist of long 
hair-like scales extending even outside the outline of the 
body, giving it much the appearance of the abdomen of 
a Sphinge moth or that of an Anthercea. When the 
butterfly is examined in the right position, it is found to be 

partly covered with long hairs, as may be seen by my 
diagram on the supplementary plate L. 

Length of abdomen or antennas 35 ; of thorax with the 
head23inms. Anterior wing: length of costaggmms. ; 
of exterior margin 70 mms. ; of interior margin 45 mms. ; 
Posterior wing : greatest length 74 mms. ; width 45 mms. 

Length of 

1st pair: femur, g; tibia, 10; tarsi, 11 mms. 
2nd ,, ,, 14 ; ,, 15 ; ,, 15 
3rd ,, ,, 14; „ 12; ,, 17 ,, 

Habitat : Owgarra north of the head of the Aroa River, 
British New Guinea. Discovered by Mr. Meek, to whom 
we are indebted for the sending of a multitude of the most 
beautiful species of butterflies and moths that have ever 
enriched our collections. New Guinea and its adjacent 
islands certainly furnish many of the most wonderful and 
beautiful insects and birds in the world. Among the 
lepidoptera we may mention those of the lovely genus 
Delias of the Pieridcz ; and a large number of Bombyces, 
Geometridse and Pyralidse. Indeed N. Guinea is a won- 
derland in its productions. I am indebted to my friends 
Mr. H. Grose-Smith and Col. Rimington for the pleasure 
of figuring and describing this wonderful form ; but 
I at first was able to closely examine several fine examples, 
with the types, by the kindness of its first possessor, the 
Hon. W. Rothschild, who discovered a ? in a lot of 
common or well-known things in papers, just at the 
moment when he had almost abandoned the hope of 
finding anything that was new to him. Soon after this 
he received from Mr. Meek a number of examples of both 
sexes, to the delight of himself and all Naturalists. 




Stretching away from about 4 8' of South Latitude, where the most Southern point of Borneo (the 2nd largest 
island in the world) commences, to about 18 35' North Latitude, (where we find the Babuyan Islands) extends a mass 
of more or less interrupted land, which, from its appearance must, at some period of the earth's past history, have been 
a large continent at least 1,440 miles in length, and quite 600 miles wide at its widest from West to East. It is 
possible that it may have been double that width, for its most westerly point commences at about 109 East Longi- 
tude, near the Burong Isles on the West Coast of Sarawak, and its most easterly, about 130 30' East Longitude on 
the East Coast of the island of Mindanao. This (now theoretical) area of land includes the immense island of Borneo on 
the West side, the Balabac Straits and islets, the peninsula-like island Palawan, and its offshoots Kalamon, Busuango, 
Koron Islets, Mindoro Straits and Mindoro, Lubang and the West Coast of the large Philippine Island of Luzon, of 
which Manilla is the chief port, and the Babuyan Islands ; while on the East we have Borneo, the Sulu Archipelago 
curving away farther and farther eastward, then with an inclination north-west to Samar, still westing more and 
more till the Philippines again terminate on the East Coast of Luzon at its most northerly point. In other words this 
area includes the whole of Borneo, the Sulu Sea and Archipelago, and the Philippines. 

This is one of the richest zoological regions on the globe, and its productions are almost incalculable in 
number. The land shells of the Philippine Islands number probably nearly 400 species and 12 genera, generally large 
and beautiful ; the fluviatile species found by the late Hugh Cuming were more than 100. Borneo must supply 
over fifty species of land shells belonging to at least 9 genera, besides multitudes of fresh water univalves and bivalves — 
besides these, there are also the productions of the Sulu Archipelago. The Coleoptera of the Philippines, though 
perhaps not so large as some of those of Borneo, furnish us with many beautiful things, notably the glorious species of 
Pachyrinchidce, most of them like living jewels. The birds are sufficiently numerous, and among their number are many 
most beautiful species. The same may be said of Borneo. 

Among the numerous lepidoptera of this immense region the Ornithoptera are well represented, though perhaps not 
quite so well as in the New Guinea regions. In Borneo we have Amphrysus and its varieties Rufi- and Flavicollis, 
Rhadamantus {or Nephereus), which is a native of Mindoro, Mindanao, and Luzon ; Plateni in Palawan, also Magellamis 
in Luzon, East Mindanao, Babuyanes, Polillo ; T. Brookeana at Sarawak in West Borneo, Kina Balu, North Borneo, 
&c; T. Trojana, a still more beautiful representative of the genus, is peculiar to Palawan ; P. Helena, v. celebensis is 
found in Borneo; P. Miranda in Sarawak and Sandakan, (North Borneo); P. Andromache at Kina Balu and P. Cerberus 
in the Natuna Islands. 

With respect to Borneo, its northern portion appears to be the richest in Ornithoptera, of which two Genera 
are found. This area of the island is about 24,000 square miles in extent, completely surrounded by the sea except to 
the south and west. The coast line is extremely irregular, over 600 miles in length, with several good harbours. The 
Kina River is navigable for a distance of 200 miles by large steam launches. Kina Balu, or the Chinese Widow, rich 
in butterflies, many of them very fine species, is 13,700 feet high, and belongs to a mountain range which extends south 
westerly, with few interruptions, to about i° o' north latitude, where its height is from 3,000 to 4,000 feet at Batang 
Lupar. The north-west headland at the north extremity of the island consists of the red sandstone cliffs of Pulu 
Balhalla, which rise perpendicularly to a height of 600 feet or more. In their many caverns the nests of Collocalia 
Linchii, the edible Swallow, are abundant. Behind this cliff, however, low flat land stretches in every direction, and 
indeed probably down the west side of the island parrallel to the long mountain range spoken of above, and also along 
the coast to Sandakan Harbour in Labuk Bay, and eastward to Labuk. Elopura is on the north-west shore 
of the bay, and the harbour has an entrance 1 mile wide, varying in breath from 3 to 10 miles along its 
16 miles of length. The river Sigalind is a large one debouching at the head of the bay, 16 miles from 
Elopura, and winding west and north-west, lined for miles with mangroves, followed by Nipa Palms, the huge 
forest trees, and tangle of vegetation rising to the height of 200 feet on each side of the river, which narrrows more and more 
to its source. Many of the trees are 150 feet high, their summits merging in those of others by dense masses of creepers, 
which spring from the branches and overwhelm them ; the roots of the trees are strengthened by buttresses smooth and flat 
of corresponding size, which support the stem for 30 feet from the ground. High up in the branches the bird's nest 
fern Neottopteris sp., Elk's Horn Fern, Platycerium sp. and orchids abound : and also the cobalt-blue Irena, Fruit-eating 
Pigeons, Hornbills, the Racquet-tailed Drongo shrike, Dicrurus brachypterus, [a member of the dicrurince or double tailed 
birds, which is not a shrike at all, but a Wood or Forest Swallow, (a beautiful group of moderate sized birds spread 
over a large portion of the globe, from India and the eastern islands to Australia)] , is also found. This species is blue 
black, with a head crest which bends back over the neck, and the two outer tail feathers, more than twice the length of 
the others, are naked throughout the greater part of their length, or from 12 to 14 inches, then again webbed so as to form 
a spatulous terminal — each of the feathers from its naked portion describing a most graceful curve. 

Sarawak, another part of Borneo, where fine Ornithoptera abound, situated i° 40' North Latitude, and about 109 
50' of East Longitude, is at the Northern portion of the island on the west side, which bulges out very much westward, 


with an enormous bay at the head of it extending north and north-east to Cape Sirik. This bay receives the inland 
waters of the River Lupar, which has it sources somewhere near the Saribu-Saratus Mountains, and the 3,000 
or, 4000 feet high Batang Lupar Mountains. Mount Padang, 3,200 feet, Pontianak and the Great Kapua River, which 
with a trend n-north-east extends inland an immense distance, are some of the prominent parts of this 
western portion of Borneo. Hereabout is found P. Miranda (as well as in North Borneo) ; while an allied species P. 
Neomiranda inhabits Western Sumatra, an island more western still : and T. Brookeam is found in both East and 
West Borneo and Sumatra, and along its western coast. 

Although there are lofty mountains in Borneo as we see by a map, many of them have been, and may be still, 
volcanic, the greater part of the island is so low and flat as to suggest the idea that in a comparatively recent period, it 
has sunk, as Mr. Andrew Murray has said, so as to have been an impassable morass, when it was separated from the 
great Asiatic Continent. 

Altogether, Borneo is a rich zoological region, and the extent of its wealth in animal life certainly cannot 
yet have been nearly ascertained, to say nothing of its flora, and the revelations which a more extended knowledge of 
its geology may bring to the notice of its students and explorers. Our knowledge of its insects will probably result in 
immense additions to our lists when all the mountainous districts of the interior, especially in the south, have 
been fully examined. So that there is yet work for years to come. The same probably holds good with regard 
to birds, of which over 400 species are known, of which 90 are peculiar, belonging to 124 genera— a significant indication 
of the possibilities of its avifauna. Among these are 3 Woodpeckers, 4 Kingfishers, 4 Goatsuckers, 2 Owls, 1 Sunbird, 
6 Pittas, 7 Pheasants and 2 Partridges. The insects and shells furnish a large number of peculiar forms. Ihe 
mammals number at least 82 species— 66 of them arboreal, and few, if any, terrestrial— 9-1 oths of this number being 
peculiar to the island. 

The wealth of Sumatra must be nearly or quite as great, considering that 330 Birds are known to exist, 
(including the crimson-breasted Trogons and the Argus Pheasant) : and among the Mammals 12 Monkeys, 10 Bats, 8 
Cats, 9 Squirrels, 2 Rats and 1 Swine. According to Murray, who quotes from Miiller's " Verhandlungen " (1835) the 
whole number of Mammalia then known was over 70 species, distributed among 38 genera— since then it is uncertain 
how many have been added to the list. 

The Philippine Archipelago consists of a group of 29 larger or smaller islands, besides a very large number of very 
small islets and rocks, followed south-westward by the crowd of small islands called the Sulu Archipelago. The 
largest of the Philippine group are Luzon, Mindoro, Panay, Samar, Leite, Negros, Sebu, Bohul, Mindanao (or 
Magindano), and the western island of Palawan. The forms of some of these are most remarkable, especially of Luzon 
and Mindanao, giving a coast line for each of immense extent, compared with its actual size, just as the case is with 
the more eastern island of Gilolo ; and when one comes to carefully examine and study the chart of this remarkable 
group, one cannot escape the conviction that other forms of Ornithoptera, and new localities for those already known may 
yet be discovered in the intricate mazes of the archipelago, in spite of our fairly extended knowledge of its natural 

The flora of the Philippines as at present known, according to Mr. R. A. Rolfe of Kew, consists of 2,108 species 
of Dicotyledonous Plants, belonging to 723 genera ; and 1,340 Monocotyledonous species belonging to 273 genera. 
The ferns number 497, of which 52 are peculiar to the Archipelago ; there are also 200 timber trees. 

The island of Celebes is as peculiar in form and extensive coast line as are some of the Philippines. On the eastern 
and western sides a system of mountain chains runs nearly north-west and north-east, sinking to the sea level m the 
south, but joined northwards to the high chains of the Sussua and Tobungku Mountains respectively. A trench-like 
depression between them is partly occupied by a vast swamp, Lake Opa, which is drained by the large river Konarveha, 
which, rising in the north, breaks through the eastern range to the Bay of Sampara. Mount Bowonglangi is one of its 
most important mountains, situated in the Eastern portion of the south peninsula near Bom: is 6,500 feet high: is steep 
and composed of erruptic rock, but with no sign of a crater. The most northern point of the island commences at 
2 15' N. latitude and about 124 57' E. longitude; while the most southern commences at S. latitude 5 35', and E. 
longitude about 120 30'. The whole island consists of a central area of considerable extent, with four long peninsula? 
branching off s-south-east, n. and north-east, the northern being the largest, the north-east the shortest and the 
south-eastern the most indented by bays. There is a narrow southern extension produced by the island of Salayer, 
divided by narrow straits from the mainland, running south to the extent of 48 miles, and not more than 8 miles wide; 
at the south-eastern peninsula terminal are also 4 important islands, namely Kabaena due south, Muna and Buton 
south and s-south-east, and the small island of Wawoni, east of the peninsula, and north of the last two. To the east of 
the shortest peninsula is the curiously formed island of Peling, with a group of smaller islands and islets, which extend 
away east to Taliabu and Mangola. A considerable portion of this island's peninsula? is mountainous, especially 
southward, and the western portions are much more extensively intersected by rivers than the eastern, where the rivers 
are few. The Ornithoptera of Celebes are P. Halipkron ; P. Hippolytus, v. cellularis ; also the type form ; P. Hephcestus 
and P. Helena, v. leda. The latter is found in the island of Salayar together with Halipkron, Bauermanni, and 
Hephcestus the latter also occurring on the east portion of the south-eastern peninsula. Halipkron, Cellularis, Hippolytus, 
type, and leda inhabit the extreme south ; and cellularis and Hippolytus type are found, as we should expect, m the 
islands of Muna and Buton. The Butterflies of Celebes are very numerous. The Mammalia are only 16 in number 


' — all terrestrial ; the Birds furnish about 202 species or more, of which 194 species are indigenous to the island. 
Among the birds and butterflies are many belonging to the Himalayan types, though not found in the adjacent islands. 
Among the former are 3 species of Orioles, 3 Wood Swallows, 6 Crows, 9 Sun Birds, 13 Kingfishers, 2 Hornbills, 3 
Nightjars, 26 Pigeons, 7 Owls and 21 other Raptores, 6 Pheasants, and 16 Parrots and Cockatoos. 

Sula island, east of Celebes, is really a peninsula, consisting of the two islands Taliabu and Mangola, divided 
by an extremely narrow strait, Sula Besi, south of Mangola, and the islet Lisamatura. The type form of P. Hippolytus 
is found there, and also in Sula Besi. 

Sumbawa, East longitude about 117 30' and South latitude about 9 20' is one of the smaller islands following 
Java, in the remarkably rich volcanic belt of which Sumatra is the first and Timor the last, situated north, south, and 
south-west of Borneo and west and south of the Malay Peninsula. This island is 170 miles in length and about 50 in 
width. Its dry season is from April to July, during which so little rain falls that many of the rivers fail altogether, and 
tke Sumbawa River is then about a foot deep of clear water. In the north-west part of the island is the terrible volcano 
Tambora, with a crater 8 miles in diameter, which is 9,000 feet high. At the east end of the island is Bima (Bay) a 
narrow inlet running north and south for 15 miles. Every little cove of this inlet is beautified with coco palms, though 
the country itself is so dry. To the west is a range of mountains 5,800 feet high, which shuts in the inlet. The island 
is almost divided in two by the Gulf of Salee or Sumbawa, from north to south-east ; the island Moyo is at its head, 
and several smaller islets are situated down its eastern course, such as Danga, Ngali, and Rakit. Along the south and 
west coast it is pierced by many rivers : on the south coast is Mount Dodo 3,937 feet ; and north-east of Dodo is Mount 
Rapang 4,100 feet high. At the extreme east on the south coast are two islands, Sido and Tenfgam ; while west of 
these is Tiempia inlet, running about 12 miles to the north, and fed in the wet season by two rivers running north-west 
and north-east, the latter 20 miles long. North-east of the east end of the island and a few miles away is the 
mountain island of Gunong Api or Sangeang, 6,040 feet high. The western parts are divided from Lombok by Alias 
Strait. P. Helena var. propinquus, is found on this island; also the type form of P. Naias, v. sumbawana, 
and its variety Socrates. Among the birds may be mentioned the Lemon-crested Cockatoo, C. Sulphured ; Tropi- 
dorhynchus timoriensis (a uniformly dull brown species with bare neck and face), a Golden Oriole ; 0. Broderipi, the 
Malayan Goatsucker, C. Mdcrurus ; the Ashy Tit, PatUs cinereus, 2 species of nightjars; Pachycephala stigmatops ; species 
of the genera Geoff royus and Z. osterops, a small Woodpecker Yungipicus grandis of Hargitt; and a Bush-tongued Lory 
Trichoglossus Forsteni, &c. Over 40 species of birds were taken by the collectors of the Marchesa Expedition. Zoographi- 
cally Sumbawa is entirely different from Java and the other great Malay islands. 

The islands of Java and Sumatra form a great ridge of volcanos and volcanic mountains more than 1,460 miles 
from north-west to south-east, its greatest width over 210 miles, and its least 37 miles ; its greatest height 15,000 feet, 
midway of Sumatra. In the group of islands of which these two are the chief, the most terrible outbursts of 
volcanic fury recorded in history have at different times occurred, compared with which the displays of Etna, Vesuvius, 
Stromboli, Kirauea in the Sandwich Islands, Mexico or S. America, are very minor affairs. Nevertheless these islands 
are rich and beautiful ; and whether considered from a geographical, physical or zoographical point of view are of the 
deepest interest, enhanced by the fact that, as Mr. Wallace shows, Java's fauna differs from that of its neighbours 
Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula, more than they do from each other, and have close resemblances to the 
Siamese Peninsula and also to the Himalayas, which Borneo and Sumatra do not exhibit. 

The Ornithoptera of these two islands are fairly numerous. We have two genera represented in Sumatra and one 
in Java. Trogonoptera Brookeana inhabits the south and south-eastern part of the latter island ; but its metropolis is 
Borneo — while the other members of the genus are in Palawan. Pompeoptera Vandepolli is found in Java, and its black 
variety Honrathiana in Sumatra ; Amphrysus in west and south Java; its variety Sumatrana in the Battak Mountains, 
in East Sumatra and at Karo, in the same island; the variety cuneifem in West Java, Mount Gede, Preanjer, Ardjoana ; 
its variety Palabuana at Palabuan, south-west Java, Pompeus in Java (this is the analogue, or rather the Javan form of 
Cerberus) ; Hycetus in Java ; Cerberus in Sumatra ; and Neomiranda in Western Sumatra. The Bird fauna of 
Java furnishes 270 species — 40 of them peculiar to the island — belonging 25 genera. These comprise Jays, Gapers, 
Bee-eaters, Woodpeckers, Cuckoos, Hornbills, Parrots, Pheasants and Partridges among the larger forms ; its 
mammals number 90 species belonging to about 44 genera ; (but some of these have been introduced, and 
a few are doubtful.) They include 5 or 6 Monkeys, nearly 40 Bats, 5 Cats, 9 Squirrels, 2 Swine, 2 Rats 
and 2 deer. In Sumatra there are 12 Monkeys, 10 Bats, 8 Cats, 9 Squirrels, 2 Rats and 1 Swine ; and the whole 
number of Mammals is over 70 species, distributed among 38 genera. The Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are very 
numerous in both islands, and many of them very splendid ; the other orders also supply many striking forms, 
especially among the Orthoptera. 

The Phanerogamous plants are 9,000 in number ; and among the most remarkable productions are the Pitcher 
plants, Nepenthes. 

Of Bali and Lombok, the two islands between Java and Sumbawa, and of the islands, Flores, Pantar, 
Wetta and Timor all east of Sumbawa, and of Sandalwood Island south of Flores, little may be said. Haliphron is found 
in Pantar and Lombren, in South Flores at Samanger, and in Wetter ; Ndis in Pantar, Lombren, Flores and Sumba. 


On the west coast of Borneo are two groups of small islands, the north Natuna group, about 3 50' N. lat. and 
107 20' E. long. ; and the South Natuna group about 2 50' N. lat., and about 109 o' E. long. The largest 
of the North Natunas are Pulo Laut and Bunguran, and of the South Natunas Subi, Panjung and Sirhassen. 
In Balabac, one of the islets, Brookeana occurs, which perhaps is not surprising, considering that the South group is not 
more than 64 miles north-west of the coast of Sarawak. The other species found in the northern group are Cerberus and 
A ndromache. 

P. Darsius is confined entirely to the island of Ceylon ; being found in the western-central provinces, all the 
year round : emerging from the pupa in March and April. It is not uncommon in the open woods, and may be often 
seen flying in pairs. The 2 rises slowly and vertically into the air, the $ soon follows her in the same direction and in 
in the same style of flight, the two remaining about two or three feet apart, where they keep on rising and falling in per- 
fect unison, as if they were under a magnetic spell. Occasionally a second or a third $ is drawn under the same influence, 
and compelled to follow the same mysterious leading under a similar excitement or exaltation. The species is found 
on the plains and hills, whether in forest or open ground. Its flight is very high. At Kandy the species 
is very common, also at Galle : abundant in the low country, but in the hills is to be met with as high as 
4,000 feet. This is the only species of Troides inhabiting Ceylon, though about 29 other species of Papilioniina; belong 
to the island, and a large insect fauna in addition — estimated by Tennant at 10,000 species. The Birds of Ceylon 
would probably number quite 350 ; the reptiles over 120 ; the mammals 70 species. Of the physical character of the 
island there is no need to speak ; it is so well known. 

We now come to the great Indian region, exceedingly rich and abundant in species of insects, of birds, and 
indeed of all orders of animal life. But as any even brief description of its various provinces would require more 
space than this volume could afford, and so much information at any rate, of a geographical description, is possessed by 
everyone, I will only say that in this region we will suppose to be included the Andaman Islands, Cochin China, Siam, 
Cambodia, the Tenasserim provinces, Burma, Arakan, Chittagong, Assam and Khasiah hills, Sylhet, Sikkim, Nepaul, 
Bhotan, South India and the Western Himalayas ; an extent of land maintaining an enormous fauna and flora of the 
most varied, wonderful and splendid character in every order — probably not yet much more than half known — a region 
extending, say, from 70 to no of E. long., and from 49 to io° of N. lat., or about 5,529,600 square miles; and if we 
add to this the Chinese region in which Troides may be found — (at least as regards Pompeoptera Cerberus) this 
immense area would be greatly enlarged, still more so by the addition of the Malay Peninsula. Over all these 
regions only the Pompeoptera are to be found, though a few more forms of that genus may yet be met with. 

It therefore remains to give a summary of the foregoing, as I have done in Vol. I. of this work. 


Trogonoptera Brookeana .... Borneo ; Sarawak, Sandakan, 
Benjermasin, Perak, Labuan 
Bedager, Marabuk River 
(N.B.), Ipo (Perak), Kina 
Balu, Lawas, Mount Muru 
(N.B.), E. Sumatra, Johore 
(S.), Deli (S.E.S.), Kopras 
(N.E.S.), Quala Lemceruk 
(N.E.S.), Malay Peninsula, 
Balabac (Natuna Isles). 
„ v. Eleanor Sumatra. 

v. Albescens Malacca. 

Trojan a 


Pompeoptera Hippolytus, 

The typeAmboina, Ceram,Gilolo, 
Morty Island, Sula Island, 
Celebes, Bara Bura, Ilu (Ce- 
ram), Mira (Morty Island), 
Tawaya N. of Palos Bay, 
Lompa Battav (S. Celebes), 
Sorontalo (S. of Palos Bay), 
Sula Besi, Sula Mangola. 
,, v.Celebensis Celebes. 

P. Hippolytus v. Sulaensis 
„ ,, v. Cellularis 
Pompeoptera Minos 

Mangola Island. 
Toli Toli (N. Celebes). 
Darjiling Shivaroy Hills, 
Buxa, Malabar, Trevandrum, 
Bombay, Nilghiri Hills, Tra- 
vancore, Tenasserim, S. India, 
Cannanore, Assam, Karwar, 
China, Sumatra, Rangoon, 

Pompeoptera Darsius .... Ceylon,Western Central Pro- 
vinces, Kandy, Peradeniya, 
Havagama, Belitualoya, Vel- 
verry, Trincomali. [March, 

W. Java. 

Mount Battak (Sumatra). 
S. Celebes, Samanger (S. 
Flores), Lombren, Pantar, 
Adonara, Alors, Wetter, 
Salayar, Celebes, Macassar, 
Djampea Isle. 
,, v. Bauermanni Laroae, Patuna (S. Celebes) 

[August to Jan.] 
,, v. Pistor .... Djampea Isle, Kalao Isle 
,, v. Pallens 

„ Vandepolli .... 
P. Vandepolli, v. Honrathiana 
P. Haliphron 


Pompeoptera Naias Kayeli, Adonara, Pantar, 

Lombreu, Flores, Sumba, 

,, v. Sumbawana Sumbawa. 
,, v. Socrates .... Wetter, Alor, Adonara, Sum- 

Iris Letti, Mou Isle. [July to 

December] . 

Staudingeri Selaru, Loeang Isle, Babber, 

Damma, Segra (Timor Laut.) 

Plato Patadala, Sumba, Sumbawa. 

Criton Batjan, Gilolo, Morty, Dod- 

ingo, Ternate, Halmahera, 
Batyobroas, Mira. 
,, v. Felderi .... Batjan. 
„ v. Oberthiiri.... Batjan, Mira, Morty Isle. 

Critonoides Oby or Obi. 

P. Riedeli Larat (Timor Laut), Tenim- 

ber. [In June]. 

Amphrysus W. and S. Java, Malay 

Peninsula, Labuan, Penang. 
,, v. Sumatranus Battok Mountains, Sumatra, 

E. Sumatra, Karo. 
„ v. Cuneifera .... W. Java, Mt. Gede, Preanjer, 

,, v. Palabauna Palabuan S.W. Java. 
,, v. Olympia .... S.E. Borneo. 
,, v. Flavicollis Borneo. 
,, v. Ruficollis .... Malacca, Nias, Sumatra, 

,, v. Niasicus .... *Nias 

,, v. Vistara ...**Tanna Massa and Poelo 
Tello, Batu Islands. 

P. Helena Ceram, Goram Laut, Great 

Banda, Kayeli, Bouru, Java, 
Celebes, Amboina, Saparua. 
Dutch N. Guinea. 
North Tambora, Java. 

Borneo, Salayar, Minahasza, 

Port Moresby, Stephansort, 
New Guinea. 

Stephansort (N. Guinea), 
New Guinea. 

v . or ab .Grose-Smithi New Guinea. 

iEacus Cochin China, Assam, Darji- 

ling, Bengal, Cachar, Tavoy, 
Sinbyoodine, Sikkim [May to 
October], Chin Lus'hai, 
Khasia Hills,China,W.China, 
Nepaul, Moulmein, Tonking, 
Straits of Malacca, Burmah, 
Ta-tsien-lu, Shan States, 
Tenasserim, Masuri (N.W. 

v. Carolus 

v. Pluto "Rutilans 

v. Jupiter 

v. Propinquus .... 
v. Celebensis 

v. Bouruensis 
v. Papuensis 

v. Papuanas 

v. Melpomona .... 
v. Leda 

* Friihstorfer. 

** Ibid. The name Vistara is evidently adopted from the " Lalita Vistara," a 
highly embellished expansion of the early biographies of Buddhaghosha of Ceylon, 
the author of " The way of Purity," written about 400 A.D. Mr. Lathy describes 
this var of Amphrysus, " Adnervular markings of anterior wing greyish white in- 
stead of yellow ; marginal black border of posterior wing as in Niasicus of Friihstorfer." 

Pompeoptera ^Eacus (contd.) 

,, ,, v. Formosana 

P. Nereis 

,, ,, v. Propinquus .... 
P. Cerberus 

,, ,, v. Heliconoides 

,, ,, v. Pompeus ... 
P. Hephaestus 

P. Rhadamantus 

P. Plateni 

P. Dohertyi 

,, v. Fasciculatus 
P. Miranda 

P. Neomiranda $ f 

P. Hycetus 2 

P. Andromache 

,, ,, v. Marapokensis 

P. Magellanus 

Himalayas), Dacca, Saigon, 
Ava (Lower Burmah), Chitta- 
gong Hills, Upper Mekong, 
Omei Shan (W. China or 
Thibet), Rossel Island, Oby 
Isle, Siam, Chang -Yang 
(6,ooof.), Se Pinf Lou, Chan 
(Ya Tcheon), Ya Chin Loo, 
Ichang, Wa Shan, Mou Pin, 
Meplay, Thaiping, Muong 
Snow (Shan States), Gudwal, 
Selango, Perak, Siam, Kwala 
Lumpar, W. and Central 
China [May to October.] 
S. Cape (Formosa). 

From Sikkim to Assam 
Cherrapungi, Burmah, Sum- 
atra, Banguey, Penang, 
Borneo, Lombok, Nias, 
Andaman Islands, Beeling, 
Upper Tenasserim, Bhutan, 
Maguac (Burmah), Poun- 
gador (U. Burmah), Khasia 
Hills, Darjiling, Kurseong, 
Bengal, Malacca, Natuna 
Isles, Banquey Isles, Padang, 
Karen Hills, Malay Penin- 

Port Blair and Little Brother 
Island, (Andamans). 

S.E. Celebes, Salayar, Bon- 
thain, Bantimcerong, Pam- 
panga, Portiero, Luzon. 
Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro. 
Palawan (Philippines). 
Salibobo (Talautse Islands). 
Talautse Islands. 
Sarawak, Sandakan (N. 

Western Sumatra. 

Kina Balu (N. Borneo). 
Mount Marapoke (N. W. 

Luzon, E. Mindanao, Babu- 
yanes, Polillo (all Philippine 

The foregoing list represents all the localities that have 
come under the author's notice ; but many more will pro- 
bably be found on the labels attached to specimens in 
different collections ; and special ones can always be 
added by the student to the maps found in the body of 
this work. 

t The $ was discovered too late for figuring in this volume ; but will be published 
in a supplement to follow Vol. II. Mr. Lathy's description is as follows : " ? darker 
than s of Miranda; upper adnervular whitish markings extend to cell, and yellow 
markings of h-w. larger : underside as above ; on underside the cream coloured 
lunules larger than in Miranda." 

Lathy, "Trans. Ent. Soc." pp. i, 2 (1907.) 


Additional Localities of Species and Varieties belonging to Vol. I., and also to New Species or 
Varieties Discovered since that Vol. was Completed. 

Schoenbergia Titan 

Sch. Goliath 

Sch. (Phalaenosoma) 


Sch. Paradisea, ah. auriflua 
,, ,, type form .... 

Sch. Meridionalis 

,, ,, type form .... 

Ornithoptera Aruana 

v. Obiensis 

O. Croesus 

Kapa Kapa, British New 
Guinea, Aroa River. 
Geelvink Bay, Dutch N. 

North end of the Aroa River, 
British New Guinea. 
Kaiser Wilhelmsland. 
Constantinhafen,Binga (Ger- 
man N. Guinea), Finisterre 
Upper Aroa River. 
Kiriwini, Fergusson Island, 
Milne Bay, Mailu, Brown 
River (N. Guinea), Kapaur. 

Oby Island.* 
Batjan, Oby. 

O. Urvilliana 

O. Cassandra 

O. Poseidon var. Pronomus 

O. Poseidon 
O. Pegasus .... 

Alu (Shortland Islands), Ren- 
dova, Kei Toeal, Salawatti, 
Ysabel Island, Treasury 
Island, Bougainville, Gua- 

Little Mulgrave River, 

Teoor, Simbang, Sorong 
(Dutch New Guinea), Mysol, 
Constantinhafen, Cooktown 

Fergusson Island, Engineer 
Group, Milne Bay, Mailu, 
Mausinam (Dutch N.Guinea), 
Kapaur, Aru, Tenimber, Kei, 
Dj am pier Isle. 
.. Simbang, N. Guinea. 

The Solomon Island Lepidoptera are distinctly Malayan in type, closely allied to those of the eastern 
Archipelago, some of them only island forms, modified by long isolation ; but the members of the genus ^theoptera 
are exceedingly distinct in type from any found in Malaya, and though superficially they seem to be closely allied to 
those of the New Guinea genus Schoenbergia, are yet only distantly related to them. The island of Guadalcanar is one 
of the most fertile and beautiful islands of the group according to Woodford, who spent some time there in 
collecting and studying its productions, and is rich in bird and insect life— many species of the different orders being 
peculiar to it, notwithstanding the fact noted above. Its length is about 80 and breadth 30 miles. The highest 
mountain summits reach 8,000 feet, and there are numerous peaks over 4,000 feet high. The rainfall, over 
100 inches per annum in the east, and possibly much more still in the mountains, is responsible for the existence of 
numerous rivers, some of them of considerable size. An alluvial flat composed of fertile soil extends for 25 to 30 miles 
along the centre of the north coast of the island, with a varying width of from 5 to 10 miles. The depth of the sea 
between the Solomons and New Guinea reaches over 2,000 fathoms, and the highest point of land being as 
much as 10,000 feet in the island of Bougainville, gives therefore a range of 22,000 feet from the bed of the sea 
to the summit of the island. The group contains at least 17 species of Bats, 6 of them peculiar to the islands, 
the others being also found in the Duke of York group, though the latter islands are separated by over 100 miles of this 
deep sea from the former. 

Of the birds there are many species closely allied to those of New Guinea and its neighbouring islands ; 
but there are no birds of Paradise yet discovered. Of the Parrots some of the species are peculiar to the Solomons, such 
as the Cardinal Lory, Lorins Cardinalis ; the pigmy parrots of the genus Nasiterna, among them N. Aola, the 
smallest known. Among the other special species is a Cockatoo Cacatua Ducorpsii, a Hornbill Rhitidocerus plicatus, 
several species of large fruit Pigeons, Carpophag^e ; Green and Ground Doves, many species, a Megapodius 
or Mound Builder, M. Brenchlayi, many species of Kingfishers, Flycatchers, Herons and Raptorial birds. Among the 
Reptiles are 17 Lizards, of which 7 are not found out of the Archipelago. The Lepidoptera of these islands other than 
Ornithoptera are numerous. There is a considerable number of Papilios — each island having its own special 
forms, including Pap. Orsippus of the Ulysses (blue and black) group, and also the Sarpedon, Codrus and ./Egeus 
group's. The Pieridse are not numerous in species or individuals ; Danaidae are plentiful ; Euploeas common in the 
forests, and in the foliage fringing the seashore. Almost every island has its own species, as might be expected. The 
o-enus Hypolinmas is well represented and has many mimics, so are the Nymphalidse generally. There are very few 
Satyridae, but among them are 3 or 4 species at least of the little butterflies belonging to the exquisitely beautiful genus 
Argyronympha ; and 2 species of Xois, a genus peculiar to Fiji ! Lycaena are plentiful, and Gela Isle is_ specially rich in 
beautiful species— some of the less showy ones swarm in every situation. There are very few Hesperidae, but moths 
are very abundant. The Trobriand Islands, SS.-E. of the extreme south point of New Guinea, together with 
several other groups of islets near at hand, and where O. Aruana and one or two other Ornithoptera are found, consist 
a vast number of low, thickly wooded islands covered with a prolific under growth of trees and shrubs and 
cocoa palms ; and are densely populated by natives who exquisitely carve and design their canoes, and make beautiful 

* Oby Island with its islets has apparently never been inhabited, as it is supposed by the natives of other islands to be haunted. Fishermen for a few days each year 
encamp there, but no one stays any longer than necessary. 


ornaments. Indeed, they are in those respects born artists, and are a much finer and more advanced race 
than the Papuans. These islands furnish a vast number of beautiful species of Lepidoptera, especially moths 
of many families. 

The headwaters of the Aroa River (in British N. Guinea) which debouche in the north of Redscar Bay, 
are lined by extensive forests. This river is formed by the junction of two main branches, the Kabuna and 
Veida. The latter reaches the mountains forming part of the Owen Stanley Range ; and the country at this point is 
inhabited by a much more intelligent and energetic race than that of the coast. Mount Manaku to the east is over 
6,000 feet in height. The Kabuna river runs through a mountainous country. The whole country eastwards is 
filled with rugged mountains, in narrow parallal chains. About this district is the habitat of Sch. (Phalcenosoma) 
Chimcera. Above this district up to 6,000 feet the vegetation consists chiefly of Cedars, Pines, Tree Ferns, Oaks, &c. 
Many species of Birds of Paradise are found here. For interesting information respecting other parts of New Guinea 
such as Geelvink Bay to Mac Cluer Gulf, Humboldt Bay and German New Guinea from Astrolabe Bay the reader will 
find much that is valuable and instructive in the following works : — " P. E. Moolenburgh, Tijdschrift van het Nederl, 
Aardijksk, Genootshaft No. 2 ;" " Bijdragen tot de Taal-Land-en Volkenkund van Nederlandsche, Indie, 1902, Nos. 
1, 2 (The man of war Ceram Officer's report)." The journal of the Berlin Geographical Society, No. 3, 1898, with 
Dr. Lauterbach's account of his successful exploration of the interior of German New Guinea in 1896. The Doctor 
discovered and traced the course of the Ramu River — a district rich in plant and bird life. Also A E. Pratt's " Two 
Years among N. Guinea Cannibals " (1906) ; R. Lovett's " Tamata ; " the same author's " Life and adventures of a 
Christian Hero (the Rev. James Chalmers) " ; and Article and notes scattered through the later vols, of the Royal 
Geographical Society's Proceedings," and "Australasia," Vol. II. by F. H. H. Guillemand (in the Compendium of 
Geography and Travel of Stanford (1894). 

At Momos on the south coast of the island of Waigiou, east of Chabral Bay Guillemand of the Marchesa Expedi- 
tion in 1889 saw multitudes of 0. Poseidon or a variety of it dashing through the woods at a fearful pace. It was here 
also that the smallest of the birds of Paradise, Diphyllodes Wilsoni was met with. 

The number of species or varieties of species of Troides thus far known to exist in New Guinea (British, German 
and Dutch), not including the neighbouring islands, is 21. The number of Birds is 770 species, as against 500 in 
Australia, of which 40 are Birds of Paradise, and at least 300 are peculiar to this continent. Upwards of 400 vascular 
plants are also found in this immense region. Mr. Meek, by the latest of his letters, is on the track of yet another 
Ornithoptera probably of the Genus Schoenbergia. 




U T H O R S 


Aitken. P. Minor, 1887; Larvae. 1890-7. 
Aurivillius. Hippolytus, 1882; Helena, 1882. 

Bates. JEacus, var. Thomsoni, 1875. 
Bell. Larvae, 1890-7. 

Boisduval. Amphrysus, Abacus, Haliphron, Minos, Pom- 

peus, Rhadanianthus, 1836. 
Butler, A. Amphrysus, 1869 ; Criton, 1884; Helena, 1864; 

Miranda, 1869; Pompeas, 1869. 

Clerck. Htppolytus, 1764; Helena, 1764. 

Cramer. Amphrysus, 1782 ; Helena, 1779, 1782 ; Htppoly- 
tus, 1775, 1779, 1782 ; Minor, 1779 ; Pom- 
peus, 1775. 

Cutter. T. Brookeana, 1869. 

Dannatt, W. Irregularis, var. of (?) 1897. 
Davidson. Minos, 1890. 
Dewitz. Rhadamantus, 1882. 

Distant. T. Brookeana, 1881 ; P. Cerberus, 1885; Miranda, 
1887 ; Pompeus, 1871 ; Ruficollis, 1871. 

Doherty. Naias, v. Sumbawana, 1891 ; Nereis, 1890. 

Doubleday, E. Abacus, Amphrysus, Darsius, Haliphron, 
Pompeus, 1846. 

Donovan. Pompeus, 1800. 

Druce, H. Amphrysus, 1874; Flavicollis, 1873; Hippoly- 

tus, 1874 ; Miranda, 1873. 
Duncan, E. Marten. Amphrysus, 1896; Hippolytus, 1837. 

Eschscholtz. Rhadamantus, 1821. 
Elwes. ^Sacws, 1886-8 ; Pompeus, 1888. 
Esper. Amphrysus, 1792; Helena, 1786; Minos, 1792; 
Pompeus, 1785. 

Fabricius. Amphrysus, 1787, 1793 ; Hippolytus. 1777 ; 

Helena, 1775,1781, 1787, 1793; Minos, 1781; 

Pompeus, 1793. 
Fergusson. Minos 1891. 

Felder. Abacus, i860 ; Darsius, i860 ; Hippolytus, 1864; 
Helena, 1864 ; Magellanus, 1864, 1865. 

Fickert. Brookeana, Cerberus, Darsius, Helena, Hippolytus, 
Hephcestus, Minos, Magellanus, Plateni, Pom- 
peus, Rhadamantus, Ruficollis, Trojana, 1889. 

Forbes. Brookeana, 1885. 

Friihstorfer. Carolus, 1897; Vandepolli, 1894; Neomiranda, 
1903 ; Critonoides, 1903. 

Gmelin. Amphrysus, Minos, 1790. 

Godart. Amphrysus, Hippolytus, 1890; Larvae, 1824; 

Pompeus, 1819. 
Gosse, P. H. Amphrysus, Brookeana, Haliphron, Cerberus, 

var. Heliconoides, Darsius, 1883. 
Gray, G. R. Amphrysus, Darsius, Abacus, 1856 ; Pompeus. 

1852, 1856; Rhadamantus, 1856. 
Grose-Smith. Riedeli, i8g2. 
Goeze. Helena, 1779, 1790; Hippolytus, 1779. 
Guillemand. F. H. H. Poseidon, 1894. 

Haase. Magellanus, 1893. 

Hagen. Brookeana, 1894 ; Cerberus, 1894 ; Honrathiana, 

1894; Sumatranus, 1895. 
Hampton. Minos, 1888. 
Herbst. Hippolytus, 1784. 

Hewitson. Brookeana, 1855; Helena, 1846; Hephcestus, 

1890 ; Pompeus, 1846. 
Holland, W. J. Hippolytus, 1884 ; Larvae, i8gg. 
Hopffer. Hephcestus, 1874; Hippolytus, 1874. 
Horsfield, T. Larva ; Macus, Amphrysus, Darsius, Pom- 
peus, 1857. 
Honrath. Trojana, 1886. 
Houttuyn. Helena, 1767. 
Hiibner. Amphrysus, Helena, Pompeus, 1816. 

Jablonsky. Amphrysus, 1783 ; Helena, 1783. 
Jacquin, (nec dru). Hippolytus, 1785. 

Kirby and Spence. Larvae, 1858. 

Kirby, W. F. Amphrysus, 1871, i87g, i8g6; Brookeana, 
1871 ; Criton, Cerberus, Darsius, 1871 ; 
Dohertyi, i8g5 ; Haliphron, 1871 ; Helena, 
1871, i8g6; Hippolytus, 1871 ; Magellanus 
1871, i87g, i8g5, i8g6 ; Minos, 1871 ; Mz>- 
flwfo, 1871, i87g, i8g5; Pompeus, 1871, i87g, 
i8g5 ; Riedeli, i8g2 ; Trojana, 1895. 

Kirsch. Riedeli, 1884. 

Lathy. Dohertyi v. fasciculatus, i8gg ; Flavicollis, i8gg. 
Latreille. Larvae and Pupae, 1824. 
Lauterbach, Dr. 1896. 
Layard, E. L. Darsius, 1850. 
Leech. Macus, Rhadamantus, i8g3. 

Linnaeus. Helena, 1764, 1767 ; Hippolytus, 1758, 1764, 

Lucas. Rhadamantus, 1835. 

Macleay, W. S. Larvae and Pupae, i8ig-i82i. 

Manders. Macus, i8go. 

Martin. Honrathiana. i8g2, i8g3- 

Merian. Pompeus, 1719 (local error). 

Moolenburgh, P. E. igo2. 

Moore, F. Macus, igo3, igo5, 1865 ; Cerberus, v. Heli- 
conoides, 1877 ; Minos, igoi-3 ; Pompeus, 
1857, l8 65- 

Miiller. Helena, 1767; Hippolytus 1774. 

Niceville, de. Abacus, 1883 ; Pompeus, i8go, i8g4< 
Newman, E. Larvae and Pupae, 1871. 

Oberthiir. Abacus, 1874, Amphrysus, 1879 ; Criton, 1879 
1880 ; Cuneifera, 1879 ; Darsius, Haliphron, 
Helena, var. jupiter, var. rutilans, Magel- 
lanus, Minos, Miranda, Papuanus, Pompeus, 
Rhadamantus 1879. 

Pagenstecher. O. Goliath (1904). Helena var. Holzi 
1890; Hippolytus 1884. 


Piepers and Snellen, Haliphron, 1878. 
Pryer, Miranda 1887. 

Reakirt, JEacus 1864 ; Rhadamantus 1846. 

Ribbe, Cerberus 1892 ; Criton 1892 ; Haliphron, Helena, 

Hippolytus 1890 ; Larvae and Pupae, 1890. 
Rippon. All species (in "Genera Insectorum ") 1902; 

Dohertyi 1893. 

Rober. Bauermanni 18I5 ; Criton, Larvae and Pupae 
1891 ; Helena 1891 ; Iris 1890; Plato, 
Riedeli 1891 ; Staudingeri 1888. 

Rothschild. W. All species and varieties 1895 ; 
Haliphron, Hephastus 1892. 

Semper. Cuneifera 1889 ; Magellanus ; Trojana 1891. 
Snellen. Brookeana 1880, 1890 ; Dohertyi var. 1895 ; 
Staudinger and Schatz. Nearly all species and varieties 

1884, 1888, 1891, 1893, 1894. 
Swainson. Larvae and Pupae 1827 ; Pompeus 1833. 
Swinhoe. Macus, Cerberus 1893. 

Tennent, E. Darsius 1861. 

Trimen, R. Larvae and Pupas 1861-66. 

Vollenhoven. Amphrysus, 1865 ; Helena, i860 ; Hippolytus, 
i860 ; Pompeus, 1866. 

Wallace, A. R. Amphrysus, Bouroensis, Brookeana, Cele- 
bensis, Triton, 1865 ; Haliphron, 1866 ; 
Helena, i860; Papuensis, Plato, Pompeus, 
1865 ; Magellanus, 1866 ; Rhadamantus, 1866. 

Walker, F. Brookeana, Darsius, Magellanus, Miranda. 
Pompeus 1887 ; Eleanor 1889. 

Watson. iEacus, 1891 ; Pompeus, i8go. 

Weymer. Cerberus, 1885. 

Wood Mason andde Niceville, Cerberus, Heliconoides, 1881 ; 
Minos, Pompeus, 1881. 


Friihstorfer. Ruficollis v. nigricollis 1902 ; Amphrysus, var. 
Gardineri, 1902. 

Beccari. Difficulty of capturing Ornithoptera, 1879-80. 
Berge. Mrnauta for Ornithoptera, 1842. 

Dodd. O. Cassandra, Richmondia, " Entomologist " p. 17 

Gibson, I. O. Croesus, 1876. 
Grose-Smith. Sch. Titan, 1897. 
Guillemand. 0. Aruana, 1189. 

Konliga. Priamus, 1881. 

Oberthiir. Priamus, 1879. 

Rothschild. Sc^. Goliath $ 1904, var. Tztew, 1904; 

Chimczra, 1905. Victories, v. Rubianus, 

1904 ; w. Isabella 1904. 

Schneider, H. 0.' Richmondia, 1894, " Le Naturalist," 
S. 2 ; n. 197, p. 121, with fig of Pupa and 


Comptes Rendus, Paris Geographical Society (description 
of New Guinea), 1898. 

Guillemand. "Voyage of the Marchesa," Vol. xi., 1889. 

A. Maass, on Sumatra and the Mentawai Islands of the 
West Coast where the author collected 450 
species of butterflies, 16 being new. "Ber- 
lin Geographical Society, Verhandlungen,'' 

P. and F. Sarasin, "Journal Royal Geographical Society," 
Vol. xxi, p. 454 ; Vol. xxii, p. 458. Con- 
cerning Celebes. 

Woodford. " Naturalist among the Head Hunters." 
Webster, Cayley. "The Wide World Magazine," 1904 
or 1905. 







Genus TROGONOPTERA, Rippon ........ I 

T. Brookeana, Wallace . . ■ • • ■ • . 2, bb 

„ v. Albescens, Rothschild ....... 127 

„ v. Eleanor, Walker . ■ .• ■, •. 4> I2 7 

T. Trojana, Honrath . . • • • • • ; • 5> & a 

Genus POMPEOPTERA, Rippon ........ 7 

P. Hippolytus, Cramer . . ■ ■ ■ • • ■ • 9> 11 

„ v. Sulaensis Staudinger . . ■ • • • • 12 

„ v. Cellularis, Rothschild . ■ • • • • • I 4 

,, v. Celebensis, Rothschild . • • • • .127 

P. Minos, Cramer 39 

P. Darsius, Gray 37 

P. Vandepolli, Snellen . . • • ■ • « •. » I 9 

,, v. Honrathiana ....... 21 

P. Haliphron, Boisduval . . • • • • • • .22 

,, v. bauermanni, Rober . ■ • ■ • • 2 5 

,, v. pollens, Oberthur . . • • • • • ■ 2 5 

v. pistor, Rothschild ...... 25,44,63 

P. Naias, Doherty . ■ ■ • • • • • .26 

,, v. Socrates, Staudinger .... 63 

,, v. Sumbawana 128 

P. Iris, Rober 33 

P. Staudingeri, Rober . . . • ■ • • .42 

P. Plato, Wallace 3° 

P. Criton, Felder . . • • • • • ■ 2 7 

,, v. Felderi, Rothschild 3 1 

,, v. Oberthiiri, Rothschild . . • • • • • ■ 3 2 

P. Critonoides, Friihstorfer ..... r t • 59 

P. Riedeli, Kirsch 34 

P. Amphrysus, Cramer , % 1 47 

M v. Sumatranus, Hagen 47^> 4^ 

v. Cuneifera, Oberthur ...... 47 c . 48, 64 

,, v. Palabuana, Fruhstorfer . . • • • • .48 

v. RuficolUs, Butler . . - . . • . 50, 48 

v. Flavicollis, Druce . . . . • • • 49» 4 8 

,, v. Niasicus, Fruhstorfer . . . . • • ,128 

„ v. Gardineri (not known to the Author) . . . • .128 

v. Vistara, Lathy . . . . - • .128 

,, v. Olympia, Honrath . . . . • • .48 

P. Helena, Clerck (type form) . . . . • • ■ : 5 

,, v. Carolus, Fruhstorfer . . . • • • I 7 

,, ab. Grose-Smithi, Rippon . . . . • • • 18 

,, v. Papuanus . . ■ ■ • • • t 63 

,, v. Bouruensis, Wallace . . . . • • A,i • I2 8 

„ v. Celebensis, Rothschild . . . • • • • §3 

„ v. Papuensis, Wallace ....... 45 

„ v. Melpomona, Rippon . . . . , • .46 

v, leda, Staudinger ....... 58 


Genus POMPEOPTERA, .Eacus, F elder 
P. iEacus, v. Formosanus, Rothschild 
P. Nereis, Doherty 

„ v. Propinquus, Rothschild 
P. Cerberus, Felder 

,, v. Pompeus, Cramer 

,, V. Heliconoides, Moore 

P. Hephaestus, Felder 
P. Rhadamantus, Lucas 
P. Plateni, Staudinger 
P. Dohertyi, Rippon 

,, v. Fasciculatus, Lathy 
P. Miranda, Butler 
P. Neomiranda, <? Friihstorfer 

„ 2 Lathy 

P. Hycetus, S Rippon 
P. Andromache. Staudinger 

,, v. Marapokensis, Friihstorfer 

P. Magellanus, Felder 


Sch. Titan, $ Grose-Smith . . . . . . . 62, in, 114, 129 

Sch. Goliath, S , Oberthur . . . . . . . 113, 129 

Sch. (Phalaenosoma) Chimaera . . . . . . . 122, I2g 

Section Phalixnosoma, Rippon . . . . . . . .121 

Schoenbergia Paradisea . . . . . . . . 62, 129 

,, ab. Auriflua, Rothschild , . . . . . .129 

Sch. Meridionalis . . . . . . . . .62, 129 


O. Aruana, v. Obiensis, Rippon (or Ney ?) . . . . . . ng, 129 

O. Priamus ......... 62 

O. Cassandra ......... 129 

O. Poseidon, v. pronomus . . . . . . '.62, 129 

,, from Kiriwini . . . . . . . .62 

,, v. brunnea, from Milne Bay ...... 62 

,, from Fergusson Island, and the Trobriands . . . .62 

O. Pegasus . . . . . . . , .129 

O. Urvilliana from Alu and Rendova, and Salawatti . . . . . 63, 129 

O. Croesus . . . . . . . . .63, 129 


JEth. Victoria; . . . . . . . . .63 

JE. Victoria;, v. Rubianus, Rothschild . . . . . . .117 

,, v. Isabella, Rothschild . . . . . .118 

„ v. regis, Rothschild ....... 63 




^Eacus, Pompeoptera 35> 64 

Amphrysus ,, . . . • • • • • -47 

,, ,, v. cuneifera (synonym cuneatus) ...... 47c, 64 

,, ,, v . flavicollis . . • • • • • -49 

,, ,, v. mficollis ........ 50 

,, Recapitulation of the principal characters of the Amphrysus Group . . 48 

,, ,, v. olympia ........ 48 

,, ,, v. palabuana . . • ■ ■ • • .48 

,, ,, v. mficollis ■ • ■ • • - 5° 
,, ,, v. sumatranus ........ 47b 

Antimachus, Drurya Wing scales of ....... 91 

Andromache, Pompeoptera . . . • . • • • 47> 64 

Aruana, Ornithoptera, var. obiensis . . . . - • - • • HQ 

Brookeana, Trogonoptera . . . . • • • •" .2 

,, Additional Bibliography and descriptions . ... 6b 

,, ,, Descriptions of local variations . . . . . .63 

Carolus, v. of P. Helena . J' - • • • - .-• • l 7 

Cellularis, v. of P. Hippolytus ......... 14 

Cerberus, Pompeoptera . . . . . - - ' - • 55 

Chronological History of the Tribe Troides . . . . • -93 

Criton, Pompeoptera ......... 27 

,, v. Felderi 3 1 

,, ,, v. Oberthiiri ........ 3 2 

Critonoides ,, .......... 59 

Croesus, Ornithoptera 63 

Darsius, Pompeoptera . . . . . . . • -37 

Dedication .......... u 

Dohertyi, Pompeoptera . . . . . . • • - 67 

,, ,, v. fascicidatus . . . . . • • 7 2 

Errata et Corrigenda ........ i, 109 

Felderi, v. of P. Criton . . . . . . . - - 3 l 

Flavicollis, v. of P. Amphrysus . . . . . • • -49 

Goliath, Schoenbergia v. Titan 2 . . . . . • .114 

Haliphron, Pompeoptera . . . . . . • • .22 

,, ,, v. banermanni . . . . . • 25 

,, „ v. pallens . . . . . • • -25 

,, ,, v. pistor 2 5> 63 

Heliconoides, v. of P. Cerberus . . . . . . . - 55)5^ 

Helena, Pompeoptera , . . . . > - ■ I 5 

,, ,, v. Carolus . . . . . ■ • ■ I 7 

,, „ v. Celebensis ....... 63 

,, ,, ab. Grose-Smithi . . . . . . • .18 

,, ,, v. leda 58 

,, ,, v. Melpomona . . . . . • .46 

,, ,, v. papuanus 63 

,, ,, v. papuensis . . . . . . • -45 

Hephaestus ,, . . . . . . ^ • 77 

Hippolytus „ . . . . . . • • 9, 11 

,, ,, v. Sulaensis 12 


Hippolytus, Pompeoptera v, Cellularis 
Honrathiana, v. of P. Vandepolli 
Hycetus, Pompeoptera 
Iris, ,, 

Isabella (or Ysabellce) v. of .ZEtheoptera Victoria? 
Larvae and Pupae of the Ornithoptera 
Leda, v, of P. Helena 
Magellanus, Pompeoptera 
Melpomona, var. of P. Helena 
Meridionalis, Schoenbergia 
Minos, Pompeoptera 
Miranda ,, 

,, v. Neomiranda, $ 

Naias, Pompeoptera 

,, ,, v. Socrates 

Neomiranda, Pompeoptera 
Nereis, ,, 
Oberthilri, v. of P. Criton 
Pattens, var. of P. Haliphron 
Pistor, v. of P. Haliphron 
Paradisea, Schoenbergia 
Papuanus, v. of P. Helena 
Papuensis ,, 
Plateni, Pompeoptera 

Pompeoptera, Genus 
Pompeus, Pompeoptera v. of Cerberus 
Poseidon, Ornithoptera var. 


Rhadamantus, Pompeoptera 
Riedeli, ,, 
Rubianus, var. of ^Eth. Victorias 
Ruficollis, v. of P. Amphrysus 
Socrates, var. of P. Naias 
Staudingeri, Pompeoptera 
Sumatranus, var. of P. Amphrysus 
Synopsis of the principal characters of the Genera Trogonoptera 
Titan, Schoenbergia 
Tithonus, ,, 
Trogonoptera, Genus 
Trojana, Trogonoptera 
Urvilliana, Ornithoptera 
Vandepolli, Pompeoptera 

,, ,, v. Honrathiana 

Victorias, ^Eth. v. Isabella 
„ ,, v. rubianus 

Wing Scales of the Ornithoptera 

,, ,, of plate 58 

„ 59 

,, ,, of Drurya Antimachus 

,, „ ,, Zalmoxis 

and Pompeoptera 

x 37 

Index to the Synonyms of the Tribe TROIDES. 

Vol I. Vol. II. 


Amphimedon ........ 37, 15, 122 

Amphrisius, Genus ........ 1 — 

Amphrisus, Papilio Eques Trojanus . . . . . — 47 

Papilio . . • • . . . • — 39, 47, 53 

,, Troides < • • • • • ■ . . . — 47 

Antenor . • • • • • .. • . — g 

Amphrysus ........ — 57 

Aruana, Ornithoptera, v. Goliath . . . . . . . xvii. — 

Aruanus ........ 55 — 

Arruanus ......... 55 — 

Arruana . • • • • • • • 2 7, 55 — 

Archideus ......... 18 — 

Astenous . . • • • • • . — 39, 53, 57 

Brookiana ......... — 2 

Cuneatus ........ — ^ c 

Cuneifer, Troides Aruana . . . . . . . — 47c 

D'Urvilliana . • • • • • • • 41 — 

Durvilliana . . • • • • • .46 — 

Euphorion . • • • • • ■ . 18 — 

Haliphron, Iris ........ — 33 

Haliphron Naias, Troides ....... — 2 6 

Helena Cerberus, Troides ........ — 53 

„ Hephaestus . . . • • • . — 77 

Heliacon . • • • • • • • . — 15, 53 

,, Ornithoptera Pompeus ....... — 53 

Heliconoides ...... . . — 53 

Hephaestus . • ... . . . — 35 

Honrathianus . • - • • • • • . — 21 

Mirandus ........ — 70 

Nephereus ......... — 57 

Oblongomaculatus ........ — 15 

,, papuensis ....... — 45 

Panthous, Pap. Eques. ....... 12 — 

Panthous . • • • • • • • • — g, 11 

Pachlioptera, Genus ........ 1 — 

Pompeus, v. hephaestus ........ — 77 

,, ? , for Hycetus ....... — 61 

„ var. Minos ........ — 3g 

„ Heliacon ........ — 53 

,, for Cerberus ........ — 55 

Pronomus ........ 18 — 

Remus . • • • • • • • • — g, 10 

Rhadamanthus, var. Amphrysus ...... — 35 

Rhadamanthus ... .... — 57 

Richmondius ... . . — 106 

Ritsemae . • • — 47^ 


Schoenbergi, Ornithoptera 

Schoenbergia ,, 



„ Haliphron Naias 

,, Aruanus, ab. ruficollis 


„ minos, Pap. Eques 

Van de Polli and Van-de-Polli 


Vistara, v. of P. Amphrysus (?) 

x — 

x — 

_ 26 

I — 

— 26 

— 50 

— 5 

— 39 

— 19 

— 69. 72 

— 128 

For other Synonyms refer to Pages 93 to 109 of the present volume. 



Coloured Ornamental Titlepage, with figures of P. Amphrysus, v. flavicollis, Papilio [Ornithopterina] iphidamus, 
and a Lycaena. 

Portrait of the Author. 

26. Trogonoptera Brookeana, Figs. 1,2, $ , 3, 4, 2 . var. Eleanor 2 , Figs. 5, 6. 

27. 1. Trojana, Figs. 1, 2, 3 ; Neuration 2a, Abdominal fold, upperside 2b, underside 2c ; Pattern of both surfaces of 

T. Brookeana for comparison, Figs. 3, 3a. 

28. T. Trojana, Figs. 1, 2, $ ; Neuration 3, 4. 

29. Pompeoptera Hippolytus, Figs. 1,2 $ ; 3, 4 2 . 

3°- >> ,, var. cellularis, Figs 1, 2 S ; 3, 4 2 ; Neuration of <? 5, of 2 6, 7. 

3 1 - „ ,, wan sulaensis, Figs. 1, 2 <? ; 3, 4 2 Neuration of 3 5, 6, of 5 7, 8. 

32. P. Vandepolli, Figs. 1, 2, <? ; 3, 4, 2 antenna of $ magnified ; ib abdominal marginal fold of $ ; ic subdorsal 

of abdomen ; 3a subdorsum of 2 abdomen ; 3b, 3c, neuration of 2 ; id, ie, neuration of $ . 

33. P. Vandepolli, var. Honrathiana, Figs. 1, 2, <? ; 2a, anal valves of $ ; 3, 4 2 ; 4a subdorsum of 2 abdomen ; 

5 P. Vandepolli $ ; 6 2 ; 7 Posterior wing of 2 above ; 6 abnormal neuration of 2 A.R. ; 
normal of left wing N.L. ; 8a,b,c, legs of 2 magnified ; g, 10 sections of antenna of 2 magnified. 
[Plain Plate]. 

34. Larva of P. Pompeus, Fig. 1 ; Pegasus, 2, 3 ; Poseidon, 4 ; Papuensis, 5, 6 ; Pupa of O. Poseidon, Figs. 7, 13 ; 

Pompeus 8 ; Amphrysis g, 10 ; Poseidon v. pronomus, 11, 12 ; Sch, Paradisea, 14 ; Front view of 
the mouth of the Larva of Pompeus, 15. [Plain Plate] . 

35. P. Hephaestus Figs. 1, 2 2 ; outline of Felder's type 2,3; <? 4, 5. 

35A. P. ^Eacus, Figs. 1,2, <? ; 3, 4a 2 (Felder's type) ; 5 neuration <? ; 6 neuration of 2 . 

36. P. Riedeli, Figs 1, 2 $ ; 3, 4 2. 

37. Map 4. E. Malay Peninsula, E. Sumatra, W. and N. Borneo, and N. Java. 

38. Map 5. E. Borneo and Celebes. 

3g. Pompeoptera Plato, Figs. 1, 2, $ ; 3, 4, 2 ; 5, 6, 2 (Felder's type) ; 7, 8. Neuration of type 2 . 

4°- » Criton Figs. 1, 2 $ ; 3, 4, 2 ; ia, Neuration of <? ; 3a of 2 (Felder's types). 

4 1 - » Critonoides, Figs. 1, 2 2 ; 3, 4 2 ; 5 Neuration of 2 ; 6 of <? ; P. Criton, var. Oberthiiri, 7, 2 . 

4 2 - n Criton, v. Felderi, Fig. 2 ? ; Critonoides, 1, $ ; P. Iris, 3, var. 2 ; P. Naias, 4 <? ; 5 2 ; neuration 

of Naias, 6 $ ; 7 2 . 
43. Map 6. N. Borneo from the equator, Palawan, and the Sulu Sea. 
44- m 7- Burmah, Siam, Cochin China, Cambodia, and Andaman Islands. 

45. Pompeoptera Papuensis, Fig. 1 $ ,2 2 . P. Melpomona, 3 <? , 4 2 ; abdominal marginal fold of Papuensis, ia «? ; 

of Melpomona $ 3a. 

46. P. Papuensis Fig. 1 $ ; neuration $ ia ; 2 2 ; 2a, neuration of 2 . P. Melpomona, 3 $ ; neuration of $ 3a; 

4 2 ; neuration of 2 , 4a. 

47. P. Minos, Fig. 1, 2 <? ; 3, 4 ? ; 6 neuration of $ ; 5 of 2 ; and of P. Helena $ 7. 

48. P. Helena, Fig. 1, $ ; 3, 4 2 ; Grose-Smithi, <? 2 ; war. Carolus <? , 5 ; Neuration of 2 , 6. , 

49. Map 8. Hindostan and Burma. 

50. Map g. From E. Ion. gi° 50' to 132 ; and N. Lat. 20 o' to S. lat. io° o'. Also Andaman Islands ; Ceylon. 

51. P. Ruficollis, Figs. 1,2, $ ; anal valves of $ , 2a ; var. flavicollis $ , 3 ; 2 , 4, 5. 
51a. P. Amphrysus, Figs. 1, 2, <? ; 3, 4, ? ; neuration of $ , 5 ; of 2,6. 

52. ,, var. Sumatranus, Figs. 1,2, $ ; 3, 4, 2 . 

5 2a - m war. Cuneifera, Figs. 1,2, <? ; 3, 4, 2 ; 5, neuration of $ ; of 2 , 6. 

53. Map 10. Geographical Distribution of the Genera of Troides or Ornithoptera. 

54. Pompeoptera Nereis, Figs. 1, 2 $ ; sexual pouch of $ , above, 3 ; below, 4 ; the same opened out, 5 ; var. of $ , 

6 ; undersurface of abdomen, 7, $ ; 8, g, 2 . 

55. P. Rhadamantus, Figs. 1, 3, 3- ; 5, 2 ; 2, neuration of J 1 ; 4, of 2 . 

56. P. Pompeus, Hg-s. 1, 2, $ ; 3, 4, 2 ; ia, upperside, 2a, underside of <? sexual pouch ; 2b, subdorsum of abdomen $ 

3a of ? ; 5, neuration of $ ; 6 of 2 . 


57- P. Cerberus, Figs, i, 2, 3, <? , Darjiling ; 4 *,U. Burmah ; 6, Felder's type 2 ; 8, 9, 2 ws. N. India; 10, 2 
Rangoon; 7, subdorsum of abdomen, 2; P. Pompeus 5, $ Java; 11, 12, 2 Java; 13, 14, 2, 
right and left wings of the same example, showing asymmetry. 

58. Wing Scales of Ornithoptera and their varied forms, greatly magnified. Figs. 1 to 44. [Plain Plate]. 

59. Ibid. Figs. 1 to 40. [Plain Plate]. 

60. Pompeoptera Darsius, Figs. 1,2, $ ; 3, 4, 2 ; neuration of $ , 5 ; of 2 , 6. 

61. P. Dohertyi, var. fasciculatus, Figs. 1, 2, <? ; 3, 4, 2 . 

62. P. Plateni, Figs. 1,2, <? ; 3, 4, 2 . 

63. Pompeoptera Dohertyi, Figs. 1, 2, <? ; 3, <? ; 4, 5, 2 ; 6 subdorsum of abdomen, <? ; 7, of 2 . 

6 4- >» „ 1, J , var. of 1st type ; 4, <? of 2nd type ; 2, 3 2 van. of 1st type; 7,9, 2 vars. of 2nd 

type; 5» 8 . 2 of 3rd type; 6, 2 »«r. of 2nd type; 10, 2 var. of 2nd type; 11, $ sexual pouch, 
above ; underside 12 ; 13 neuration of $ ; 14 of 2 . [Plain Plate.] 

64B. P. Iris, Figs. 1, 2, <? ; 3, 4, 2; 2a, neuration of S ; 5, of $. 

65. P. Staudingeri, Figs. 1, 2, c? ; 3, 4, 2 ; neuration of <? 2 ; of 2 3. 

66. P. Neomiranda, .Fz^s. 1, 2, <?; 3 upper surface of posterior wing of <? ; 4, J neuration. 
66a. P. Miranda, Figs. 1,2, <? ; neuration 3, 4. 

66b. ,, ,, Figs. 1, 2 2 . 

66c. ,, ,, Figs. 1,2, 2 melanistic variety ; neuration, 3, 4. 

66d. P. Andromache, Figs. 1, 2 <? ; 3, Abdominal fold-pouch <? ; 3a, underside of the same ; 4, 5, 2 ; 5a, abdominal 
fold of 2 upper surface ; 5b undersurface ; 5c legs of 2 ; 6 neuration of 2 . 

67. P. Magellanus, Figs. 1,2 S Opalescent colours ; ia, 2a Xanthochroic colours ; 3, 4 Felder's 2 type ; 5, 5a, 

neuration of <? . 

B. Neuration of O. Richmondia Figs, ia $ ; 2, 2 ; 1 <?; P. Plateni, 3, 2 ; 4 $ . Trogonoptera Brookeana, 5, 2 ; 6 <? . 
[Plain Plate] . 

E. [Supplementary] Schoenbergia Titan, Figs. 1,2 $ ; 3, 4 neuration, 5, legs magnified 2-iths. 

F. ,, ,, ,, Figs. 1,22. O. Poseidon, var. Hecuba, 2 , 3. 

G. ,, Ornithoptera Obiensis, Figs. 1, 2, $ ; 3, 3a, 4 2 ; 3b body of the 2 ; 5 neuration of 2 , 6 of $ . 

H. [Supplementary] /Etheoptera Victorise, v. Isabella, Fig. 1 ; abdomen of Isabella 2 ; var. Rubianus, 3, 4 $ ; 

5, 6 2 ; 7 abdomen of 2 ; 8 neuration of S . 
K. [Supplementary] Schoenbergia (Phalsenosoma) Chimaera, Figs. 1, 2 <7 ; Diagram of $ seen obliquely 3 ; Head 

magnified 2-iths, 4 ; nat. size, 7 ; neuration, 6, 6 ; legs, magnified 2-iths, 5. 
L. [Supplementary] Schoenbergia (Phalasnosoma) Chimaera, Figs. 1, 2 2 ; 3 Diagram, oblique view ; legs magnified 

2-iths, 4 ; Head magnified 2-iths, 5. 
M. Ornamental Tail-piece Plate " Gloria in excelsis Deo ! " 


Robert H-F.Rippon del.etKh.1889 . 

TROGON OPTERA BROOKEANA, Wallaces. /, 2,6,3 ,4-,y;>5,6, 9! va.r. 

M&N.Hanharb (Kip 




PI. 28 


Pi. 2 C 


POMPEOPTERA HIPPOLYTUS, v. Cellularis, Rothschild, Figs. 1, 2, J ; 3, 4, ? ; 5, Neuration of S I 

6, 7 of 2 , 




St. 33 


PI- 34 

Root. H. F. Hippos, del et lith. 190li. 

LARVA of P. Pompeus, Fig. i ; of O. Pegasus, Figs. 2, 3 ; of O. Poseidon, Fig. 4 ; of P. Papuensis, Figs. 5, 6 ; Pupa of O. Poseidon, Figs 7, 13 ; 
of P. Pompeus, Fig. 8; of P. Amphrysus, Figs. 9, 10 ; of O. Poseidon, v. Fronomus, Figs, n, 12 ; of Sch. Paradisea, Fig. 14. 
Front view of the mouth of the Larva of P. Pompeus. 


PI- 35- 

Rol)t. H. F. ElPPON, del. et Pinxit, 1907. 

POMPEOPTERA HEPHAESTUS, Felder, Figs, i, 2, ? ; 3, outline of Felder's type, ? ; 4, 5, $ . 

U. Morgan, Jmi 


1 04° 105° 106° 

108 iog° no° 111° 112° 

no in 


Explanation of the Letters in This Map. 
Trogonoptera Brookeana 

( - ,, var. Albescens. 

Pompeoptera Vandepolli. 

n „ var. Honrathiana. 

P. Amphrysus, type. 
P. ,, var. Sumatvanus. 

P. ,, var. cuneifer. 

P. var. ruficollis. 

p. var. flavicollis and ruficollis. 

P. ,, var. palabitanus. 

1. P. Pompeus, type. 

m. P. Miranda. 

n. P. Cerberus. 

0. P. Helena, var. Jupiter, 

p. P. „ var. Holzi. 

Names of Localities Indicated by Numbers. 

1. Pontianak. 

2. Saribu Saratus Mountains, S.W. to N.E. 

3. Dabon. 

4. Bunguran Isle. 

5. Subi Isle. 

6. Buku Isle. 

7. Sirbassen Isle. 

8. Singkep Isle, 
g. Linga Isle. 

10. Bentam Isle. 

11. Carimata Isle. 


Map 5 


P. Dohertyi, type, and v. Fasciculatus. 

P. Haliphron. 

P. Bauermanni 

P. Hippolytus, v. Cellularis 

e. P. Hippolytus, v. Sulaensis. 

f. P. Hippolytus, type form. 

g. P. Hephaestus 

h. P. Helena, v. Leda. 






PI. 42 

ICONES ORNITHOPTERUM. North Borneo from the Equator, Palawan Island and the Sulu Sea. Map 

Burmah, Siam, Cochin China, and Cambodia, and Andaman Islands. Map 7. 

go u 







a T. Brookeana. 
b T. Trojana. 

P. Vandepolli. 

d P. Vandepolli, v. Honrathiana. 

e P. Naias. 

/ P. Amphrysus. 

g P. Amphrysus, v. palabuana. 

h P. Amphrysus, v. sumatranus. 

1 P. Amphrysus, vs. ruficollis and flavicollis. 
j P. Cuneifera. 

k P. Helena, v. jupiter. 

I P. Helena, v. Hold, 

m P. Nereis. 

n P. Cerberus. 

P. ^Eacus. 

p P. Plateni. 

r P. Miranda. 

s P. Andromache. 

t P. Minos. 

u P. Amphrysus, v. Olympia. 

v P. Pompeus, type. 




POMPEOPIERA. PAPUENSTS ^Wwllcoce 1 p , Oberbhvor, Z ; POMPE OPTERA, 
-rrbelporruonxxy ^ Bvpporv , 3 ; p , 4 j ouboLonvvruoul/ masrgvn/cU/ poix/chs of PAPUENSIS SJou 
-ubz/ob of MELPOMONA S,3as 


PL .46 


PI. 47 

IIobt. H. F. Rippon, del ct 11th. 1906. 

POMPEOPTERA MINOS, Cramer, Figs. 1,2, $ ; 3, 4, 2 ; Neuration of S , 6; of 5 5; Neuration of $ of P. HELENA Limwus, 7. 


PI. 48 


Explanation of the Figures in this Map. 

r. Pompeoptera ^Eacus. 

2. P. Darsius. 

3. P. Minos. 

4. P. Cerberus. 

5. Brahmaputra River. 

6. Lhassa. 

14. Sikkim. 

15. Nerbudda River. 

16. Bhotan. 


Map 9. Pl. 50. 

Geographical Distribution of the Genera Trogonoptera and Pompeoptera (part), from Longitude 91 50 to 132 o° E ; and Latitude 
20 o°'N. to io° o° S. ; also of Ceylon and Andaman Isles. 

Longitude E. of Greenwich. 

Explanation of the Figurrs in these Maps. 

Longitude E. of Greenwich. 

1. Trogonoptera Brookeana. 

2. T. Trojana ; 30. Pompeoptera Plateni. 

3. P. Hippolytus ; 4. P. Hippolytus, v. Sulaensis (Sulal 

5. v. Cellularis. 

6. P. Vandepolli ; 7. v. Honrathiana. 
8. P. Haliphron ; 9. P. Naias. 

10. P. Criton ; 11. P. Critonoides. 

12. Ornithoptera Obiensis. 

13. Pompeoptera Plato ; 14. P. Criton, v Felderi. 
15. P. Criton, v Oberthuri ; 16. P. Iris (Isle of Letti), 
17. P. Riedeli ; 18. P. /Eacus ; 19. P. Minos. 

20 P. Staudinger (Babba Isle) 

21. P. Haliphron, v. Pistor (Djampea Isle). 

22. P. He'ena, v. Papuensis. 

23. P. Amphrysus; 24. v. Sumatranus ; 25. v.Cuneifer. 
26. ., v. Flavicollis ; 27. v.Raficollis 

28. P. Nereis ; 29. P. Pompeus. 

31. P. Dohertyi (Talautse Isles). 

32. P. Miranda; 33. P. Andromache (N. Borneo). 
34. P.Cerberus; 35. P Helena (type form) (Amboina) 

36. P. Helena, v. Borouensis (Bouru Isle). [Ceram. 

37. P. Helena v. Jupiter; 38. v. Leda (Salayer, Macassar), 

39. P. Helena, v Holzi. 

40. P. Hephaestus. 

41. P. Magellanus (Babulanes Isles). 

42. Ornithoptera Priamus. • 

43. Pompeoptera Darsius 

A. P. Cerberus, v. Helicouoides. 

44. P. Khadamanthus (Manilla). 


Bob^HIRippoTi.cieleblith 1391 . 

M&N.IWiarb imp 

POMPEOPTERA ' RUFTCOLLIS,^^. ),Z,3, Za>, Anal valves 
3 '3 ,var M&vi-collis , Drawee., 4,5 y,Tl-avicollis . 

. ■ 


PL 51a. 


PI. 52. 

Robt. H. P. Eippon, del. ct Pinxit, 1901. 

POMPEOPTERA AMPHRYSUS v. Sumatmnus, Hagen. Figs. 1, 2, 3 ; 3, 4, ? 

R. Morgan, Impr. 



Bobt. H. F. Eippon, del. et Hnxit, 1908. 

POMPEOPTERA AMPHRYSUS, v. Cuneifera, Oberth., 7, 2, $ ; 3, 4, ? ; 5, Neumtion f $ ; 

'6, Neumtion of J , 

R. Morgan, Impr. 



PI- 55- 

Robert H. F. Rippon, ad. et lith., 1907. 

Pompeoptera Rhadamantus, Lucas, Figs. I, 3, $ ; 2, Neuration of $ ; 5, 2 ; 4, Neuration of $ 



POMPEOPTERA POMPEUS , Grcurrver , Fogs 1,2, Jjlco upper side, 2a under side of J abdominal 
fold or poach j 2b Subdorsal of '<$ cobdorwerv ,• 3 .4'. p ; 3a/ J ^iobd'Orscob of p oobdbnv. ,■ 3, newroobiorv of <$,■ 6,of y 


PI. 57 

Robt. H. F. RtppON, del at lith. 1906. 

POMPEOPTERA CERBERUS, Felder, Figs. 1,2,3, 3 (Darjiling) ; 4, $, (U. Burmah) ; 6, Felder's Type, ? ; 8, 9, 5 vars. (N. India) 
10, ? (Rangoon); 7, subdorsum of abdomen, 2. P. POMPEUS, Cramer, Fig. 5, $ (Java); 11,12, ? (Java); 13,14, 2, right and left 
, wing of the same example, showing assymetry. 


PI. 58 

Robt. H. F. RlPPON, del. et lith. 1906. 

The Wing Scales of the Ornithoptera and their Varied Forms, Greatly Magnified. Figs 1 to 44. 


PL 59 

Sobt, H. F. Uippon, flul. et lith. 1906. 

The Wing Scales of the Ornithoptera and their Varied Forms, Greatly Magnified. Figs 1 to 40. 


PL 60 

Bobt. H. F. Eippon, del. et Pinxit, 1907. 

R. Morgan, Impr. 

POMPEOPTERA DARSIUS, Gray, Figs. I, 2, & ; 3, 4, £ j 5, Neuration of j ; 6 of 9 . 


PI. 61. 

Robert H. F. Rippon, del. et iith., 1907. 

Pompkoptera Dohertyi, Rippon, var. fasciculatus. Rothschild, Figs, i, 2, 3 ; 3, 4, 2 . 

RoVHP.BippndfilecMi.18S3. MM.Hajiiiarh 

P01VIPE0PTERA DOHERTYI , Hipjboxiy\.3,rcors.of 1sb byp&J. 4tt?va, J2*w2< type,; 
2.3. p voors.of h(? byp&,7.S);Q voor. of 2>ibd type-5,8; g va,r . o£ 3rd typ&j 6j p voor, of 2nd type,, 
jOj Ahdaminal/ ma rpbn,od poiA/ch of3_, izpp&r side //,- ixjvder side-, f2> N&wrootixm, of dj 13j ofp, 14- 


PI. 64 B. 

POMPEOPTERA IRIS, Robur, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 


PI. 6 5 


Plate 66. 

Robt. H. F. Rippon, del et lith. 1906. 

POMPEOPTERA NEOMIRANDA, Fruhstorfer, Figs. I, 2 $ ; 3, upper surface of posterior wing, a different setting; 4, Neuration. 


PI. 66 A. 

Bobt. H. F. RlPPOH del. et Pint, 1900. 

R. Morgan, Impr. 

POMPEOPTERA MIRANDA, Butler, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 


PI. 66 B. 

Robt. H. F. Kippon del. et Vim., 5900. . It. Mokgan, Impr. 

POMPEOPTERA MIRANDA, Butler, J. Figs. 7,2. 

POMPEOPTERA MIRANDA, ? Butler, dark var., Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 


PL 66d. 


TW: KF.Rippon del.eblitk 

POMPEOPTERA MAGELLANUS, Felder,/,2, 3 (Opcolescent colours)-, 
lou , 2<x,Xant>hochroic cols j 3 1 4,Fekiers <ji.byp&} 5)5ots, heu/ra&wty of 6 . 



Edberfc rLP.Rippor-. dfil.atltK.1890 

ORN ITHOPTERA PJCHMOTMDIA , Gray, l^ou,<$; 2,<f. 
P OMPE OPTE RA ' PLATENI , Sbouux&ing&r , 3,o i 4, ( f. 
' TROGONOPTERA BROOKE AIM A , WcoUoooe^, 5'$fo,$, 

MStN.Hanh.arb imp 


Supplementary Plate F. 

Eobt. H. F. Kippon, del et lith. 1900. 

SCHCENBERGIA TITAN, Grose-Smith, 9. Figs, f, 2; ORNITHOPTERA POSEIDON, v. Hecuba, Roder. 5 Fig 3. 


Supplementary Plate H. 


Supplementary Plate K. 

Robt. H. F. Rippon, del et lith. 1906. 

SCHOENBERGIA (PH ALyENOSOM A) CHIMERA, Rothschild, Figs. 1,2, $. Diagram of $ seen very obliquely, showing the long 
hairs of the thorax and base of wings, Fig. 3 ;■ the head magnified fths, Fig. 4 ; and rial, size, 7 ; Neuration, 6, 6 ; the legs magnified f ths, 5. 


Supplementary Plate L. 

Robt. H. F. Rippon, del et lith. 1906. 

SCHOENBERGIA (PHAL/ENOSOMA) CHIMERA, Rothschild, Figs. 1,2, 2 ; 3, lateral oblique view, showing the long hairs of the 
thorax and wing bases ; 4, the legs magnified f ths ; 5, the head f ths. 


PI . M. 

102 Rippon (R. H. F.) Icones Ornithopterorum; a monograph of the papilionine tribe 
Troides of Hubner, or Ornithoptera (Bird-wing Butterflies) of Boisduval, with a portrait, 
a hand-coloured frontispiece, 13 coloured maps on 12 leaves, 81 hand coloured and 13 
plain plates, and text-figures (some hand coloured), 2 vols., folio, half red morocco 
1898-1906 =j*3$& £2800 

A fine copy of this splendid work of which it is generally reckoned no more than 30 
copies were produced. It was published by the author who hand-coloured each copy 
himself to subscribers' orders and is one of the rarest and most beautiful works on 

Mg/^/o/i » *W<y tsv (Wo) - 

1117 RIPPON, R. H. F. Icones Ornithopterorum: A Monograph of the Papilione Tribe Troides 
of Hubner, or Ornithoptera of Boisduval. Portrait, Color Prontis, 93 Plates (82 hand colored by 
the Author), and Maps and text-figures, some colored. 2 Volumes, Folio, half green levant. Pub- 
lished by the Author. London, 1898-1906. $750.00